Dominic Chwan Yee Foo

Dominic Chwan Yee Foo
University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus | nottingham · Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

PhD

About

309
Publications
45,150
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Introduction
Professor Ir Dr Dominic C. Y. Foo is a world renowned scholar in process integration focusing on resource conservation and CO2 reduction. He establishes international collaboration with researchers from various countries in the Asia, Europe, American and Africa. Professor Foo is an active author, with six books, more than 150 journal papers and made more than 220 conference presentations, with more than 30 keynote/plenary speeches.

Publications

Publications (309)
Article
Countries around the world are taking active efforts to address the current climate crisis. Negative emissions technologies (NET) such as enhanced weathering will play a significant role in these efforts in the coming decades. Enhanced weathering is based on the terrestrial application of powdered natural or synthetic silicate minerals to remove ca...
Article
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Industrial wastes can be used as alternative fuel sources for the substitution of fossil fuel if they contain good calorific values. Through waste-to-energy (WtE) pathway, energy can be harvested from industrial waste through combined heat and power (CHP; or commonly known as cogeneration) scheme. The latter is recognised as an efficient way to sup...
Article
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The studies on the utilisation of supercritical fluids (SCFs) in processing chemicals and materials have garnered significant attention in the past two decades. SCFs possess both gas- and liquid-like properties that are tunable, rendering them as superior solvents for reactions and processes, for example in the delamination of graphite. SCF technol...
Article
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Titanium hydride (TiH2) is one of the basic materials for titanium (Ti) powder metallurgy. A novel method was proposed to produce TiH2 from the reduction of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with magnesium hydride (MgH2) in the hydrogen (H2) atmosphere. The primary approach of this process is to produce TiH2 at a low-temperature range through an effic...
Article
This paper presents a novel systematic decomposition method for the synthesis of water network. The main objective of this approach is to reduce the complexity of the water network by dividing the system into several clusters with optimisation constraints. These constraints include lengths of pipeline, total pipe lengths of the clusters, etc. The m...
Article
Renewable energy sources, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and negative emission technologies (NETs) are important elements to incorporate during energy planning to achieve climate change targets by the end of this century. This paper develops a generic algebraic targeting approach based on Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA), for the integration o...
Article
This paper presents an extended methodology for the design of flexible water network (FWN). In many water network systems, parameters of the water-using processes (e.g. flow rate, concentration, etc.) vary due to operational changes. Hence, it is important to synthesize a FWN that can absorb these changes, so to ensure business sustainability. In t...
Article
Discharge of industrial wastes constitutes one of the primary threats to the environment. A sustainable approach to handling industrial wastes is the adoption of integration and monetization schemes through the concept of an eco-industrial park (EIP). An EIP involving hydrocarbons is a particular case known as a carbon−hydrogen−oxygen symbiosis net...
Article
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Water is one of the most important natural resources of life. While it is considerably cheap and vastly available currently, except for extreme locations, this is not guaranteed in the future. Being provident with water has multitude of advantages in both short and long term. Using less clean water not only brings immediate financial benefits, it s...
Article
Process integration (PI) is a sub-area within the chemical engineering discipline that was established in the 1970s. It focuses on the development and use of tools for the holistic design of chemical processes; emphasis is placed on the system-level interdependencies among process units. More recently, PI tools have been applied to renewable energy...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the design of an internally heat‐integrated distillation column (HIDiC). Conventional distillation generally consumes enormous amount of energy for the separation of mixture. Therefore, HIDiC is an advanced alternative to conventional distillation as it possesses better energy‐saving character. The design procedure for HIDiC...
Article
Most methods developed for water minimization for batch processes were reported based on pinch analysis and mathematical programming. In this work, a recently developed P-graph methodology for direct water reuse/recycle is extended for batch water network. The model allows direct water reuse/recycle when water sources and sinks are both located in...
Article
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of foliar fertilizers containing macro-and micro-elements, and used in the form of chelates, on the content of macroelements in tubers of several potato varieties. The study was based on a 3-year (2013-2015) field experiment conducted in Haczow (49°39′40″N, 21°53′49″E), on brown, slightly acidic soil...
Article
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Deodorisation is the key process to produce high‐quality refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil (RBDPO) in a palm oil refinery. In this work, an integrated simulation–optimisation approach was adopted for the analysis of a deodorisation process in an operating palm oil refinery. The process includes a deodoriser unit that removes free fatty acid...
Article
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The objective of this study is to optimise the wastewater treatment plant of poultry industry. The optimisation of simulation model was done using the SuperPRO designer as simulator. The performance of the wastewater treatment plant for the poultry industry has improved significantly at the minimum cost. The COD value reduced from 133 mg/L to 0.05...
Chapter
This paper presents a mathematical optimisation model for the planning of non-conventional gas field development, considering multiple impurities in natural gas streams and uncertainties in gas quality and technological parameters. The model consists mainly of mass balance equations and fuzzy constraints. A modified literature example is presented...
Article
Pyrolysis is one of the most commonly used methods for deriving renewable energy from biomass and is the first step of many thermal processes. A simulation model was developed in SuperPro Designer (SPD) to simulate the pyrolysis of biomass and its individual lignocellulosic components. The model was used to study the pyrolytic behaviours of biomass...
Article
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the primary source of water pollution in the oil palm industry. Most palm oil mills are employing a series of anaerobic and aerobic ponds for POME treatment, in order to comply with environmental regulation. In recent years, some mills are installed with biogas capture facilities in order to reduce the emission of g...
Article
This work develops a generic mathematical model for process engineers and designers to retrofit existing water networks in process plants for water savings. The model is applicable to both direct reuse/recycling and regeneration schemes, with single- and multi-objective optimisation scenarios. The objectives of the model may include minimum water f...
Article
Biomass is an important renewable resource commonly used to derive energy for various applications. This study analyses the environmental impacts of biomass utilisation and conversion including pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreatment. The analysis was performed on 70 biomass samples using process simulation software and Waste Reduction (WAR) algorithm...
Article
Synthesis of biorefinery processes have been of great interest in the research community and industrial practitioners for the past two decades. However, there is a lack of systematic approach for the synthesis of biorefinery processes, especially at the conceptual design level. This paper presents an extension on the systematic hierarchical decompo...
Article
The increasing demand for hydrogen in refineries and petrochemical plants is challenging these facilities to minimise their hydrogen utility without incurring high capital and operating costs. As environment-related fuel specifications become more stringent, the demand for hydrogen increases, especially for the operation of hydrodesulphurisation in...
Article
Carbon emissions pinch analysis (CEPA) was carried out for the planning of deep cuts in the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the electric power generation sector of the United Kingdom (UK). The graphical CEPA technique is used to examine alternatives by which the UK can achieve or approach net zero emissions by 2050. The analysis considers constra...
Article
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Development of water recovery system improves sustainability of industrial water supplies and minimises water cost. This paper proposes an integrated simulation-optimisation approach for the design and optimisation of a water recovery system for a polylactide (PLA) production process. The latter is among the industrial processes that are known for...
Article
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Green technologies have been globally accepted as efficient and sustainable techniques for the utilization of natural resources [...]
Article
Incorporation of closed wet cooling tower (CWCT) in the existing circulating water system has been recognized as a viable path to reduce water use in process industry. This paper introduces a specifically tailored framework based on model reductions for multiscale optimization of CWCT-based cooling water system considering environmental variations....
Article
The shift from conventional hydrogen production that utilised fossil-based energy towards a more sustainable practice is essential. Recently, the interest in utilising renewable hydrogen sources associated with bio-gas has risen. This work aims to develop a P-graph methodology for bio-hydrogen network synthesis, where oil refineries and ammonia pla...
Article
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Due to the expanding concern on cleaner production and sustainable development aspects, a technology shift is needed for the hydrogen production, which is commonly derived from natural gas. This work aims to synthesise a large-scale bio-hydrogen network in which its feedstock, i.e., bio-methane, is originated from landfill gas and palm oil mill eff...
Article
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This article contains the data set and model code for the negative emission polygeneration system described in Tan et al. (2019). The data was generated utilizing an optimization model implemented in LINGO 18.0 and includes information on the operating state of each process unit in the system. The maximum annual profit of the system was determined...
Article
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Optimum planning of resources is crucial in ensuring business sustainability. In the past decade, several graphical planning tools have been proposed based on process integration techniques for the optimum allocation of production resources such as equipment, financial, and human resources. These graphical tools provide useful insights for producti...
Chapter
This work presents a fuzzy optimisation model for HEN retrofit design incorporating parametric uncertainties. The basic model is based on a stage-wise superstructure with non-isothermal mixing. Fuzzy set theory is used with max-min aggregation to provide a robust, more conservative design with maximum overall degree of satisfaction of fuzzy constra...
Article
Reduction in carbon emission, minimisation of energy consumption along with on-site power generation and environmental sustainability of industrial processes can be achieved using total site integration (TSI) and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. This paper evaluates cogeneration potential in different TSI methodologies for a dimethyl ether (D...
Article
The P-graph framework was developed to solve Process Network Synthesis (PNS) problems in plant design. It provides a powerful engineering toolbox based on the constituent Maximal Structure Generation (MSG), Solution Structure Generation (SSG) and Accelerated Branch-and-Bound (ABB) algorithms. During the four decades of its development, the P-graph...
Article
Designing a sustainable process requires the aid of systematic multivariate assessment method that considers the dimensions of economic, social and environmental impact. This work presents a sustainability assessment framework for the commercial production of chitosan-based titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes using a hybrid method consisting of analy...
Article
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Carbon dioxide emissions reduction has been a common trend for many industrial processes in recent years. However, few analytical tools have been developed for visualising CO2 emissions reduction and supporting decisions at the enterprise level. A graphical technique known as Carbon Emission Composite Curves was developed previously, but was limite...
Article
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Pinch Analysis (PA) methodology was originally developed for determining feasible Heat Integration targets in process plants, and for designing optimal Heat Exchanger Networks to achieve the previously determined energy budget. This powerful methodology has since been extended to a wide range of applications, such as Mass Integration, Carbon Manage...
Article
In this paper, a recently-established automated targeting model (ATM) for heating utility system is extended to integrate the phase separation system in an oil and gas platform, in order to determine its optimum overall cost. Heating medium is used at the oil and gas platform to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude from the well and to facilitate th...
Article
Heat-integrated water network (HIWN) is an active area of research in the past decade. It focuses on simultaneous saving of energy and water, which are both important resources to enhance sustainability for the process plants. This problem has been previously approached using insight-based pinch analysis and mathematical programming techniques. In...
Article
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Global warming is a major international issue due to rising levels of greenhouse gases such as CO2. Many countries now face the challenge to find cost-effective ways to deploy low-carbon technologies in order to meet commitments to the Paris Agreement. Process systems engineering (PSE) can play an essential role in supporting high-level policy deci...
Article
Treatment of reverse osmosis desalination (ROD) brine has recently been suggested as a means to achieve negative greenhouse gas emissions via indirect ocean capture (IOC) of carbon dioxide. In this paper, a novel scheme that integrates the ROD/IOC process with combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) generation is proposed as a new negative emis...
Article
Water and wastewater services are essential utilities in industrial parks. However, in many parts of the world, pressure from climate change, resource depletion, and economic growth results in water stress that can affect operations of industrial systems. The theme of this Virtual Special Issue (VSI) is to introduce interdisciplinary contributions...
Article
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Due to increasingly stringent legal requirements and escalating environmental control costs, chemical industries have paid close attention to sustainable development without compromising their economic performance. Thus, chemical industries are in need of systematic tools to conduct sustainability assessments of their process/plant design. In order...
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With the growing emphasis on enhancing the sustainability and efficiency of industrial plants, process integration and intensification are gaining additional interest throughout the chemical engineering community [...]
Article
The application of biochar to soil is a potentially significant way to achieve negative net emissions. Photosynthesis fixes carbon from the atmosphere during plant growth; subsequently, pyrolysis stabilizes the carbon in biomass into recalcitrant form, which results in long-term storage when the carbonized product is put in soil. However, effective...
Article
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A palm oil mill produces crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil and other biomass from fresh fruit bunches. Although the milling process is well established in the industry, insufficient research and development reported in optimising and analysing the operations of a palm oil mill. The performance of a palm oil mill (e.g., costs, utilisation and fl...
Article
With increasing emphasis on sustainable development, developing countries are required to adapt more sustainable approaches to energy policy-making. Bioenergy supply chain planning methodologies can provide viable frameworks for policy-making. However, current methodologies lack the ability to simultaneously consider CO 2 emission reduction targets...
Article
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by sequestration of captured CO2 for long-term storage whereas carbon capture and utilization (CCU) offers resource conservation benefits by displacing the need for extracted CO2 from natural sources. The integration of these two results in carbon capture, utilization, and stor...
Chapter
Being the world second largest palm oil producer, Malaysia has a wide range of palm biomass sources generated as by-products from its oil palm industry. These palm biomass resources should be better utilised in order to maximise their potential as high value-added products. This chapter focuses on the synthesis of a biomass supply chain . A simple...
Chapter
Crude palm oil (CPO) is produced in palm oil mills (POMs) using fresh fruit bunches (FFBs), harvested from oil palm plantations. FFB passes through multiple unit operations in the milling process, each consists of different technologies. Palm oil millers have tried to improve the milling technologies collectively and individually to enhance the ext...
Article
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Nigeria has abundant of fossils and renewable energy resources. However, systematic energy planning techniques are desirable to facilitate the sustainable management of these resources. In this work, carbon emission pinch analysis which incorporates macro-level sectorial electricity planning was applied for Nigeria. The minimum renewable targets we...
Article
Optimal synthesis of heat-integrated water network (HIWN) accounts for the simultaneous conservation of the energy and water resources. A significant amount of research work, ranging from complex non-linear formulations to simplified linear models, has been carried out for the synthesis of HIWNs. The incorporation of interception units leads to add...
Article
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Over the past two decades, various process integration tools have been developed for the synthesis of material resource conservation network (RCN), ranging from pinch analysis and mathematical programming techniques. Note, however, that most of these techniques were developed for grassroots design problems. In other words, the process plants are st...
Article
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Utilisation of excess high-grade heat is useful in creating value-added opportunities in a process. In this technical note, cogeneration of steam and power through combined heat and power (CHP) scheme was evaluated for a sulphur acid recovery (SAR) plant based in the UK. The evaluation was performed using a recently established automated targeting...
Article
Heating medium systems uses non-isothermal fluid to transfer heat indirectly to its users. In conventional design, heating medium is distributed to its users (i.e. heat exchangers) in parallel configuration to provide the required heating duties. This design however contributes to the overdesign of heating medium system. In this paper, a recently e...
Article
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Biochar is a potentially scalable negative emission technology (NET). The negative net flow of carbon is achieved sequentially via photosynthesis which fixes atmospheric carbon into biomass, followed by thermochemical processing of biomass into biochar which converts the bulk of the fixed carbon into stable or recalcitrant form, and finally by the...
Article
An algebraic technique based on pinch analysis has been developed for the planning of non-conventional natural gas (NG) field development projects. The development of NG fields with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content has become increasingly common in the oil and gas industry. In such cases, the raw NG needs to be treated in situ for CO2 removal to m...
Article
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Water management will become increasingly critical as the effects of climate change manifest. There are existing water management tools and concepts in current use for both policy and decision-making in industry, but these often look at water issues from the limited perspectives of specific decision-makers who see the problems only at particular sc...
Conference Paper
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Carbon footprint (CF) reduction is done using a graphical technique known as the CF Composite Curves to aid decision making in CF reduction at enterprise level. In this paper, the CF reduction procedure is extended from single product processes to multiple products processes. The CF of shared and independent facilities are analysed. For cases when...
Article
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This paper introduces the generalized Improved Problem Table for flowrate targeting of hydrogen networks with single intermediate header. It consists of a stepwise procedure to locate the minimum flowrate targets for a hydrogen network, i.e., hydrogen utility, hydrogen header, waste hydrogen streams, as well as feed and product streams of purificat...
Article
The United Arab Emirates has recently announced its 2050 Energy Plan, which aims for a 50% clean energy supply. The plan requires diversifying the nation's energy mix and adoption of more renewable energy sources. In addition, climate change and water scarcity issues are key factors to consider towards building an environmentally sustainable future...
Article
Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis is a variant of Pinch Analysis that was developed for macroscale carbon-constrained energy planning problems. It uses carbon intensity as the measure of quality of energy streams to be allocated within a large-scale system. Since its inception, this method has been applied to various systems at different scales, util...
Article
Palm oil mill (POM) requires large amounts of steam and electricity to convert fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) into multiple products. During the extraction of crude palm oil from FFBs, by-products such as empty fruit bunches, palm kernel shell, etc. and palm oil mill effluent are generated. In the past decades, palm oil millers have attempted various i...
Chapter
At present, the shortage of hydrogen resources in refineries is severe and part of the refinery off-gas is used as fuel gas, in which hydrogen and other high value-added components are not fully utilized, resulting in a serious waste of resources. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of resources and minimize the flowrate of hydrogen disc...
Chapter
This paper presents a multi-period mathematical programming model for the planning of unconventional gas field development, taking into account variations in the gas production rates and the gas demand. Based on a superstructure, the model consists of gas flowrate and impurity load balances and operational constraints. The proposed approach is demo...
Chapter
Water and energy are two of the important elements in ensuring sustainability in the process industry. In the past decade, the synthesis of heat-integrated water network has gained good attention among the research community of process system engineering. Various techniques ranging from pinch analysis and mathematical programming have been proposed...