Donald P. Haider-Markel

Donald P. Haider-Markel
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Political Science

PhD

About

161
Publications
42,382
Reads
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Introduction
I am working on a number of projects on the representation of interests in politics and policy, as well as exploring the development and influence of political identities.
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
University of Kansas
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2003 - August 2008
University of Kansas
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 1999 - August 2003
University of Kansas
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (161)
Book
This encyclopedia reviews and interprets a broad array of social science and humanities research on LGBT people, politics, and public policy around the world. The articles are organized around six major themes of the study of identity politics, with a focus on movement politics, public attitudes, political institutions, elections, and the broader c...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the roles of gender, gender attitudes, and interest in sports on public attitudes about transgender people's participation in athletics. Using a representative survey of 1020 adults in the United States from 2015 and after controlling for a variety of demographic, political, and attitudinal factors, we find that women, consistent with th...
Article
en Numerous institutions, such as the police, public schools, legislatures, and the courts face criticism for a lack of diversity and representation. According to various political theorists, the lack of representation of marginalized groups in public institutions worsens citizen attitudes. In response, some advocate for increasing passive represen...
Article
Full-text available
Political advertisements can shift attitudes and behaviors to become more exclusionary toward social out-groups. However, people who engage in an antidiscrimination exercise in the context of an experiment may respond differently to such ads. What interventions might foster inclusive attitudes in the presence of political communications about socia...
Article
Few public opinion surveys addressed transgender rights prior to 2015, but scholarly attention to these issues began to proliferate with a series of surveys from 2015 and 2016 that identified a number of important variables shaping attitudes toward transgender people and policies. Yet, the political environment surrounding transgender rights has ch...
Article
Our project investigates the impact of minority bureaucratic and political representation on the distribution of disciplinary measures in public schools, in contrast with its impact on gifted and talented class placement. It is motivated by the contrast in accumulating research on the consequences of minority bureaucratic representation between fin...
Article
Although it is clear that gun issues often shape the electoral preferences of some voters and the electoral success of some candidates, there has been little effort to examine the factors that shape electoral outcomes in direct democracy contests involving gun rights. We use weighted ordinary least squares analysis of county‐level data to predict w...
Article
Researchers have considered the role of perceived threat and fear of crime in shaping attitudes about gun regulation. We contribute to this literature by examining whether gun owners, who tend to oppose gun regulations, moderate their gun views when exposed to a gun-related threat. We argue that although exposure to threat can increase the desire t...
Article
Full-text available
The Local Power & Politics Review is an annual publication focusing on the impact of state preemption on local policymaking power and authority. The articles are written as advocate-researcher teams, each focusing on a specific policy arena that has recently been targeted by state leaders for preemption.
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) Americans face a fragmented policy landscape across the country. Some states and localities have taken the lead and adopted policies to protect LGBTQ citizens, while others have sought to undermine LGBTQ equality. As such, the rights of LGBTQ citizens are very much dependent on the politics of...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the literature featuring quantitative interest group research at the national and subnational level in the United States. We direct scholars to existing resources and techniques. Additionally, we make recommendations on methods and discuss the limitations of prevailing measures. The appropriate measure is driven by the research...
Article
In 2017, transgender woman Danica Roem stunned political observers in Virginia by unseating a long-time anti-LGBTQ legislator from a conservative district in the Virginia House of Delegates. ¹ She was the first openly transgender person elected and seated to a state legislature. Delegate Roem’s election was historic in LGBTQ political representatio...
Article
Celebrities saturate American culture and often become relevant in politics, yet political science has largely left unstudied how celebrities affect mass political behavior. We focus on the 2015 story of Caitlyn Jenner revealing her transgender identity. Using an original nationally representative survey from that summer, we examine whether followi...
Book
This A–Z encyclopedia homes in on the moral arguments that provide the foundation for virtually all of the most important and/or divisive laws and policies in the United States. The work discusses controversial and important issues, such as abortion, civil rights, drugs and alcohol, euthanasia, guns, hate crimes, immigration, immunization, natural...
Article
Research suggests that the ability of the president to influence public attention to issues and shape public opinion is limited. Recently, presidential efforts at persuasion have expanded to social media, but presidential persuasion has yet to be explored in this medium. We address two relevant questions. First, what effects does a presidential twe...
Preprint
The Trump era has facilitated the emergence of a strong backlash against the successes of the LGBTQ movement. However, the politics of this era also motivated a record number of LGBTQ candidates to run for public office. We examine the electoral performance of these candidates in the 2018 election cycle relative to non-LGBTQ candidates employing st...
Article
We hypothesize that gun ownership among women is an important determinant of political engagement. First, using 2013 Pew Research Center data, we examine different types of political participation concerning gun policy. Next, we examine data from a survey experiment embedded in a unique June 2017 national survey of nearly 900 gun owners. Finally, w...
Article
Policy regarding the inclusion of transgender soldiers in the U.S. Military has shifted back and forth in recent years, with public opinion likely a significant factor shaping the eventual policy outcome. As such, this study examines the factors that shape public attitudes toward military service by transgender people. In particular, we examine the...
Article
Recent political debate over transgender military service and gendered bathroom use highlights a dramatic increase in salience over transgender issues in the US. In this essay, we examine a potential new front in the culture wars by reviewing recent empirical research in social science on the politics of transgender rights in the context of moralit...
Article
Attempts to assess the influence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) groups on LGBT-related policy are hampered by imprecise measurement of LGBT group strength and activity. This research note examines the problems with existing measures of state-level LGBT advocacy strength and it develops an alternative measure of LGBT advocacy grou...
Article
Rationale: Although obesity represents a potential public health crisis, our understanding of public perceptions of obesity, emotional responses to the obese, and related policy preferences is limited. Objective: We employed Weiner's attribution theory of controllability (Weiner, 1988, 2011) to examine perceived causes of obesity, emotional resp...
Article
Listen, We Need to Talk: How to Change Attitudes about LGBT Rights. By Brian F. Harrison and Melissa R. Michelson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. 240p. $105.00 cloth, $29.95 paper. - Volume 16 Issue 4 - Donald P. Haider-Markel
Article
en Past research suggests that people substantially overestimate the size of minority populations. Labeled “innumeracy,” inflated estimates of minority populations can have a negative impact on intergroup relations and influence policy attitudes toward minority groups. Our research examines people’s estimates of the gun owner population in the Unit...
Book
While medical identification and treatment of gender dysphoria have existed for decades, the development of transgender as a "collective political identity" is a recent construct. Over the past twenty-five years, the transgender movement has gained statutory nondiscrimination protections at the state and local levels, hate crimes protections in a n...
Article
In this article, we examine the effects of individual anxiety after the 2016 Orlando, Florida, mass shooting, which killed 49 people and wounded 58 others. Similar to prior research on the influence of anxiety, after the Orlando shooting anxious citizens supported policies and institutions perceived as protective and capable of minimizing future ri...
Article
Civil unrest and riots in the U.S. engender considerable attention. Much of the civil unrest from the 1960s, and recent incidents, likely result from many factors, including poverty, police practices, and negative motivations of some unrest participants. However, not all observers view these events from the same perspective. We contend that individ...
Technical Report
Gun Owner Population Appendix
Conference Paper
Prior research indicates cognitive ability, perceived threats and context cues influence people’s estimates about the size of minority populations. This article extends the literature in three ways. First, the analyses focuses on gun owners. Ironically, this minority group receives significant political attention yet most people substantially overe...
Article
Existing literature connects military service to regional characteristics and family traditions, creating real distinctions between those who serve and those who do not. We engage this discussion by examining military service as a function of personality. In the second portion, we examine military service as predisposed by genetics. Our findings in...
Article
Full-text available
Fears, phobias, and dislikes about minorities should be strong determinants of whether Americans support policies protecting such minorities. Studies suggest that discussions and information about transgender people can reduce transphobia. However, these studies also indicate that experimental treatments do not necessarily affect individual attitud...
Article
Most of the public opinion research about sexual and gender minorities has focused on attitudes about lesbians and gay men, support for gay rights policies, and the factors that affect these attitudes. In particular, interpersonal contact with gay and lesbian individuals consistently is shown to positively affect attitudes toward these groups. Comp...
Article
Numerous recent encounters between police officers and Black citizens have resulted in the deaths of African American men and have drawn renewed public scrutiny of police practices. We examine the public’s attributions about these encounters. Does the public perceive violent confrontations between police officers and Black citizens as a result of b...
Article
Home Rule Be Damned: Exploring Policy Conflicts between the Statehouse and City Hall - William D. Hicks, Carol Weissert, Jeffrey Swanson, Jessica Bulman-Pozen, Vladimir Kogan, Lori Riverstone-Newell, Jaclyn Bunch, Katherine Levine Einstein, David Glick, Dorothy M. Daley, Jonathan M. Fisk, Jami K. Taylor, Donald P. Haider-Markel, Daniel C. Lewis
Article
Existing literature on numeracy suggests that people are likely to perceive out-groups as larger if the group is perceived as threating. However, some studies also suggest that numeracy is a function of wishful thinking or even a lack of political knowledge. We engage the literature on numeracy of the gay and lesbian population by employing data fr...
Article
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) community includes a diverse set of groups, including distinct groups based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity, but it is not clear whether the public makes distinctions in their attitudes toward these subgroups. If they do, what factors motivate individuals to evaluate gays and lesbians diff...
Article
Objectives: The attitudes of gun owners and non-gun owners appear more polarized in the last two decades. We posit that divisions between gun owners and non-gun owners reflect emerging political identities, especially among gun owners. Methods: Using data from the General Social Survey (1972-2012) we examine if and when this gun ownership divergenc...
Article
Objective: Individuals develop causal narratives that help explain events, behaviors, and conditions. Individuals ascribe events and behaviors to controllable components, such as individual choice, or uncontrollable components, such as broader forces in the environment. We join attribution theory with motivated reasoning and outline how gun ownersh...
Article
The distinctly American fascination with guns and gun culture is perhaps most visible in modern entertainment. Yet, guns and gun-related issues seem to divide people, driving a wedge between rural and urban residents, women and men, less and more educated, conservatives and liberals, Democrats and Republicans. Our present understanding of social an...
Article
We posit that individuals develop causal stories to explain the world around them, including events, behaviors, and conditions in society. These are narratives that attribute causes to controllable components, such as individual choices, or uncontrollable components, such as broader forces in the environment. We use attribution theory to understand...
Article
Transgender identity inherently involves body politics, specifically how transgender people may physically represent gender in ways that do not match their assigned sex at birth and how some may alter their bodies. Yet, political behavior research on transgender rights attitudes leaves unaddressed the role of transgender bodies in shaping those att...
Article
Of central importance to groups is the representation of their interests in government. A direct strategy for representation is to elect officials that identify with the group. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement has increasingly been successful in fielding LGB candidates for local, state, and national offices, even though t...
Article
Social categorization processes may be initiated by physical appearance, which have the potential to influence how people evaluate others. Categorizations ground what stereotypes and prejudices, if any, become activated. Gender is one of the first features people notice about others. Much less is known about individuals who may transgress gender ex...
Article
American policing faces a crisis of legitimacy. A key source of this crisis is a widespread police practice commonly endorsed by police leaders to fight crime. This is the investigatory stop, used to check out people who seem suspicious and to seize illegal drugs and guns and make arrests. Using data from an original scientific survey of drivers in...
Chapter
The American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political movement has its roots in the post–World War II era. Through the 1950s and 1960s early LGBT groups focused on social mobilization and education, with limited observable political activities. Political activity increased in the 1960s and caught fire after the rioting that broke ou...
Chapter
This chapter explores some of the challenges in implementing marriage equality, including resistance from some government officials; the enactment of religious-based exemptions allowing public officials and private individuals to refuse to facilitate marriages by same-sex couples; and the absence of legal antidiscrimination protections for sexual m...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Individuals employ causal reasoning to explain the world around them, including political events, group behavior, and conditions in society. People may attribute causes of behavior to controllable components, such as individual choices, or uncontrollable elements, such as broader forces in the environment. To this, we add biological or...
Research
Appendix for “Genetic Attributions, Immutability and Stereotypical Judgments: An Analysis of Homosexuality” Social Science Quarterly, Forthcoming, 2016
Chapter
In this chapter, we examine the future of LGBT rights advocacy now that same-sex couples have won full marriage rights across most of the nation. We will discuss potentially difficult issues in the implementation of marriage equality, such as the lack of supporting legal frameworks for gay people in many states, religious exemptions, and elder care...
Article
Most states have adopted significant measures to reduce the incidence of driving under the influence (DUI) but a DUI death occurs about every 53 minutes; a significant portion of these accidents are the result of recidivist DUI drivers. A relatively new and novel way states can reduce DUI deaths from repeat offenders is to require offenders to inst...
Article
An alert, informed electorate is considered vital to a robust democracy, and the main path to that electorate includes formal education. The educated citizen is politically attentive, knowledgeable, and participatory, and the uneducated citizen is not. However, this fact conceals a less favorable effect of education. Educated citizens possess the c...
Conference Paper
Who is to blame for obesity or gun violence? When public policies are proposed regarding issues such as these, the topics quickly become politicized. These "politics of causes" are often rooted in our partisan predispositions. For this Science on Tap, political scientist Don Haider-Markel will discuss how the public thinks about causation when it c...
Book
To date, media and scholarly attention to gay politics and policy has focused on the morality debates over sexual orientation and the legal aspects of rights for non-heterosexuals. However, transgender concerns as such have received little attention. With transgender activism becoming more visible, policymakers in the United States and around the w...
Conference Paper
Integrating women into organizations that have historically been all male poses a number of problems from a policy implementation perspective. Under a directive issues by Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, a variety of combat positions in the U.S. military must be open to women by January 2016 or exceptions must be requested; the order includes eli...
Book
In sheer numbers, no form of government control comes close to the police stop. Each year, twelve percent of drivers in the United States are stopped by the police, and the figure is almost double among racial minorities. Police stops are among the most frequently criticized incidences of racial profiling, but while studies have shown that minoriti...
Article
We offer an expanded version of attribution theory that incorporates macro- and micro-elements. We then use this theory on a test case and propose an explanation of how individual beliefs about the origins of homosexuality have changed over time and become polarized along partisan lines. We argue that attributions on the origins of homosexuality ha...
Article
Objective We employ theories of causal reasoning to understand attributions about the 2007 Virginia Tech and 2011 Tucson shootings. We argue that attributions stem from two motives: (1) a partisan motivation to perceive events consistent with party attachments, and (2) a drive to minimize the cognitive burdens associated with extensive reasoning pr...
Article
President Bush’s attempt to reform Social Security provides an opportunity to test the ability of presidents to shift public opinion on policy proposals. We argue that although the bully pulpit perspective offers a reasonable explanation of presidential efforts of public persuasion, modern presidents are more likely to engage in a selective attempt...
Article
For this article, I built on previous studies of representation by exploring the potential positive and negative impacts of descriptive representation in the policy process. Specifically, I examined the influence of openly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) state legislators on the amount and types of LGBT-related state legislation in...
Article
Individuals develop causal stories about the world around them that explain events, behaviors, and conditions. These stories may attribute causes to controllable components, such as individual choice, or uncontrollable components, such as broader forces in the environment. We employ attribution theory to outline how identities may shape causal attr...
Article
As a political issue, death and dying topics only sometimes reach the political agenda. However, some issues, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been highly salient. This article explores attitudes toward PAS by examining the malleability of opinion when respondents are exposed to issue frames and when specific messengers present those f...
Article
Social scientists are increasingly taking a more complex theoretical approach to the role of stereotyping in the electorate's evaluation of political candidates. Within this literature, most studies investigate the impact of one stereotype on the public's evaluation of candidates from an underrepresented group. We build on and extend this literatur...
Book
Out and Running is the first systematic analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political representation that explores the dynamics of state legislative campaigns and the influence of lesbian and gay legislators in the state policymaking process. By examining state legislative elections from 1992 to 2006 and state policymaking fr...
Article
In his seminal 1908 book, The Process of Government, Arthur Bentley outlined a framework for understanding politics and policy that has directly or indirectly inspired a considerable amount of research for generations of social scientists. Bentley argued that in order to understand politics and what government does (and does not do) we should focus...
Article
Individuals develop causal stories about the world around them that explain events, behaviors, and conditions. These stories may attribute causes to controllable components, such as individual choice, or uncontrollable components, such as broader forces in the environment. Here we employ motivated reasoning to understand causal attributions the 200...
Article
In this study, we employ Weiner's attribution theory of controllability to examine beliefs about the origins of homosexuality. If the cause of homosexuality is perceived as controllable (learned, environmental, or an individual choice), negative affect toward homosexuals and reduced support for policies relevant to the group can be expected. If the...
Article
Our understanding of representation by government employees has increased considerably in the past 30 years. Scholars have found that represented groups benefit from representative bureaucracies and conclude that this benefit is a function of active representation. However, due to the aggregate unit of observation used in most of these studies and...
Article
Although debate concerning the theory of evolution is part of an ongoing U.S. dialogue over the proper role of religion in society, academics have provided little in the way of systematic understanding of public opinion on this issue. Important questions, such as the relative influence of socializing agents-religion and education-in shaping attitud...
Article
Brian Mann's Welcome to the Homeland weaves together astute observations of the American political system with a personalized journey into the oonservative base of American politics. Mann's thesis is that the political divisions in America can be best characterized by an urban versus rural divide that has evolved over the past eighty or so years. M...
Article
The events of September 11 have clearly changed the way that Americans think about politics and policy and may have changed attitudes about the treatment of America's perceived enemies. At the same time, revelations about American interrogation techniques in the war on terror have forced a national dialogue on human rights during a time of war. Ame...
Article
Judicial scholars have long debated the notion that Court decisions can influence the public's attitudes toward the U.S. Supreme Court. We engage this literature by introducing new dimensions to existing theory for predicting the impact of Court decisions on public confidence in the Court and by introducing innovative methods to test our hypotheses...
Article
The Supreme Court's 2005 Kelo decision upholding a condemnation of private property for economic development purposes sparked a wave of reform legislation in state legislatures. However, there is considerable variation in the extent to which state legislatures restricted the power of eminent domain. This article seeks to account for this variation....
Article
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many African Americans held fairly negative attitudes about effective and speedy government response to the storm. We employ framing theory to examine the role of race in shaping attitudes following Katrina. We hypothesize that a dominant media frame of Black storm victims led African Americans to develop a st...
Article
This article examines the relationship between political veto points, credible commitments, and regulatory compliance costs. Its central purpose is to assess whether different types of political veto points credibly constrain regulatory change and thus lower compliance costs. The authors conceptualize veto points broadly, including legislative over...
Article
This manuscript examines the relationship between political veto points, credible commitments and regulatory compliance costs. We extend the work on credible commitments in comparative political economy and apply this framework to environmental compliance costs in the American states. Our central purpose is to assess whether different types of poli...
Article
Federal government involvement in the case of terminally ill Terri Schiavo provides an interesting opportunity to explore the potential impact of specific institutional actions on public approval of those institutions. We analyze national survey data from the period of federal intervention and a poll conducted several months later. Our analyses, wh...
Article
Researchers continue to disagree over how minority rights fare in direct democracy elections. The authors enter this debate by reviewing previous research and outlining more systematic criteria for assessing minority rights in the context of direct democracy. In applying these criteria, an analysis of direct democracy contests involving gay and les...
Article
Objective. An individual's personal experiences and perception of the collective experience are often linked to political attitudes, especially those concerning the national economy. In this article, we examine whether personal concern about terrorism and perceptions of public concern about terrorism affect attitudes about counterterrorism policies...
Article
Full-text available
In political disputes, issue frames set parameters for debate and shape which view dominates. This study expands issue framing research to examine the influence of frames on the perception of future terrorist threats as well as subsequent support for related counterterrorism policies. We test several hypotheses using data from an experimental field...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
Studies 1) involving causes of political violence and attitudes about political extremism and terrorism, and 2) counterterrorism policies and public attitudes about these policies.
Project
Provide empirical evidence for research questions related to guns and politics