Dolph Schluter

Dolph Schluter
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Biodiversity Research Centre and Zoology Department

About

240
Publications
86,579
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Introduction
Dolph Schluter currently works at the Biodiversity Research Centre and Zoology Department, University of British Columbia - Vancouver.

Publications

Publications (240)
Article
Full-text available
Speciation is the process by which barriers to gene flow evolve between populations. Although we now know that speciation is largely driven by natural selection, knowledge of the agents of selection and the genetic and genomic mechanisms that facilitate divergence is required for a satisfactory theory of speciation. In this essay, we highlight thre...
Article
In contrast to ecological speciation, where reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection, speciation by parallel natural selection has been less thoroughly studied. To test whether parallel evolution drives speciation, we leveraged the repeated evolution of benthic and limnetic ecotypes of threespine stickleback fi...
Article
It is thought that two species can coexist if they use different resources present in the environment, yet this assumes that species are completely reproductively isolated. We simulate coexistence outcomes for two sympatric species that are ecologically differentiated but have incomplete reproductive isolation. The consequences of interbreeding cru...
Article
Full-text available
A solitary population of consumers frequently evolves to the middle of a resource gradient and an intermediate mean phenotype compared to a sympatric pair of competing species that diverge to either side via character displacement. The forces governing the distribution of phenotypes in these allopatric populations, however, are little investigated....
Article
Full-text available
Where is evolution fastest? The biotic interactions hypothesis proposes that greater species richness creates more ecological opportunity, driving faster evolution at low latitudes, whereas the ‘empty niches’ hypothesis proposes that ecological opportunity is greater where diversity is low, spurring faster evolution at high latitudes. We tested the...
Preprint
In contrast to ecological speciation, where reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection, speciation by parallel natural selection has been less thoroughly studied. To test whether parallel evolution drives speciation, we leveraged the repeated evolution of benthic and limnetic ecotypes of threespine stickleback fi...
Article
Why are speciation rates so variable across the tree of life? One hypothesis is that this variation is explained by how rapidly reproductive barriers evolve. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a comparative study of the evolution of bird song, a premating barrier to reproduction. Speciation in birds is typically initiated when geographically i...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid incompatibilities occur when interactions between opposite ancestry alleles at different loci reduce the fitness of hybrids. Most work on incompatibilities has focused on those that are “intrinsic,” meaning they affect viability and sterility in the laboratory. Theory predicts that ecological selection can also underlie hybrid incompatibilit...
Article
Full-text available
Selection against mismatched traits in hybrids is the phenotypic analogue of intrinsic hybrid incompatibilities. Mismatch occurs when hybrids resemble one parent population for some phenotypic traits and the other parent population for other traits, and is caused by dominance in opposing directions or from segregation of alleles in recombinant hybr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid technological improvements are democratizing access to high quality, chromosome-scale genome assemblies. No longer the domain of only the most highly studied model organisms, now non-traditional and emerging model species can be genome-enabled using a combination of sequencing technologies and assembly software. Consequently, old ideas built...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hybrid incompatibilities occur when interactions between opposite-ancestry alleles at different loci reduce the fitness of hybrids. Most work on incompatibilities has focused on those that are 'intrinsic', meaning they affect viability and sterility in the laboratory. Theory predicts that ecological selection can also underlie hybrid incompatibilit...
Article
Global change is altering ecosystems at an unprecedented rate. The resulting shifts in species ranges and reproductive timing are opening the potential for hybridization between closely related species which could dramatically alter the genetic diversity, adaptive capacity and evolutionary trajectory of interbreeding taxa. Here, we used behavioural...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is thought that two species can coexist if they use different resources present in the environment, yet this assumes that species are completely reproductively isolated. Closely related species often interbreed, raising the question of how this might affect coexistence. We model coexistence outcomes for two sympatric species that are ecologicall...
Article
Significance The role of mutations of large effect in adaptive evolution is a question of enduring interest. Large-effect mutations were once seen as unlikely contributors to adaptation, but we now have numerous examples. A major shortcoming of the evidence is the lack of information on fitness effects of mutations. We conducted a quantitative trai...
Article
Speciation is frequently initiated but rarely completed, a phenomenon hypothesized to arise due to the failure of nascent lineages to persist. Although a failure to persist often has ecological causes, key gaps exist between ecological and evolutionary theories that, if filled, would clarify when and why speciation succeeds or fails. Here, we apply...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fitness of hybrids is a critical determinant of gene flow between hybridizing populations. If hybrid phenotypes change predictably as parental populations become increasingly divergent, this could provide insight into general mechanisms linking ecological divergence with reproductive isolation. In this study, we used threespine stickleback fish...
Article
Compared to those of their parents, are the traits of first-generation (F1) hybrids typically intermediate, biased toward one parent, or mismatched for alternative parental phenotypes? To address this empirical gap, we compiled data from 233 crosses in which traits were measured in a common environment for two parent taxa and their F1 hybrids. We f...
Article
Are biotic interactions stronger in the tropics? Here, we investigate nest predation in birds, a canonical example of a strong tropical biotic interaction. Counter to expectations, daily rates of nest predation vary minimally with latitude. However, life-history traits that influence nest predation have diverged between latitudes. For example, trop...
Preprint
Full-text available
Where is evolution fastest? The biotic interactions hypothesis proposes that greater species richness creates more ecological opportunity, driving faster evolution at low latitudes, whereas the "empty niches" hypothesis proposes that ecological opportunity is greater where diversity is low, spurring faster evolution at high latitudes. Here we test...
Article
Full-text available
Species interactions are widely thought to be strongest in the tropics, potentially contributing to the greater number of species at lower latitudes. Yet, empirical tests of this “biotic interactions” hypothesis remain limited and often provide mixed results. Here, we analyze 55 years of catch per unit effort data from pelagic longline fisheries to...
Article
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Understanding why some species accumulate more deleterious substitutions than others is an important question relevant in evolutionary biology and conservation sciences. Previous studies conducted in terrestrial taxa suggest that life history traits correlate with the efficiency of purifying selection and accumulation of deleterious mutations. Usin...
Preprint
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Background: Understanding why species go extinct has become a major goal of evolutionary biology. Recent studies have suggested that both species traits and rates of evolution might predict extinction probability in a changing world. Here, we tested whether species conservation status correlates with recent rates of niche evolution within their lin...
Article
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Adaptive radiation plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the evolutionary process. However, the concept has provoked strong and differing opinions concerning its definition and nature among researchers studying a wide diversity of systems. Here, we take a broad view of what constitutes an adaptive radiation, and seek to find commonalitie...
Article
The processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation are often strongly shaped by biotic interactions such as competition and predation. One of the strongest lines of evidence that biotic interactions drive evolution comes from the repeated divergence of lineages in association with repeated changes in the community of interacting species. Y...
Preprint
Full-text available
Are first-generation (F 1 ) hybrids typically intermediate for all traits that differentiate their parents? Or are they similar to one parent for most traits, or even mismatched for divergent traits? Although the phenotype of otherwise viable and fertile hybrids determines their fate, little is known about the general patterns, predictors, and cons...
Preprint
Full-text available
The processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation are often strongly shaped by biotic interactions such as competition and predation. One of the strongest lines of evidence that biotic interactions drive evolution comes from repeated divergence of lineages in association with repeated changes in the community of interacting species. Yet,...
Article
Full-text available
The genes underlying adaptations are becoming known, yet the causes of selection on genes—a key step in the study of the genetics of adaptation—remains uncertain. We address this issue experimentally in a threespine stickleback species pair showing exaggerated divergence in bony defensive armor in association with competition‐driven character displ...
Article
Full-text available
Does competition influence patterns of coexistence between closely related taxa? Here we address this question by analyzing patterns of range overlap between related species of birds (‘sister pairs’) co‐occurring on a tropical elevational gradient. We explicitly contrast the behavioral dimension of interspecific competition (interference competitio...
Article
As humans cause the redistribution of species ranges, hybridization between previously allopatric species is on the rise. Such hybridization can have complex effects on overall fitness of native species as new allelic combinations are tested. Widespread species introductions provide a unique opportunity to study selection on introgressed alleles in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The biotic interactions hypothesis proposes that stronger interspecific interactions in the tropics drive faster evolution and speciation, giving rise to the latitudinal diversity gradient. This hypothesis has inspired many tests of whether certain biotic interactions are indeed stronger in the tropics. However, the possibility that populations hav...
Article
Full-text available
Biotic interactions are potent, widespread causes of natural selection and divergent phenotypic evolution and can lead to genetic differentiation with gene flow among wild populations ("isolation by ecology") [1-4]. Biotic selection has been predicted to act on more genes than abiotic selection thereby driving greater adaptation [5]. However, diffi...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation often proceeds from standing variation, and natural selection acting on pairs of populations is a quantitative continuum ranging from parallel to divergent. Yet, it is unclear how the extent of parallel genetic evolution during adaptation from standing variation is affected by the difference in the direction of selection between populati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Does competition influence patterns of coexistence between closely related taxa? Here we address this basic question in ecology by analyzing patterns of range overlap between related bird species (sister pairs) distributed along a Neotropical elevational gradient. We explicitly contrast the behavioral dimension of interspecific competition (interfe...
Article
Full-text available
Evolution generates a remarkable breadth of living forms, but many traits evolve repeatedly, by mechanisms that are still poorly understood. A classic example of repeated evolution is the loss of pelvic hindfins in stickleback fish ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ). Repeated pelvic loss maps to recurrent deletions of a pelvic enhancer of the Pitx1 gene. H...
Article
Many outstanding questions about speciation are difficult to test empirically because of a lack of suitable study systems. Here, we highlight studies of evolutionary ecology in urban environments to argue that cities provide ideal conditions that can be leveraged to study the speciation process. Considering general findings from these studies, we d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adaptation often proceeds via the sorting of standing variation, and natural selection acting on pairs of populations is a quantitative continuum ranging from parallel to divergent. Yet, it is unclear how the extent of parallel genetic evolution during adaptation from standing variation is affected by the difference in the direction of selection be...
Article
Ionoregulation in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus has been intensively studied over the last two decades using a variety of techniques. However, there has been limited use of pharmacological inhibitors to identify proteins involved in ion transport for this species. In this study, we used a range of pharmacological inhibitors (EIPA,...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanisms by which the abiotic and biotic requirements of species, or ecological niches, change over time is a central issue in evolutionary biology. Niche evolution is poorly understood at both the macroecological and macroevolutionary scales, as niches can shift over short periods of time but appear to change more slowly over l...
Article
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In the version of this Article originally published, in Fig. 3a the first boundary was incorrectly labelled the “K/T boundary”; it should have read the “K/Pg boundary”. The two equations in the main text were incorrectly omitted from the HTML. In the description of the posterior distribution of an ancestral state, the normal distribution was incorr...
Article
Character displacement is one of the most studied phenomena in evolutionary biology, yet research has narrowly focused on demonstrating whether or not displacement has occurred. We propose a new experimental approach, adopted from the coexistence literature, that directly measures interspecific competition among sympatric and allopatric populations...
Article
Ecological speciation with gene flow is widespread in nature [1], but it presents a conundrum: how are associations between traits under divergent natural selection and traits that contribute to assortative mating maintained? Theoretical models suggest that genetic mechanisms inhibiting free recombination between loci underlying these two types of...
Article
Full-text available
Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that 1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and 2) behavioral discrimin...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to new environments often occurs in the face of gene flow. Under these conditions,gene flow and recombination can impede adaptation by breaking down linkage disequilibrium between locally adapted alleles. Theory predicts that this decay can be halted or slowed if adaptive alleles are tightly linked in regions of low recombination, potent...
Article
Global patterns of biodiversity are influenced by spatial and environmental variations in the rate at which new species form. We relate variations in speciation rates to six key patterns of biodiversity worldwide, including the species-area relationship, latitudinal gradients in species and genetic diversity, and between-habitat differences in spec...
Article
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Mechanisms of natural selection can be identified using experimental approaches. However, such experiments often yield non-significant effects and imprecise estimates of selection due to low power and small sample sizes. Combining results from multiple experimental studies might produce an aggregate estimate of selection that is more revealing than...
Article
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Evolution is recognized as the source of all organisms, and hence many ecosystem services. However, the role that contemporary evolution might play in maintaining and enhancing specific ecosystem services has largely been overlooked. Recent advances at the interface of ecology and evolution have demonstrated how contemporary evolution can shape eco...
Article
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Background: Studying how trophic traits and niche use are related in natural populations is important in order to understand adaptation and specialization. Here, we describe trophic trait diversity in twenty-five Norwegian freshwater threespine stickleback populations and their putative marine ancestor, and relate trait differences to postglacial...
Article
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Vision is a sensory modality of fundamental importance for many animals, aiding in foraging, detection of predators and mate choice. Adaptation to local ambient light conditions is thought to be commonplace, and a match between spectral sensitivity and light spectrum is predicted. We use opsin gene expression to test for local adaptation and matchi...
Article
Full-text available
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding acros...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which convergent adaptation to similar ecological niches occurs by a predictable genetic basis remains a fundamental question in biology. Threespine stickleback fish have undergone an adaptive radiation in which ancestral oceanic populations repeatedly colonized and adapted to freshwater habitats. In multiple lakes in British Columbia...
Article
The addition of predators can play a key role in structuring ecological communities through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects. Stocking of piscivorous fish in lakes and similar experimental introductions have provided fundamental evidence in support of trophic cascade theory. Yet, the impact of piscivore addition on cross ecosystem subsi...
Article
Young species are highly prone to extinction via increased gene flow after human-caused environmental changes [1-6]. This mechanism of biodiversity loss, often termed reverse speciation or introgressive extinction, is of exceptional interest because the parent species are typically highly differentiated ecologically. Reverse speciation events are p...
Article
Evolutionary hypotheses to explain the greater numbers of species in the tropics than the temperate zone include greater age and area, higher temperature and metabolic rates, and greater ecological opportunity. These ideas make contrasting predictions about the relationship between speciation processes and latitude, which I elaborate and evaluate....
Article
Full-text available
Intraguild predation is a common ecological interaction that occurs when a species preys upon another species with which it competes. The interaction is potentially a mechanism of divergence between intraguild prey populations, but it is unknown if cases of character shifts in intraguild prey are an environmental or evolutionary response. We invest...
Article
Full-text available
How predictable is the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation? Answering this question begins by estimating the repeatability of adaptation at the genetic level. Here, we provide a comprehensive estimate of the repeatability of the genetic basis of adaptive phenotypic evolution in a natural system. We used quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibria, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract When a signature of natural selection is discovered on a gene that is pleiotropic or in tight linkage with other genes, it is challenging to determine which of the affected phenotypes is under selection. One way to make progress is to employ methods for analyzing natural selection on correlated traits, including both genotype and phenotype...
Article
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Developmental genetic studies of evolved differences in morphology have led to the hypothesis that cis-regulatory changes often underlie morphological evolution. However, because most of these studies focus on evolved loss of traits, the genetic architecture and possible association with cis-regulatory changes of gain traits are less understood. He...
Article
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Uncovering factors that shape variation in brain morphology remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Recently, it has been shown that brain size is positively associated with level of parental care behavior in various taxa. One explanation for this pattern is that the cognitive demands of performing complex parental care may require incre...
Data
Table S1. Site information and number of threespine sticklebacks collected at the five locations examined in this study.
Data
Figure S1. Standard lengths of male and female fish from seven Canadian populations of threespine stickleback.
Data
Figure S2. Dry brain weights for two Canadian populations of sticklebacks (population information available in Table S1).