Don Libes

Don Libes
National Institute of Standards and Technology | NIST

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83
Publications
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581
Citations

Publications

Publications (83)
Conference Paper
Targeting the improvement of environmental analysis of manufacturing systems, ASTM 3012-16 provides guidelines for formally characterizing manufacturing processes. However, the difficulty that has arisen in the early use of the standard illustrates the need for intuitive tools for helping modeling experts to conform to the specified information mod...
Article
Full-text available
The design of manufacturing systems can see dramatic improvements through the use of digital technologies for modeling and simulation prior to deployment. At the 2017 ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference held jointly with the 45th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, researchers met within a workshop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart manufacturing combines advanced manufacturing capabilities and digital technologies throughout the product lifecycle. These technologies can provide decision-making support to manufacturers through improved monitoring, analysis, modeling, and simulation that generate more and better intelligence about manufacturing systems. However, challenge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data analytics is increasingly becoming recognized as a valuable set of tools and techniques for improving performance in the manufacturing enterprise. However, data analytics requires data and a lack of useful and usable data has become an impediment to research in data analytics. In this paper, we describe issues that would help aid data availabi...
Article
A growing number of manufacturing companies are treating sustainability as a strategic objective that will increase both their global competitiveness and their market share. To implement this objective, these companies must first assess, and then evaluate, their current sustainability performance. Assessments and evaluations are carried out by choo...
Article
Many objects in the PrIKL Reasoner have a canonical representation. This representation and its implementation required a number of choices with ramifications. This paper describes the choices, their consequences, and some of the more interesting implementation details. This information will be helpful in understanding the implementation of PrIKL,...
Article
As manufacturing systems are often costly to develop and operate, simulation technology has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for improving manufacturing system design and the efficiency of manufacturing operations and maintenance. However, effectively and efficiently using simulation remains an important issue in the manufacturing industry...
Conference Paper
Knowledge from game design appears to offer new methods for software instruction and use that would traditionally require long, expensive, and not always effective training. In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying such knowledge to the field of intelligence analysis.
Article
Full-text available
A review of the literature on evaluating reasoning systems reveals that it is a very broad area with wide variation in depth and breadth of research on metrics and tests. Consolidation is hampered by nonstandard terminology, differing methodologies, scattered application domains, unpublished algorithmic details, and the effects of domain content an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automated methods for integrating systems (AMIS) have been presented as a new approach to solving the dilemmas of multiple and uncoordinated standards, ontologies, leg-acy systems and the ever-growing cost of traditional inte-gration. This paper explores the challenges of automated methods. By identifying the challenges, we can focus our effort on...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is an overview of the AMIS (Automated Methods for Integrating Systems) project approach to systems integration. The objective of the AMIS project is to reduce the cost and time for software integration by devising methods, algorithms, and tools by which activities of a systems engineer can be automated. The motivation for this work is to...
Article
Full-text available
As we engineers develop systems, we build models. These models might include business policy guidelines, database schemata, organization charts, class diagrams, and so on. The models span diverse viewpoints and levels of formality. We seldom revisit these models as the enterprise evolves. Often, the modelers themselves have disappeared, and any kno...
Article
This paper reports on the results of an analysis of existing ontological systems to determine which is most appropriate for the manufacturing domain. In particular, this involved the exploration of efforts that are studying both the uses of ontologies in the general sense and those that are using ontologies for domain-specific purposes. Eleven onto...
Article
Full-text available
: Expect is a tool for automating interactive programs. Expect is controlled by writing Tcl scripts, traditionally a manual process. This paper describes Autoexpect -- a tool that generates Expect scripts automatically by watching actual interactions and then writing the appropriate script. Using Autoexpect, it is possible to create Expect scripts...
Article
EXPRESS is a data modeling language. EXPRESS is relatively new having only been standardized in 1993. Today, few tools exist that automatically generate EXPRESS and correspondingly most EX- PRESS is hand-written. In the future, we predict that all but a tiny fraction of EXPRESS will be computer generated or computer read. While perhaps only during...
Article
Full-text available
In all types of communication, the ability to share information is often hindered because the meaning of information can be drastically affected by the context in which it is viewed and interpreted. This is especially true in manufacturing because of the growing complexity of manufacturing information and the increasing need to exchange this inform...
Conference Paper
The authors illustrate a methodology for early agent systems architecture analysis and evaluation with the focus on risk identification, evaluation, and mitigation. Architectural decisions on software qualities such as performance, modifiability, and security can be assessed. The illustration is drawn from the supply chain management application do...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a principled methodology for analysis of agent-based systems architecture. We illustrate the use of this methodology on an example of a supply chain management system. Using the methodology, it is possible to assess architectural decisions on software qualities such as perform-ance, modifiability, and security. The focus...
Conference Paper
In all types of communication, the ability to share information is often hindered because the meaning of information can be drastically affected by the context in which it is viewed and interpreted. This is especially true in manufacturing because of the growing complexity of manufacturing information and the increasing need to exchange this inform...
Conference Paper
In all types of communication, the ability to share information is often hindered because the meaning of information can be drastically affected by the context in which it is viewed and interpreted. This is especially true in manufacturing because of the growing complexity of manufacturing information and the increasing need to exchange this inform...
Article
Full-text available
In order to easily distinguish between multiple computers, we give them names. Experience has taught us that it is as easy to choose bad names as it is to choose good ones. This essay presents guidelines for deciding what makes a name good or bad. Keywords: domain name system, naming conventions, computer administration, computer network management...
Article
Full-text available
UNIX system administration often involves programs designed only for interactive use. Many such programs (passwd, su, etc.) cannot be placed into shell scripts. Some programs (fsck, dump, etc.) are not specifically interactive, but have poor support for automated use. expect is a program which can "talk" to interactive programs. A script is used to...
Article
UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes created by a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programs that demand to be used interactively. expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a script that resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multi...
Article
Full-text available
Expect is a tool for automating interactive applications. Expect was constructed using Tcl, a language library designed to be embedded into applications. This paper describes experiences with Expect and Tcl over a seven year period. These experiences may help other extension designers as well as the Tcl developers or developers of any other extensi...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST Identifier Collaboration Service (NICS) is a proposed service to encourage collaboration among researchers and developers when choosing identifiers, far in advance of when it might ordinarily occur. This would support and enhance standards development activities, and development and communications in a variety of fields from software devel...
Article
Full-text available
This manual describes how to use the NIST Network Common Memory System (CMS), version 7. The CMS provides a common memory that may be shared among processes distributed across a local area network. Unlike other shared memory systems, CMS accesses variables by name rather than by address. These and other features make the system more comparable to a...
Article
This paper provides a brief history
Article
This paper discusses the general technique, while focusing on a particular example: Kibitz. Kibitz connects multiple sessions and applications together, providing a means for consulting, group editing, or other cooperative tasks. Kibitz in turn, can be used as a module in building additional programs of this type. Using Kibitz, we demonstrate how t...
Article
This paper describes a technique that allows automation and testing of character-graphic programs using existing public-domain tools. Specifically, Tcl, Tk, and Expect are augmented with a terminal emulator in order to build a screen representation in memory. This screen can be queried in a high-level way and the interaction can be further controll...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents our observations and recommendations on the organization of the's Manufacturing Systems Integration Division's (MSID) on-line information. The motivation for this is: . to reduce data redundancy and facilitate configuration management . to improve ease of use . to maintain quality The scope of this paper is MSID's publicly acces...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a technique that allows automation and testing of charactergraphic programs using existing public-domain tools. Specifically, Tcl, Tk, and Expect are augmented with a terminal emulator in order to build a screen representation in memory. This screen can be queried in a high-level way and the interaction can be further controlle...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the use of email addresses as an authentication mechanism for public access servers. Intended for untrusted and low-risk environments, this mechanism provides reasonable security at very low cost to both user and server administrator. In particular, the initial and subsequent registrations are totally automated, and problem det...
Article
Full-text available
CGI scripts enable dynamic generation of HTML pages. This paper describes how to write CGI scripts using Tcl. Many people use Tcl for this purpose already but in an ad hoc way and without realizing many of the more non- obvious benefits. This paper reviews these benefits and provides a framework and examples. Canonical solu- tions to HTML quoting p...
Article
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has built numerous software toolkits and applications for manipulating STEP and EXPRESS data. These toolkits are traditionally used as compiled libraries which are linked to other compiled modules. This paper describes a binding allowing the toolkit interfaces to be called from interpreted s...
Article
Full-text available
UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes created by a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programs that demand to be used interactively. expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a script that resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multi...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The EXPRESS Toolkit is based on Draft International Standard (DIS) 10303-11 (N151). The NIST Part 21 Exchange File Toolkit is a software library for building Part 21-related tools. The Part 21 Toolkit is based on DIS 10303-21. This paper describes how to obtain the t...
Article
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The EXPRESS Toolkit is based on Draft International Standard (DIS) 10303-11 (N151). The NIST Part 21 Exchange File Toolkit is a software library for building Part 21-related tools. The Part 21 Toolkit is based on DIS 10303-21. This paper describes how to obtain the t...
Article
Full-text available
A STEP Application Protocol includes an AIM EXPRESS Annotated Listing. An Annotated Listing is created by combining the Short Listing and any objects from STEP Integrated Resource Parts that are referenced from the Short Listing either directly or indirectly. A number of transformations are performed on the resulting model, which is then formatted...
Article
EXPRESS is a data modeling language. EXPRESS is relatively new having only been standardized in 1993. Today, few tools exist that automatically generate EXPRESS and correspondingly most EX- PRESS is hand-written. In the future, we predict that all but a tiny fraction of EXPRESS will be computer generated or computer read. While perhaps only during...
Article
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has built numerous software toolkits and applications for manipulating STEP and EXPRESS data. The NIST EXPRESS Server is a computational facility at NIST, which provides the ability to run toolkit-based applications remotely without installing them locally. EXPRESS Schemas and other data fil...
Article
Full-text available
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has built numerous software toolkits and applications for manipulating STEP and EXPRESS data. The NIST EXPRESS Server is a computational facility at NIST, which provides the ability to run toolkit-based applications remotely without installing them locally. EXPRESS Schemas and other data fil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS server is a computational facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which provides the ability to run toolkit-based applications remotely. Users e-mail EXPRESS schemas and other data files to the server, which runs the requested applications on the files and returns any diagnostics or output. Applicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Expectk is a toolkit for wrapping character-oriented interactive programs in graphic user interfaces (GUIs). No changes to the programs themselves are made. This is convenient for the large number of existing tools in the UNIX toolbox such as passwd, rlogin, crypt, fsck, and tip, that are otherwise non-programmable and could take a large amount of...
Article
Full-text available
Self-avoiding random surfaces on a cubic lattice are studied by extensive Monte Carlo sampling. The surfaces have an empty boundary and the topology of a 2-sphere. An oct-tree data-structure allows good statistics to be obtained for surfaces whose plaquette number is up to an order of magnitude greater than in previous investigations. The new simul...
Article
UNIX system administration often involves programs designed only for interactive use. Many such programs (passwd, su, etc.) cannot be placed into shell scripts. Some programs (fsck, dump, etc.) are not specifically interactive, but have poor support for automated use. expect is a program which can "talk" to interactive programs. A script is used to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditionally, background automation of interactive processes meant giving up security and reli- ability. With the advent of software such as Expect for controlling interactive processes, it has become possible to improve reliability and security with relative ease. This paper reviews the reliability aspects but focuses primarily on the security as...
Article
Many programs demand to be run interactively. Word-processors are good examples, but many network applications (e.g., ftp, telnet) share the same fault. They cannot be run non-interactively. Expect is a software tool designed to control interactive programs. Expect reads a script that resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple pat...
Article
This paper describes a software module that provides timing services to the MSI, a Manufacturing Systems Integration Testbed in the automated factory. The software "alarm clock" provides services to other MSI software including: . synchrony, . real-time, or non-real-time adjusted in a variety of ways, . alarms at relative or absolute internals. By...
Article
This paper describes a software module that provides timing services to the MSI, a Manufacturing Systems Integration Testbed in the automated factory.
Article
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EX- PRESS-related tools. This paper is one in a series describing the latest version of the toolkit. This document describes shortcomings of previous versions of the toolkit, requirements for improvement, and a recommended approach for addressing those requirements. A background knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS Toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The NIST Part 21 Exchange File Toolkit is a software library for building Part 21-related tools. This paper describes how to use applications built with the toolkits. This includes typical applications such as "fedex" and "p21", which are stand-alone programs that re...
Article
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The toolkit was previously released in 1991, based on ISO TC184/SC4 N14 (familiarly called "EXPRESS N14"). The current release is based on Draft International Standard (DIS) 10303-11 (N151) and while the philosophical underpinnings are similar, much of the interface...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the representation of automation control algorithms by state tables. Earlier papers favoring state tables are discussed in light of experience since they were written. It is suggested that the disadvantages of state tables outweigh their advantages and that we ought to look to more powerful representations. This paper is concer...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The toolkit was previously released in 1991, based on ISO TC184/SC4 N14 (familiarly called "EXPRESS N14"). The current release is based on Draft International Standard (DIS) 10303-11 (N151) and while the philosophical underpinnings are similar, much of the interface...
Article
this article simply because they do not use UNIX. However, their importance is not less- -
Article
The NIST EXPRESS Toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The NIST Part 21 Exchange File Toolkit is a software library for building Part 21-related tools. This paper describes how to use applications built with the toolkits. This includes typical applications such as "fedex" and "p21", which are stand-alone programs that re...
Article
Full-text available
The only DoD protocols supporting the Transport Layer in the OSI Model are UDP and TCP. UDP is packet-oriented while TCP is stream-oriented. It is often useful to mix characteristics of both. This paper describes a software package that simulates the useful properties of UDP while using TCP. Also included are some functions for easier establishment...
Article
Expect is a programming language for automating interactive programs. Recently, people have begun using Expect to connect multiple interactive programs together, allowing for new classes of applications. With some basic building blocks and a little scripting, it is possible to build such applications quickly. This paper discusses the general techni...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. The toolkit was previously released in 1991, based on EXPRESS N14. The current release is based on N151 and while the philosophical underpinnings are similar, much of the interfaces have changed significantly. This paper describes changes that must be made to extent...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. This paper is one in a series describing the latest version of the toolkit. This document describes shortcomings of previous versions of the toolkit, requirements for improvement, and a recommended approach for addressing those requirements. A background knowledge of...
Article
Expect is a programming language for automating interactive programs. Recently, people have begun using Expect to connect multiple interactive programs together, allowing for new classes of applications. With some basic building blocks and a little scripting, it is possible to build such applications quickly. This paper discusses the general techni...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS Toolkit is a software library for building E XPRESS-related tools. This paper gives an introduction, overview, and history of the toolkit. This paper also describes how to get more information on the toolkit. No knowledge of E XPRESS or the EXPRESS Toolkit is presumed other than a rudimentary grasp of basic computer science.
Article
Full-text available
Tcl is a language specifically intended for generic application control. By us- ing it, application programmers escape the dilemma of whether to design sophisticated application-specific languages or whether to build tools more quickly but that are limited in flexibility. Tcl is easy for application program- mers to use, however, up to now, there h...
Article
Full-text available
The NIST EXPRESS toolkit is a software library for building EXPRESS-related tools. EXPRESS is an ISO language for describing information models. EXPRESS descriptions are neutral to different data storage paradigms and systems on different hardware platforms and networks. This paper describes the design and implementation of the tool-kit including i...
Article
Full-text available
Testing interactive programs, by its nature, requires interaction – usually by real people. Such testing is an expensive process and hence rarely done. Some interactive tools can be used non-interactively to a limited extent, and are often tested only this way. Purely interactive programs are rarely tested in any systematic way. This paper describe...
Article
Full-text available
Many programs demand to be run interactively. Word-processors are good examples, but many network applications (e.g., ftp, telnet) share the same fault. They cannot be run non-interactively. Expect is a software tool designed to control interactive programs. Expect reads a script that resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple pat...
Article
Past uses of octrees have been for representation of static objects. We discuss extensions necessary to model dynamic surfaces. One particularly important aspect of this is the ability to represent expanding surfaces that grow to be arbitrarily large. Our enhanced octree does exactly this, and models contraction as well. The ability to represent dy...
Article
Described here is a software module that provides timing services to the Manufacturing Systems Integration (MSI) testbed in the automated factory. The software 'alarm clock' provides services to other MSI software, including synchrony; real time, or non-real time adjusted in a variety of ways; and alarms at relative or absolute intervals. By provid...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary shells provide minimal control (starting, stopping, etc) over programs, leaving interaction up to users. This means that you cannot run some programs non-interactively, such as passwd. Some programs can be run non-interactively but only with a loss of flexibility, such as fsck. This is where the tool-building philosophy of UNIX begins...
Article
Automated manufacturing requires sharing of data among control, sensory and administrative processes. Since these processes are invariably distributed over many different computer systems, we claim that a distributed data system is necessary. Unlike most extant data systems, a manufacturing enterprise requires support for: diverse computer systems,...
Article
UNIX system administration often involves programs designed only for interactive use. Many such programs (passwd, su, etc.) cannot be placed into shell scripts. Some programs (fsck, dump, etc.) are not specifically interactive, but have poor support for automated use. expect is a program which can "talk" to interactive programs. A script is used to...
Article
Full-text available
In 1990, NIST released a software toolkit for building EXPRESS-re-lated tools. The software was based on early drafts of EXPRESS and included a parser, a resolver, and a framework for producing sche-ma-independent tools. During the past year, we have redesigned the toolkit with respect to user experience and the EXPRESS Draft International Standard...
Article
Full-text available
Expect is a tool for automating interactive applications. Expect was constructed using Tcl, a language library designed to be embedded into applications. This paper describes experiences with Expect and Tcl over a seven year period. These experiences may help other exten- sion designers as well as the Tcl developers or develop- ers of any other ext...

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