Dominique Raynaud

Dominique Raynaud
Université Grenoble Alpes · mha ENSAG

Arch. Dr.
I am currently associate professor at University Grenoble Alpes. My main area of interest is the history of science

About

161
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491
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
203 Citations
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Introduction
I teach sociology and history of science at Université Grenoble Alpes (France) and do research at mha ENSAG https://mha.grenoble.archi.fr/category/equipe/. ORCID iD 0000-0001-7750-6884.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (161)
Book
Full-text available
This book explores the interrelationships between optics, vision and perspective before the Classical Age, examining binocularity in particular. The author shows how binocular vision was one of the key juncture points between the three concepts and readers will see how important it is to understand the approach that scholars once took. In the Middl...
Book
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Ce livre est un livre d’épistémologie de la sociologie. L’objectif est d’appliquer des méthodes analytiques pour clarifier le vocabulaire, expliciter des relations non-apparentes entre concepts, dégager la portée d’une méthode, ou souligner les incohérences d’un programme de recherche. Les questions épineuses ne sont pas écartéees: Comment clarifie...
Chapter
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Este capítulo está dedicado a las fuentes ópticas de Leonardo da Vinci, que pueden haber contribuido a su conocimiento y a su pericia práctica de la perspectiva. Primera observación introductoria. ¿Son exactos los trazados perspectivos del siglo XV? Esta idea, por muy extendida que esté, es falsa (Raynaud 1998: 72-120). Las obras de Leonardo-aunque...
Chapter
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Una nota dello storico bizantino Giovanni Tzetzes ci permette di datare la nascita di Archimede, figlio dell'astronomo Fidia, circa 287 a.C. La tesi, sostenuta da Clagett, che avrebbe studiato ad Alessandria prima di tornare in Sicilia, deve essere abbandonata perché non ci sono prove che Eratostene, Conone e Dositeo, a cui Archimede dedica i suoi...
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Poco si sa circa la vita di Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī, conosciuto nel mondo latino come Alkindi. Secondo i bio-bibliografi arabo, sarebbe nato agli inizi del IX secolo a Kūfa, dove il padre serviva come governatore. Alcuni storici hanno sostenuto che al-Kindī avrebbe preso parte alla grande impresa di traduzione dal greco delle opere scie...
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Tutto quello che sappiamo della vita di Ibn al-Haytham viene dai racconti dei quattro bio-bibliografi Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, al-Bayhaqī, Ibn al-Qifṭī e Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa (Sabra 1989, II: xix-xxiv; Rashed 1993: 1-19). L'intersezione delle narrazioni parzialmente contradittorie si riduce a questo: Ibn al-Haytham nacque a Baṣra a metà del X secolo (la data...
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Ruggero Bacone (ca. 1220–ca. 1292) nacque a Ilchester, nel Sommersetshire, in una data sconosciuta intorno al 1214, o più probabilmente 1220. Bacone ha studiato a Oxford (1234–42) prima di andare a Parigi, dove diviene maestro d’arte nel 1242 ed insegna subito dopo la filosofia di Aristotele. Ritornato a Oxford tra il 1248 e il 1251, abbandona la f...
Chapter
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Giovanni Pecham (Peccam, Peckam, Peckham), nato intorno al 1225 a Patcham (Sussex) entrò nell’ordine francescano (Ordo Fratrum Minorum) in una data sconosciuta intorno al 1250–6. Fu mandato allo studium di Parigi per studiare teologia (1257–9). Pecham probabilmente rimase a Parigi fino al 1272, dove poté incontrare Ruggero Bacone, che risiedeva lì...
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Si presume che Erazm Ciołek Witelo (Vitelion, Vitellio, Vitello, Vitulio, ecc., ca. 1230-dopo 1278) sia nato a Legnica, nella bassa Silesia, da padre tedesco e madre polacca, come suggerito dalla dedica dei Perspectivae libri decem a Guglielmo di Moerbeke (Veritatis amatori fratri Guilielmo de Morbeka, Witelo filius thuringorum et polonorum eterne…...
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Johannes Müller, noto con il nome latino di Regiomontano (1436-1476), nacque a Unfinden, vicino a Königsberg, il 6 giugno 1436. Studiò matematica e astronomia a Lipsia prima di andare a Vienna per seguire le lezioni di Georg von Peurbach. Dopo la morte di questo, nel 1461, andò a Roma dove divenne amico del cardinale Basilio Bessarione, legato del...
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In Résolution des quatre principaux problèmes d’architecture (1673) then in Cours d’architecture (1683), the architect–mathematician Nicolas-François Blondel addresses one of the most famous architectural problems of all times, that of the reduction in columns (entasis). The interest of the text lies in the variety of subjects that are linked to th...
Book
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This book is a continuation of the research on the representation of the eye initiated by Prof. Ludwig Choulant (University of Dresden) and Prof. Hugo Magnus (University of Breslau) at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. The aim of the book is to provide all those who need information on how the eye was conceived in a given histo...
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A comparison of the manuscripts has shown that De li aspecti , the Italian version of Alhacen's De aspectibus , Vat. lat. 4595 (I), was copied from London, British Library, Royal 12.G.vii (L). The discovery of long omissions in L, not reproduced in I, disproves this conclusion. The error has two reasons: a sampling too small, the confusion between...
Book
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To students and practitioners of anamorphic art, the name of Jean-François Niceron is more than preeminent; it has become iconic. La Perspective Curieuse was first published in 1638. An augmented version was then translated into Latin by Mersenne in 1646. A newly amended and augmented version was retranslated into French by Roberval in 1652. This b...
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In this article, we publish the critical edition of Andalò di Negro’s De compositione astrolabii, with English translation and commentary. The mathematician and astronomer Andalò di Negro (Genoa ca. 1260–Naples 1334) presumably redacted this treatise on the astrolabe in the 1330s, while residing at the court of King Robert of Naples. The present ed...
Chapter
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Notwithstanding what the champions of post-truth may think, truth remains a key concept of scientific research. In this contribution, several theories of factual truth are evaluated with the help of a simple and straightforward tool, i.e., a logical table of contingency. Its application shows that most contemporary disconcerting theories of truth h...
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Unlike the physical sciences, sociology is frequently described as an interpretative non-experimental science. Comparative epistemology sheds new light on this claim. 1. Experimentation is not a constant character of the physical sciences; 2. Experimental hypothetical-deductive reasoning, including the test of predictions, is also practicable in so...
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This article is a study of geometric constructions. We consider, as an illustration, the methods used for dividing the straight line into n equal parts (n-section). Architects and practicioners of classical Europe had at their disposal a broad range of geometric constructions: ancient ones were edited and translated, whereas new solutions were cons...
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La science répondant à une norme d’objectivité et l’objectivité étant incompatible avec l’esprit partisan, repérer la présence d’une pensée partisane en science revient à pointer une contradictio in adjecto.L’expression « pensée partisane » se trouvant dans le voisinage immédiat de l’idéologie, je rappelle le sens de ces mots en indiquant sur quell...
Book
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Brisant l'image idéale de la science consensuelle, les controverses scientifiques sont aujourd'hui devenues un sujet privilégié de la sociologie et de l'histoire des sciences. Elles sont par ailleurs impliquées au coeur des débats sur les méthodes des sciences sociales. Si l'analyse des controverses scientifiques doit beaucoup aux approches inaugur...
Book
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Es cierto que la ciencia y la tecnología forman un todo? ¿Están unidas por vínculos constantes y necesarios? ¿Hay razonamiento tecnológico sólo en el ámbito indus-trial?¿Las bio y nanotecnologías constituyen la parte esencial de las tecnologías actua-les? ¿La noción de aplicación absorbe todas las relaciones posibles entre la ciencia y la tecnologí...
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Determinism is the thesis that the events comply with laws, i.e. constant relations by which the same causes produce the same effects. There is no consensus over determinism. The first expression of determinism was…
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Cet article compare les modèles explicatifs en architecturologie et en philosophie analytique de l’action, l’une et l’autre postulant l’existence d’actions finalisées. Cette similitude pose la question de l’identité des échelles de référence et des raisons d’agir. On montre que les échelles sont un sous-ensemble des raisons d’agir. Ce résultat a de...
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This article aims at clarifying sociological definitions with the help of an original tool, the logical table of contingency, which has characteristics in common with both the statistical table of contingency and Carroll’s bilateral diagram. The unclear notion of ghetto is taken as a test-case. Successive tables of contingency are applied to variou...
Chapter
A crescent-shaped image of the light of the Sun can be seen at the time of the eclipse, if its light has passed through a narrow circular aperture and has reached a plane opposite the aperture, provided the eclipse is not a total one and the shape of its remaining part is crescent-shaped.
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This Chapter covers the subjects of On the Shape of the Eclipse from a methodological viewpoint. The comment is divided into two main sections: Ibn al-Haytham’s Predecessors and Instrument.
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This chapter aims to assess the findings of On the Shape of the Eclipse by explaining its reasoning, and by comparing it, firstly to objective data, and secondly to the results of modern optics. This should provide a test of robustness of the results obtained in this work.
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Ibn al-Haytham, born in Baṣra in the mid-tenth century and died in Cairo after A.H. 432/1040 (Sabra 1989, II: xix–xxiv; Rashed 1993: 1–19), is the author of over one hundred treatises dedicated to the mathematical sciences, among which is the Epistle on the Shape of the Eclipse (Maqāla fī ṣūrat al-kusūf). Even though Ibn al-Haytham’s work was writt...
Book
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This book provides the first critical edition of Ibn al-Haytham’s On the Shape of the Eclipse with English translation and commentary, which records the first scientific analysis of the camera obscura. On the Shape of the Eclipse includes pioneering research on the conditions of formation of the image, in a time deemed to be committed to aniconism....
Article
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The article examines the inflation in the number of authors that now affects several disciplines such as particle physics and biomedical sciences. Deepening the example of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at CERN, which discovered the Higgs boson in 2012, the article details the signing procedures in this field, reviews the factors responsible for...
Chapter
During the classical period many theoreticians (Vignola, Danti, Bassi, Huret and Le Clerc) published detailed critiques rejecting the perspective system based on two vanishing points located on the same horizon. A study of their texts establishes unambiguously that the system, by then judged by the main theorists to be unorthodox, was closely linke...
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The present chapter discusses some new findings on the question of how Masaccio constructed the perspective in his Trinity fresco. Some scholars have attempted to reduce the anomalies in the work using photogrammetry and computer analysis. On such grounds it has been argued that Masaccio used the normal technique known as costruzione legittima. How...
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Perspective, as a system of visual representation, draws its name from the medieval Latin term perspectiva which means ‘optics.’ We owe this linguistic connection to the fact that certain principles of perspective developed from theories of vision. Between the two sets of notions one can find relationships of both continuity and discontinuity. A st...
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The aim of this chapter is to deconstruct the notion that linear perspective formed a stable system of representation beginning in the Quattrocento. Doubts must be raised because the history of perspective is in fact quite conjectural due to the many lacunae scattered along its path; one crucial example is the exact nature of the contributions of B...
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Andrés De Mesa Gisbert proposes that the perspectives in paintings from the Duecento and Trecento were drawn arithmetically, i.e. without resorting to vanishing points. The most convincing argument for this hypothesis is that the division of two parallel lines by straight lines intersecting each other at a vanishing point (the geometric method) is...
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Thirty works painted between the end of the Duecento and the middle of the Quattrocento using two-point perspective are reconstructed here using the process of error analysis described in Appendix A. In terms of the classification of different systems of representation, these constructions do not correspond to any type of perspective recognized tod...
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In the wake of Guido Hauck’s work on “subjective perspective,” Erwin Panofsky concluded that perspectives based on what he referred to as a “vanishing axis” could be interpreted as a form of curvilinear perspective. The present chapter aims to refute this conjecture by demonstrating that such constructions do not correspond either to the linear or...
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Scientific ideas can have no lasting legacy unless they are accepted and transmitted by a series of successors. Our investigation will therefore focus first of all on the diffusion of texts regarding the optics of Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhacen in the Latin West) among his peers and subsequent generations of scientists by studying the translation...
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In the wake of Panofsky’s work on perspective, John White and Bernard Carter identified the “axial construction” as the product of a system (denominated synthetic perspective) in which the measurements of an object on a projection circle are transferred to the picture plane by means of transfer lines. While this construction has been criticized for...
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Early modern physiological optics introduced the concept of correspondence to the study of the conditions for the fusion of binocular images. The formulation of this concept has traditionally been ascribed to Christiaan Huygens (in a work published posthumously in 1704) and to an experiment often attributed to Christoph Scheiner (1619). Here it wil...
Book
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Technologie, technique, technosciences, tous ces mots sont généralement confondus, rendus interchangeables dans nombre de propos où pourtant la clarté est requise. Ce livre éclaire et déjoue ces impasses terminologiques et conceptuelles. Dans un monde technologiquement saturé, comprendre ce qu’est la technologie est crucial, et ce livre donne les é...
Article
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The discovery of the Higgs boson is one of the most significant advances of particle physics in recent years. It led to the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 to Englert and Higgs for the theory explaining the origin of the particle mass. The Nobel Prize cannot conceal the fact that the results about the new particle have been achieved by the...
Book
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Geometria practica est le titre de nombreux traités mathématiques rédigés du Moyen Âge à la fin de l’époque classique. Branche peu étudiée par l’histoire des sciences et des techniques, à la marge des mathématiques savantes et des traditions techniques, la géométrie pratique pose des questions historiographiques et épistémologiques propre. Cet ouvr...
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This article studies a fragment on the conic sections that appear in the Codex Atlanticus, fols. 611rb/915ra. Arguments are put forward to assemble these two folios. Their comparison with the Latin texts available before 1500 shows that they derive from the De speculis comburentibus of Alhacen and the De speculis comburentibus of Regiomontanus, joi...
Book
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Scientific Controversies show how organized debates in the sciences help us establish or verify our knowledge of the world. If debates focus on form, scientific controversies are akin to public debates that can be understood within the framework of theories of conflict. If they focus on content, then such controversies have to do with a specific ac...
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Book
Full-text available
Geometria practica est le titre de nombreux traités mathématiques rédigés du Moyen Âge à la fin de l'époque classique. Branche peu étudiée par l'histoire des sciences et des techniques, à la marge des mathématiques savantes et des traditions techniques, la géométrie pratique pose des questions historiographiques et épistémologiques propre. Cet ouvr...
Article
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In view of the progress made in recent decades in the fields of stemmatology and the analysis of geometric diagrams, the present article explores the possibility of establishing the stemma codicum of a handwritten tradition from geometric diagrams alone. This exploratory method is tested on Ibn al-Haytham’s Epistle on the Shape of the Eclipse, beca...
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This article aims to test a new method of dating optico-astronomical manuscripts, using Ibn al-Haytham’s Epistle on the Shape of the Eclipse as the test case. This work is selected because of indications that its diagrams are based on reality. After clarifying the observation conditions, an astronomical ephemeris is applied to sift through the ecli...
Book
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Why did linear perspective rise in trecento–quattrocento central Italy rather than in any other cultural context? This book provides new insight into the question of the early Italian pioneership in perspective, building on the fact that many references to optics can be found in Renaissance treatises. The fact that most of the medieval optical manu...
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Cet article se propose de contribuer au débat sur les méthodes de la sociologie des sciences à partir d’une étude empirique des déterminations de la vitesse de la lumière réalisées entre 1676 et 1983. Loin d’être construites et déconstruites à volonté, les valeurs de c ont subi un processus de révision tendanciellement unidirectionnel et irréversib...
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This article studies the legacy in the West of Abū al-Wafā’s Book on those geometric constructions which are necessary for craftsmen. Although two-thirds of the geometric constructions in the text also appear in Renaissance works, a joint analysis of original solutions, diagram lettering, and probability leads to a robust finding of independent dis...
Article
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This article studies the legacy in the West of Abū al-Wafā’s Book on those geometric constructions which are necessary for craftsmen. Although two-thirds of the geometric constructions in the text also appear in Renaissance works, a joint analysis of original solutions, diagram lettering, and probability leads to a robust finding of independent dis...
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La sociologie classique a échoué dans son projet naturaliste parce que le natura-lisme qu'elle avait en vue était un naturalisme déterministe causal, modèle dominant des sciences naturelles du XIX e siècle. La question reste posée de savoir si la sociolo-gie pourrait développer des formes de naturalisme probabiliste avec plus de succès. La contribu...
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Etude des débats autour des doctrines vitalistes dans les années 1806 à 1865 en France, plus spécialement entre 1840 et 1843, intervalle dans lequel la controverse entre les écoles de médecine organiciste et vitaliste se confond avec la polémique entre Louis Peisse et Jacques Lordat.
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1. Beaucoup de travaux d'épistémologie contemporaine tentent de spécifier la sociologie par un ensemble de caractères distinctifs dérivés de l'historicité et de l'intentionnalité des sujets humains. 2. Ces caractères doivent être abandonnés, ou réécrits, s'ils rentrent en contradiction avec des avancées scientifiques fondées. 3. Des avancées scient...
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L'essor de la perspective linéaire a suscité de nombreuses polémiques tout au long du Quattrocento et du Cinquecento, opposant les partisans d'une géométrisation artificialiste de la vision à ceux qui vantaient les qualités du dessin d'après nature ou invoquaient des arguments de nature physiologique. Ces débats peuvent être retracés à partir des q...
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Diffusion of innovations and knowledge is in most cases accounted for by the logistic model. Fieldwork research however constantly report that empirical data utterly deviate from this mathematical function. This chapter scrutinizes network forcing of diffusion process. The departure of empirical data from the logistic function is explained by socia...
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L'Emprise du vrai défend un programme rationaliste en sociologie des sciences, étranger aux accusations de passéisme ou d'idéalisme. On compte parmi ses principales qualités : son caractère programmatique (une sociologie de l'objectivité et de la justification rationnelle) et son éloignement des modes (le processus d'objectivation et de justificati...

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