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Donald H Lalonde

Donald H Lalonde

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168
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Publications

Publications (168)
Article
Full-text available
Field sterility is commonly used for skin and minor hand surgery performed in the ambulatory setting. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are similar for these same procedures when performed in the main operating room (OR). In this paper, we aim to look at both current evidence and common sense logic supporting the use of some of the techniques and...
Article
Learning objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Process several patient-specific factors before reaching an optimal treatment strategy with appreciation for facial balance. 2. Define the advantages and disadvantages of various hyaluronic acid preparations and delivery techniques, to achieve a specific goal....
Article
Clinic-based hand surgery performed under local anesthetic has been steadily increasingly performed in Canada for 50 years. The drive for its development stems from the Canadian health care system's finite funding structure and resources. Benefits have extended far beyond cost and garbage reduction. It has resulted in greatly improving patient care...
Article
Dr Akbar Khan began using the wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique for leprosy tendon transfers in the summer of 2015 at the Damien Foundation Hospital in Nellore, India. This article summarizes his first 18 months of experience and describes 5 of his operations. He found that WALANT provides effective anesthesia with good v...
Article
Injection of tumescent local anesthesia should no longer be painful. WALANT anesthesia, strong sutures, a slightly bulky repair, intraoperative testing of active movement, and judicious venting of the A2 and A4 pulleys improve results in flexor tendon repair. WALANT K wire finger fracture reduction permits intraoperative testing of K wire stability...
Article
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Wide awake, local anesthesia, no tourniquet hand surgery is a growing field of hand surgery with many advantages described in the literature. This technique is safely performed with the patient in prone position and offer several advantages.
Article
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Wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) hand surgery is a rapidly growing in popularity. WALANT has been used by hand surgeons when operating on bones, tendons, ligaments, nerve entrapments. We offer a case report of the first case in the literature describing WALANT technique when performing trapeziometacarpal joint arthroplasty with pr...
Article
Background: Early infectious flexor tenosynovitis has been treated with urgent surgery by most surgeons since Bunnell wrote the first textbook of hand surgery in 1945. Some surgeons have good experience with non-surgical management of early presenting disease in some cases. Methods: This retrospective chart review included 12 inpatients with ear...
Article
Introduction: There is very little information in the literature evaluating the natural history of adult trigger fingers and their rate of spontaneous resolution over time. Methods: A consecutive case series of patients with trigger finger was generated. For each patient, we recorded whether the patient's disease resolved from either no treatmen...
Article
The main purpose of this article is to provide the reader with an easily searchable online index of the first 1976 videos published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open to facilitate access to readers. The authors also describe the history and evolution of video articles in the first journal to pr...
Article
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Article
This article reviews historical background, essential practice principles, and the new emerging area of wide awake hand surgery. It outlines the reasons that wide awake, local anaesthesia, no tourniquet surgery has emerged so quickly in the last 10 years over the world. I explain the origin of the concepts and some of the challenges of getting the...
Article
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Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
Article
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Chapter
Plastic surgery procedures rely on different approaches to local and regional anesthesia. Tumescent anesthesia (injection of large volumes of dilute local anesthetic, most commonly lidocaine) is used for liposuction and face-lift surgeries, while digital blocks are commonly used for hand surgeries. Traditional regional approaches (e.g., paravertebr...
Article
Full-text available
In this case study, a 33-year-old male presented initially to our clinic in 1989 with a soft tissue mass on his left posterior chest wall that had previously been debulked 3 times beginning in 1973. Pathology from these previous excisions confirmed a spindle cell hemangioendothelioma. Following the previous excisions, the mass recurred and slowly i...
Article
Background: Many surgeons and emergentologists use non-ultrasound-guided wrist nerve blocks. There is little evidence to guide the ideal volume of local anesthesia or how long we should wait after injection before performing pain-free procedures. This pilot study examined time to maximal anesthesia to painful needle stick in 14 volunteer participa...
Article
The literature generally supports the safety of epinephrine injection in the digits, but recent case reports describe ischemic adverse events associated with the use of lidocaine and epinephrine in which phentolamine rescue was not performed. We present a case of finger necrosis and subsequent amputation in a patient after 1% lidocaine with 1:100,0...
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The Saint John Protocol describes a rehabilitation program of up to half a fist of protected true active finger flexion beginning 3 to 5 days after flexor tendon repair. We no longer use full fist place and hold. We illustrate with film and text the reasons for these changes.
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Fu-Chan Wei is a world-renowned plastic and reconstructive surgeon. He is clearly one of the most influential and innovative surgeons in the history of plastic surgery. The Taiwanese legend is the innovator of the osteoseptocutaneous fibula flap, which revolutionized the reconstruction of composite bone and soft tissue defects in the jaw and extrem...
Article
Learning objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize the various types of botulinum toxins and their differences. 2. Identify current indications, both approved and off-label. 3. Inject botulinum toxin to counteract various natural aging processes, including facial descent and rhytides. Summary: Botuli...
Article
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: (1) Identify the appropriate resection margins for common types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. (2) Discuss indications for secondary intention healing, skin grafting, and local flaps for reconstruction of facial skin cancer defects. (3) Describe at least one local flap for reconstruction o...
Article
Full-text available
The wide-awake approach to flexor tendon repair has decreased our rupture and tenolysis rates, and permitted us to get consistently good results in cooperative patients. We no longer perform flexor tendon repair with the tourniquet, sedation and muscle paralysis of general or block (Bier or axillary) anesthesia. Injection of only lidocaine with epi...
Article
Full-text available
There are 5 main reasons that I never want to repair a flexor tendon in sedated patients ever again. If a patient is wide awake (unsedated) with no tourniquet and only lidocaine with epinephrine is used in the fingers and hand for local anesthesia and hemostasis, 5 major things happen to improve the results: 1) Decrease rupture rate with intraoper...
Article
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Carpal tunnel syndrome is a compression of the median nerve which occurs under a sheet of ligamentous tissue (transverse carpal ligament) just past the wrist joint. Lacertus tunnel syndrome is a compression of the median nerve which occurs under a sheet of ligamentous tissue (lacertus fibrosus) just past the elbow joint. Lacertus syndrome has been...
Article
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Background: In our experience, for all surgeries in the hand, the optimal epinephrine effect from local anesthesia-producing maximal vasoconstriction and visualization-is achieved by waiting significantly longer than the traditionally quoted 7 min from the time of injection. Methods: In this prospective comparative study, healthy patients underg...
Article
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There has been increased interest in and experience with performing several surgical procedures on the hand and the wrist utilizing local anesthesia in an unsedated patient. These surgical procedures can be safely performed on an outpatient basis. Experience has shown that the strategic use of local anesthesia with epinephrine is safe and, in proce...
Article
The epinephrine myth originated in the 1940s, when acidic (pH 1) procaine-epinephrine was injected into fingers, causing finger necrosis. Today, level 1 evidence exists for the safe use of epinephrine in fingers. The ability to use lidocaine-epinephrine in hand surgery and orthopedics eliminates the need for a tourniquet, or »bloodless field«. Surg...
Article
Full-text available
The epinephrine myth originated in the 1940s, when acidic (pH 1) procaine-epinephrine was injected into fingers, causing finger necrosis. Today, level 1 evidence exists for the safe use of epinephrine in fingers. The ability to use lidocaine-epinephrine in hand surgery and orthopedics eliminates the need for a tourniquet, or »bloodless field«. Surg...
Article
This article presents techniques used by six senior surgeons from different parts of the world. Our commentaries on treating hand fractures are included, together with the methods we use. While non-operative treatment is appropriate and effective for the majority of the hand fractures (including those many practitioners currently treat surgically),...
Article
Spiral metacarpal fractures can result in shortening of the metacarpal shaft, which may lead to extension lag at the metacarpophalangeal joint and reduced grip strength. These fractures have been surgically treated to restore metacarpal length; however, there are complications associated with surgery, postoperative management and wound healing, whi...
Article
Background Spiral metacarpal fractures can result in shortening of the metacarpal shaft, which may lead to extension lag at the metacarpophalangeal joint and reduced grip strength. These fractures have been surgically treated to restore metacarpal length; however, there are complications associated with surgery, postoperative management and wound h...
Article
Learning objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: (1) Perform needle aponeurotomy, fat grafting, Digit Widget insertion, and collagenase injection for Dupuytren's cords. (2) Describe how cords can be stretched without surgery. (3) Explain to patients the risks and benefits of these new alternatives of treatments....
Article
This article provides video and narration to describe the technical details of how to inject local anesthesia and perform the extensor indicis proprius to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer in patients with wide-awake local anesthesia and no tourniquet. Lidocaine for anesthesia and epinephrine for hemostasis are the only 2 medications given t...
Article
Local anesthesia in plastic surgery is undergoing a revolution. In the last 10 years, significant improvements in technique have permitted surgeons to do more and more under pure local anesthesia to increase patient safety and convenience while maintaining total patient comfort during the injection of the local anesthesia and while the procedure is...
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Most literature on fingertips reviews new surgical techniques of coverage while many surgeons prefer the results of secondary healing. This article reviews the current best evidence and concepts about secondary healing in fingertip injuries.
Article
Full-text available
This is a review article of the wide-awake approach to hand surgery. More than 95% of all hand surgery can now be performed without a tourniquet. Epinephrine is injected with lidocaine for hemostasis and anesthesia instead of a tourniquet and sedation. This is sedation-free surgery, much like a visit to a dental office. The myth of danger of using...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: There has been a recent interest in injecting large body and face areas with local anesthetic in a minimally painful manner. The method includes adherence to minimal pain injection details as well feedback from the patient who counts the number of times he feels pain during the injection process. This article describes the successes a...
Article
After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe and apply the best current high-level evidence in carpal tunnel syndrome. 2. Design a treatment plan to offer tourniquet-free, sedation-free local anesthesia for patients who wish it or who are at high risk with sedation. 3. Describe the evidence and outcomes as they relate...
Article
Full-text available
Among the many advances in local anesthesia of the hand, some of the most significant changes in the last 5 years have been the following: (1) the acceptance of safety of locally infiltrated epinephrine with lidocaine for hemostasis, which has removed the need for sedation, brachial plexus blocks, and general anesthesia for most common hand surgery...
Article
Background: There has been increased interest regarding patient safety and standards of care in Canadian ambulatory surgery facilities where surgical procedures are performed. The Canadian Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgical Facilities (CAAASF) is a national organization formed to establish and maintain standards to ensure that su...
Article
The minimally invasive tumescent local anesthesia technique used in wide-awake hand surgery is having an impact in hand surgery practice. Patients spend less time and money and get to speak to their surgeon and receive education during the surgery itself. Improvements in operations such as flexor tendon repair have happened, because surgeons can se...
Article
We prefer wide-awake finger fracture reduction, closed percutaneous K-wire fixation, and early protected movement to treat phalangeal fractures. This approach allows intraoperative visualization of active movement after K-wire fixation with the possibility of adjustments during the case. It also negates the need for extensive dissection with subseq...
Article
The present article includes a video designed to show the reader/viewer how to obtain a better lip roll in primary and secondary cleft lips as well as in traumatic cleft lips. The key is to not damage the delicate glands and fat in the lip roll. The actual surgery demonstrated in the video is a cleft lip redo with an effaced lip roll.
Article
The acidity of lidocaine preparations is believed to contribute to the pain of local anesthetic injection. To investigate the effect of buffering lidocaine on the pain of injection and duration of anesthetic effect. A double-blind, randomized trial involving 44 healthy volunteers was conducted. The upper lip was injected with a solution of: lidocai...
Article
In “Nipple Areola Reconstructing Reduction Mammaplasty,” Dr Bitik and coauthors1 present a series of 16 patients treated with a novel technique of breast reduction. In their nipple areola reconstructing (NAR) procedure, the authors discard the nipple areolar complex (NAC) and perform a nipple areolar reconstruction with flaps of tissue on the upper...
Article
Local anesthetic injection is often cited in literature as the most painful part of minor procedures. It is also very possible for all doctors to get better at giving local anesthesia with less pain for patients. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and simplify how to inject local anesthesia in an almost pain-free manner. The information w...
Article
Background Intramedullary (IM) fixation has been described as a reliable method of treatment for certain fracture patterns but has not been widely adopted into practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature comparing IM fixation to other forms of treatment for metacarpal fractures. Methods A systematic review was performed to i...
Article
Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six differe...
Article
Traditionally, surgeons were taught that local anesthesia containing epinephrine should not be injected into fingers. This idea has since been refuted in many basic and clinical scientific studies, and today, injection of lidocaine plus epinephrine is widely used for digital and hand anesthesia in Canada. The key advantages of the wide-awake techni...
Article
: The goals of this study are threefold: (1) to determine what effect epinephrine has on the duration of bupivacaine finger block anesthesia; (2) to see whether the duration of action of bupivacaine on digital pain relief is the same duration as numbness to touch/pressure; and (3) to assess the fingertip temperature changes that result from bupivac...
Article
The wide-awake approach to flexor tendon repair has decreased our rupture and tenolysis rates and permitted us to get consistently good results in cooperative patients. The wide-awake surgery allows the repair of gaps of the surgical repair site revealed with intraoperative active movement testing of the repair We are now doing midrange active move...
Article
Background The purpose of this study was to provide prospective independently analyzed evidence on how patients feel about a carpal tunnel release (CTR) performed under local anesthesia only (no sedation or tourniquet) versus with local anesthesia, intravenous (IV) sedation, and a tourniquet. Methods This prospective cohort study compared 100 cons...
Article
Background There is level II evidence that volunteers prefer the single subcutaneous injection in the midline of the proximal phalanx with lidocaine and epinephrine (SIMPLE) finger block over the classic two dorsal injection block technique. The purpose of this study was to possibly further decrease the pain of digital block injection by examining...
Article
Background: The time until maximal cutaneous vasoconstriction after injection of lidocaine with epinephrine is often given in textbooks and multiple choice examinations as 7 to 10 minutes. However, in our experience, there is significantly less cutaneous bleeding if one waits considerably longer than 7 to 10 minutes after injection of local anesth...
Article
: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of early protected movement with Kirschner-wired finger fractures to the hand therapist. 2. Choose the most appropriate method of fracture fixation to achieve the goal of a full range of motion. 3. Describe the methods of treatment available for the most common...
Article
The objective of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to consistently and reliably teach medical students and resident learners how to administer local anesthetics in an almost painless manner. Using the published technique, 25 consecutive medical students and residents were taught how to inject local anesthetics for carpal tun...
Article
Full-text available
The wide-awake approach to hand surgery entails the use of local infiltration anesthesia using lidocaine with epinephrine and no tourniquet. The technique provides practitioners with an option to perform advanced hand surgical care in an ambulatory setting, without the need for general or regional anesthetics. We present our results using wide-awak...
Article
The objective of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to consistently and reliably teach medical students and resident learners how to administer local anesthetics in an almost painless manner. Using the published technique, 25 consecutive medical students and residents were taught how to inject local anesthetics for carpal tun...
Article
The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many 'recipes' for how much bicarbonate one should add. To determine...
Article
Full-text available
When and how best to perform breast reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy is a much debated topic. To investigate the approaches that Canadian plastic surgeons are taking to breast reconstruction in patients who require or may require radiation therapy. In April 2009, a survey invitation was sent to Canadian plastic surgeons via e-mail...
Article
Orbital floor fractures can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, hypoglobus and infraorbital dysthesia. Currently, the most common treatment for orbital floor fractures is immediate surgical intervention. However, there are a number of well-documented cases of unoperated orbital floor fractures in the literature, culminating in diplopia or enophthalmo...
Article
Unlabelled: The use of local anesthesia with epinephrine and no tourniquet/no sedation is becoming an excellent alternative for hand surgeries. This wide-awake approach is the most commonly used method of anesthesia for carpal tunnel release in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to provide a video detailing this technique for trapeziectomy for t...
Article
Orbital floor fractures can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, hypoglobus and infraorbital dysthesia. Currently, the most common treatment for orbital floor fractures is immediate surgical intervention. However, there are a number of well-documented cases of unoperated orbital floor fractures in the literature, culminating in diplopia or enophthalmo...
Article
Wide awake hand surgery means no sedation, no tourniquet, and no general anesthesia for hand surgery. The only medications given to the patient are lidocaine with epinephrine. Lidocaine is for anesthesia, and epinephrine provides hemostasis, which deletes the need for a tourniquet. The advantages are: (1) the ability of the comfortable unsedated to...
Article
Learning objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Make decisions on flexor tendon repair based on current evidence. 2. Perform some important tendon transfers after viewing Dr. Kozin's videos. 3. Inject local anesthesia for wide-awake flexor tendon repair after viewing the appropriate videos in the article. 4....
Article
Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) offers an attractive alternative to general anaesthesia (GA) for ambulatory breast surgery. The aim of this meta-analysis was first to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TPVB for breast surgery, and second to compare TPVB with GA with regard to postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, opioid consumption and leng...
Article
Full-text available
Since the first texts on local anesthesia were written in the early 1900s, it has been widely quoted and believed that dorsal finger skin is less sensitive to needlestick pain than volar finger skin. The result is that the most commonly used finger block for local anesthesia is the dorsal two injection technique. In this study, the needlestick disc...
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Full-text available
Over 70% of Canadian carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) operations are performed outside of the main operating room (OR) with field sterility and surgeon-administered pure local anesthesia [LeBlanc et al., Hand 2(4):173-8, 14]. Is main OR sterility necessary to avoid infection for this operation? This study evaluates the infection rate in carpal tunnel r...