Dominic E Dwyer

Dominic E Dwyer
The University of Sydney · ICPMR

MD, FRACP, FRCPA

About

583
Publications
215,338
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16,383
Citations
Citations since 2016
121 Research Items
7927 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500

Publications

Publications (583)
Article
The long‐term health consequences of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection are still being understood. The molecular and phenotypic properties of SARS‐CoV‐2 antigen‐specific T cells suggest a dysfunctional profile that persists in convalescence in those who were severely ill. By contrast, the antigen‐specific memory B cell (MBC) population has not yet been analysed...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has been essential to inform public health response to outbreaks. The high incidence of infection has resulted in a smaller proportion of cases undergoing whole genome sequencing due to finite resources. We present a framework for estimating the impact of reduced depths of genomic surveillance on the resolution of...
Article
Full-text available
In late November 2021, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.529 the fifth variant of concern, Omicron. This variant has acquired over 30 mutations in the spike protein (with 15 in the receptor-binding domain), raising concerns that Omicron could evade naturally acquired and vaccine-derived immunity. We utilized an aut...
Article
Phagocytic responses by effector cells to opsonized viruses have been recognized to play a key role in antiviral immunity. Limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 suggest that the role of Ab-dependent and -independent phagocytosis may contribute to the observed immunological and inflammatory responses; however, their development, duration, and rol...
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Full-text available
The detection of a new and unexpected Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) outbreak in March 2022 in Australia, where JEV is not endemic, demanded the rapid development of a robust diagnostic framework to facilitate the testing of suspected patients across the state of New South Wales (NSW). This nascent but comprehensive JEV diagnostic service encomp...
Article
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In order to rapidly differentiate sublineages BA.1 and BA.2 of the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron, we developed a real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to target the discriminatory spike protein deletion at amino acid position 69–70 (S:del69–70). Compared to the gold standard of whole genome sequencing, the candidate assa...
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The unprecedented emergence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in mainland Australia represents an outbreak of high clinical and public health significance. JE is a zoonosis spread by mosquitoes and is one of the most important causes of endemic viral encephalitis in South-East Asia and the Indian subcontinent. While occasional cases of human Japanese e...
Article
Full-text available
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection with the most severe disease in the young and elderly. Non-pharmaceutical interventions and travel restrictions for controlling COVID-19 have impacted the circulation of most respiratory viruses including RSV globally, particularly in Australia, where durin...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of resistance to antiviral drugs increasingly used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections has been recognised as a significant threat to COVID-19 control. In addition, some SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern appear to be intrinsically resistant to several classes of these antiviral agents. Therefore, there is a critical need for rapid recognition...
Article
Background: Since November 2021, a new variant of concern (VOC), the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.1.529 (Omicron) has emerged as the dominant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection worldwide. We describe the clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes in a cohort of kidney and kidney pancrea...
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Full-text available
Co-infections with different variants of SARS-CoV-2 are a key precursor to recombination events that are likely to drive SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Rapid identification of such co-infections is required to determine their frequency in the community, particularly in populations at-risk of severe COVID-19, which have already been identified as incubators...
Article
Influenza is a common cause of acute respiratory infection, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2019 influenza season. The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that opera...
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Full-text available
Responses to the early (February–July 2020) COVID-19 pandemic varied widely, globally. Reasons for this are multiple but likely relate to the healthcare and financial resources then available, and the degree of trust in, and economic support provided by, national governments. Cultural factors also affected how different populations reacted to the v...
Article
Introduction: Influenza is a common cause of acute respiratory infection, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infection that emerged as a pandemic worldwide before the start of the 2020 Australian influenza season. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations w...
Research
Full-text available
Research Title: “The HIV strains infecting the Fijian population including the resistant variants after the introduction of ART”. Authors: Filimone Raikanikoda, Dominic E. Dwyer, Choo B. Chew; 2008. Abstract Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in the late nineteen-nineties, there has...
Preprint
Full-text available
We identified the co-infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta variants in two epidemiologically unrelated patients with chronic kidney disease requiring haemodialysis. Both SARS-CoV-2 variants were co-circulating locally at the time of detection. Amplicon- and probe-based sequencing using short- and long-read technologies identified and quanti...
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Background As of mid-2021, Australia’s only nation-wide COVID-19 epidemic occurred in the first six months of the pandemic. Subsequently there has been limited transmission in most states and territories. Understanding community spread during the first wave was hampered by initial limitations on testing and surveillance. To characterize the prevale...
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Understanding the long-term maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 immunity is critical for predicting protection against reinfection. In an age and gender matched cohort of 24 participants, the association of disease severity and early immune responses on the maintenance of humoral immunity 12 months post-infection is examined. All severely affected participan...
Article
Timely and accurate diagnostic testing is a critical component of the public health response to COVID-19. Antigen tests are used widely in many countries to provide rapid, economical and accessible point-of-care testing (1). The vast majority of antigen tests detect nucleocapsid (N) protein, a structural protein that displays less variation than th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phagocytic responses by effector cells to antibody or complement-opsonised viruses have been recognized to play a key role in anti-viral immunity. These include antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis mediated via Fc-receptors, phagocytosis mediated by classically activated complement-fixing IgM or IgG1 antibodies and antibody independent phagocyt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have received emergency use authorisation by regulatory agencies for treatment and prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), including in patients at risk for progression to severe disease. Here we report the persistence of viable...
Preprint
Full-text available
In late November 2021, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.529 the fifth variant of concern, Omicron. This variant has acquired 15 mutations in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein, raising concerns that Omicron could evade naturally acquired and vaccine-derived immunity. We utilized an authentic virus, m...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To adapt ‘fishplots’ to describe real-time evolution of SARS-CoV-2 genomic clusters. Results This novel analysis adapted the fishplot to depict the size and duration of circulating genomic clusters over time in New South Wales, Australia. It illuminated the effectiveness of interventions on the emergence, spread and eventual elimination...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In May 2020, The Communicable Diseases Network of Australia (CDNA) case definition introduced serological criteria to support the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We present findings that support the utility of SARS-CoV-2-specific serology for public health investigations. Methods: From 24 Jan...
Article
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Pandemic dynamics and health care responses are markedly different during the COVID-19 pandemic than in earlier outbreaks. Compared with established infectious disease such as influenza, we currently know relatively little about the origin, reservoir, cross-species transmission and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Health care services, drug availability, l...
Article
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Authors of the March WHO report into how COVID-19 emerged warn that further delay makes crucial inquiry biologically difficult
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen. In temperate regions, a distinct seasonality is observed, where peaks of infections typically occur in early winter, often preceding the annual influenza season. Infections are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality and in some populations exceed that of in...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance has been vital in understanding the spread of COVID-19, the emergence of viral escape mutants and variants of concern. However, low viral loads in clinical specimens affect variant calling for phylogenetic analyses and detection of low frequency variants, important in uncovering infection transmission chains. We syst...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) with the most severe disease in the young and elderly. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and travel restrictions for controlling COVID-19 have impacted the circulation of most respiratory viruses including RSV globally, particularly in Australia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: To adapt ‘fishplots’ to describe SARS-CoV-2 genomic cluster evolution. Results: This novel analysis adapted the fishplot to depict the size and duration of circulating genomic clusters over time in New South Wales, Australia. It illuminated the effectiveness of interventions on the emergence, spread and eventual elimination of clusters a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Rhinoviruses (RV) represent the most common aetiological agent of all acute respiratory tract infections across all age groups and a significant burden of disease among children. Recent studies have shown that RV-A and RV-C species are associated with increased disease severity. In order to better understand potential associations betw...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance has been vital in understanding the spread of COVID-19, the emergence of viral escape mutants and variants of concern. However, low viral loads in clinical specimens affect variant calling for phylogenetic analyses and detection of low frequency variants, important in uncovering infection transmission chains. We syst...
Article
Full-text available
Many viruses cause seasonal respiratory infections in temperate climates that peak in the winter months. They cause varying degrees of respiratory illness across all age groups, and include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (types 1‐4), human metapneumovirus, rhinoviruses, seasonal coronaviruses (OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1), ente...
Article
Full-text available
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease in individuals of all ages. It is estimated that most individuals will be infected by HMPV by the age of five years old. Despite this burden of disease, there remain caveats in our knowledge of global genetic diversity due to a lack of HMPV sequencing, p...
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Full-text available
Considerable concerns relating to the duration of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 exist, with evidence of antibody titres declining rapidly after infection and reports of reinfection. Here we monitor the antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) for up to six months after infection. While antibody titres are maintai...
Article
Objectives: To estimate SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody seroprevalence after the first epidemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Sydney. Setting, participants: People of any age who had provided blood for testing at selected diagnostic pathology services (general pathology); pregnant women aged 20-39 years who had received routine ant...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV‐1) pandemic is characterized by numerous distinct sub‐epidemics (clusters) that continually fuel local transmission. The aims of this study were to identify active growing clusters, to understand which factors most influence the transmission dynamics, how these vary between different subtypes and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 antibody neutralization response and its evasion by emerging viral variants are unknown. Antibody immunoreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 antigens and Spike variants, inhibition of Spike-driven virus-cell fusion, and infectious SARS-CoV-2 neutralization were characterized in 807 serial samples from 233 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 individua...
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Full-text available
Changes over time in HIV-1 subtype diversity within a population reflect changes in factors influencing the development of local epidemics. Here we report on the genetic diversity of 2364 reverse transcriptase sequences from people living with HIV-1 in New South Wales (NSW) notified between 2004 and 2018. These data represent >70% of all new HIV-1...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease pandemic was declared in March 2020, as the southern hemisphere’s winter approached. Australia expected co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, influenza and other seasonal respiratory viruses. However, influenza notifications were 7,029 (March–September) compared with an average 149,832 for the sa...
Preprint
Background Rhinoviruses (RV) represent the most common aetiological agent of all acute respiratory tract infections across all age groups and a significant burden of disease among children. Recent studies have shown that RV-A and RV-C species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity and clinical symptoms. Methods In this study, we un...
Article
Full-text available
A second cluster of COVID-19 cases imported from Europe occured in Vietnam from early March 2020. We describe 44 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients (cycle threshold value <30) admitted to the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi between March 6 and April 15 2020. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from these patients were sequenced using Illumin...
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Full-text available
Background On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization recognised clusters of pneumonia‐like cases due to a novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19). COVID‐19 became a pandemic 71 days later. Aim To report the clinical and epidemiological features, laboratory data and outcomes of the first group of 11 returned travellers with COVID‐19 in Austra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen. In temperate regions a distinct seasonality is observed, where peaks of infections typically occur in early winter, often preceding the annual influenza season. Infections are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, and in some populations exceeds that of i...
Article
Full-text available
Background The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in respiratory samples collected from persons recovered from COVID-19 does not necessarily indicate shedding of infective virions. By contrast, the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 using cell-based culture likely indicates infectivity, but there are limited data on the c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Considerable concerns relating to the duration of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 have been raised, with evidence of antibody titres declining rapidly after infection and reports of reinfection. Here we monitored antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) for up to six months after infection. While antibody titres we...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In this large-scale cluster-randomized controlled trial (cRCT) we sought to assess the effectiveness of facemasks against viral respiratory infections. Methods and results: Over three consecutive Hajj seasons (2013, 2014, 2015) pilgrims' tents in Makkah were allocated to 'facemask' or 'no facemask' group. Fifty facemasks were offered...
Article
Full-text available
In January 2020, a novel betacoronavirus (family Coronaviridae), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the etiological agent of a cluster of pneumonia cases occurring in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China1,2. The disease arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), subsequent...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the analytic and clinical performance of four rapid lateral flow point-of-care tests (POCTs) for identifying SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A retrospective study was conducted between 22 January and 30 March 2020 on 132 serum samples for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody detection referred to a tertiary referral hosp...
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Full-text available
Background Testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies has become an important tool, complementing nucleic acid tests (NATs) for diagnosis and for determining the prevalence of COVID-19 in population serosurveys. The magnitude and persistence of antibody responses are critical for assessing the duration of immunity. Methods A SARS-CoV-2-specific im...
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Full-text available
Objective To determine population-level immunity to mumps in Australia. Methods We tested randomly selected specimens from people aged 1–49 years using the Enzygnost anti-parotitis IgG enzyme immunoassay from an opportunistically collected serum bank in 2012–2013. Weighted estimates of the proportion seropositive and equivocal for mumps-specific Ig...
Article
Background School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, empiric data on transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and in educational settings are scarce. In Australia, most schools have remained open during the first epidemic wave, albeit with reduced student physica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in respiratory samples collected from persons recovered from COVID-19 does not necessarily indicate shedding of infective virions. By contrast, the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 using cell-based culture likely indicates infectivity, but there are limited data on the corre...
Article
Full-text available
There are few published data on the protection of masks or respirators against coronavirus infections. This is an important research question to inform the response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The transmission modes of human coronaviruses are similar, thought to be by droplet, contact and sometimes airborne routes. There are several randomised clinic...
Article
Full-text available
Herpes zoster (shingles) is a painful condition resulting from reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). The Australian National Shingles Vaccination Program (commenced November 2016) provides free herpes zoster vaccination for eligible adults aged 70 years, with a 5-year catch-up program (until October 2021) for adults aged 71–79 years....
Preprint
Full-text available
Community transmission of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a major public health concern that remains difficult to assess. We present a genomic survey of SARS-CoV-2 from a during the first 10 weeks of COVID-19 activity in New South Wales, Australia. Transmission events were monitored prospectively during the critical period of implementation of na...