Dirk Werling

Dirk Werling
Royal Veterinary College | RVC · Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences

DrMedVet, PhD

About

297
Publications
51,768
Reads
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5,157
Citations
Introduction
My current main research interest is the ontogeny of the innate immune system in different species, the importance of SNP in innate immune receptors for ligand binding, the activation of the innate immune response, esp the activation of the inflammasome, and how we can use our knowledge regarding the innate immune system to design new/optimise existing vaccine strategies.
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - January 2003
Universität Bern
Position
  • Research Assistant
February 1999 - December 2000
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Group Leader
October 1996 - February 1999
The Pirbright Institute
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (297)
Preprint
Full-text available
Cheap, easy-to-produce oral vaccines are needed for control of coccidiosis in chickens to reduce the impact of this disease on welfare and economic performance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast expressing three Eimeria tenella antigens were developed and delivered as heat-killed, freeze-dried whole yeast oral vaccines to chickens in four separate stu...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests that several cattle breeds may be more resistant to infection with the zoonotic pathogen Mycobacterium bovis . Our data presented here suggests that the response to mycobacterial antigens varies in macrophages generated from Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle, two breeds belonging to the Bos taurus family. W...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) show distinct host adaptations, preferences and phenotypes despite being >99% identical at the nucleic acid level. Previous studies have explored gene expression changes between the members, however few studies have probed differences in gene essentiality. To better understand the functional...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tuberculosis has severe impacts in both humans and animals. Understanding the genetic basis of survival of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the human adapted species, and Mycobacterium bovis , the animal adapted species is crucial to deciphering the biology of both pathogens. There are several studies that identify the genes required for survival...
Article
This is the first report of the genetic requirements of an animal-adapted member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in a natural host. M. bovis has devastating impacts on cattle, and bovine tuberculosis is a considerable economic, animal welfare, and public health concern. The data highlight the importance of mycobacterial cholesterol...
Article
Full-text available
Cheap, easy-to-produce oral vaccines are needed for control of coccidiosis in chickens to reduce the impact of this disease on welfare and economic performance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast expressing three Eimeria tenella antigens were developed and delivered as heat-killed, freeze-dried whole yeast oral vaccines to chickens in four separate stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies have identified many immune pathways which are consistently altered in humans and model organisms as they age. Dairy cows are often culled at quite young ages due to an inability to cope adequately with metabolic and infectious diseases, resulting in reduced milk production and infertility. Improved longevity is therefor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) show distinct host adaptations, preferences and phenotypes despite being >99% identical at the nucleic acid level. Previous studies have explored gene expression changes between the members, however few studies have probed differences in gene essentiality. To better understand the functional...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests that several cattle breeds may be more resistant to infection with the zoonotic pathogen Mycobacterium bovis than others. Our data presented here suggests that the response to mycobacterial antigens varies in macrophages generated from Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein Frisian (HF) cattle, two breeds belonging to the Bos taurus...
Article
Full-text available
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The live attenuated C-strain vaccine is highly efficacious, initiating protection within several days of delivery. The vaccine strain is detected in the tonsil early after inoculation, yet little is known of the role that tonsillar immune ce...
Article
Full-text available
East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by the tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, remains one of the most important livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa with more than 1 million cattle dying from infection every year. Disease prevention relies on the so-called "Infection and Treatment Method" (ITM), which is costly, complex, laborious, di...
Article
Full-text available
The recent increase in new technologies to analyze host-pathogen interaction has fostered a race to develop new methodologies to assess these not only on the cellular level, but also on the tissue level. Due to mouse-other mammal differences, there is a desperate need to develop relevant tissue models that can more closely recapitulate the host tis...
Article
Full-text available
Neuromodulation of immune function by stimulating the autonomic connections to the spleen has been demonstrated in rodent models. Consequently, neuroimmune modulation has been proposed as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. However, demonstration of the translation of these immunomodulatory mechanisms in anatomi...
Chapter
This chapter considers different vaccination strategies and important concepts for monitoring vaccine performance in the field, including vaccine coverage, herd immunity, and vaccine effectiveness studies. Where infectious agents are endemic, with a high risk of exposure to infection, vaccination may be used to protect individual groups or animals...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, is classified as subclinical or clinical. Circulating neutrophils are recruited to the udder to combat infection. We compared the transcriptomic profiles in circulating leukocytes between healthy cows and those with naturally occurring subclinical or clinical mastitis. Holstein Friesian...
Preprint
Full-text available
Canine Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic multifactorial disease, resulting from complex interactions between the intestinal immune system, microbiota and environmental factors in genetically predisposed dogs. Previously, we identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and regions on chromosomes (Chr) 7, 9, 11 and 13 associat...
Article
Full-text available
Neuromodulation of the immune system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of near-organ autonomic nerves to the spleen can be harnessed to modulate the inflammatory response in an anesthetized pig model. The development of neuromodulation therapy fo...
Article
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the underlying pathogen causing bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), an enteric granulomatous disease that mainly affects ruminants and for which an effective treatment is needed. Macrophages are the primary target cells for Map, which survives and replicates intracellularly by inhibiting phagosome mat...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the underlying pathogen causing bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), an enteric granulomatous disease that mainly affects ruminants and for which an effective treatment is needed. Macrophages are the primary target cells for Map, which survives and replicates intracellularly by inhibiting phagosome mat...
Article
Full-text available
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammals. MTBC species are distinguished by their ability to sustain in distinct host populations. While Mycobacterium bovis (Mbv) sustains transmission cycles in cattle and wild animals and causes zoonotic TB, M . tuberculosis (Mtb) affects...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the underlying pathogen causing bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), an enteric granulomatous disease that mainly affects ruminants and for which an effective treatment is needed. Macrophages are the primary target cells for Map, which survives and replicates intracellularly by inhibiting phagosome mat...
Article
Full-text available
Eimeria species parasites infect the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, causing disease and impacting on production. The poultry industry relies on anticoccidial drugs and live vaccines to control Eimeria and there is a need for novel, scalable alternatives. Understanding the outcomes of experimental infection in commercial chickens is valuable fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by the tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, remains one of the most important livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa with more than 1 million cattle dying from infection every year. Disease prevention relies on the so-called Infection and Treatment Method (ITM), which is costly, complex, laborious, diff...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) constitutively express the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 and have been shown to generate Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon exposure to Eimeria bovis. The present work investigated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the recognition and uptake of E. bovis sporozoites, IL-8 producti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the underlying pathogen causing bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), an enteric granulomatous disease that mainly affects ruminants and for which an effective treatment is needed. Macrophages are the primary target cells for Map, which survives and replicates intracellularly by inhibiting phagosome mat...
Article
Full-text available
Intranasal vaccinations are becoming more important in both human and animal medicine to generate a localized IgA immune response not seen with parenteral vaccinations. This localized IgA response is more effective at reducing pathogen load on the mucosal surface of a potential host. One prerequisite for a successful nasal vaccination is the need t...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium bovis is the main cause of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in cattle and it also can infect humans. Zebu cattle are considered more resistant to some infectious diseases compared to Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, including BTB. However, epidemiological studies do not necessarily take into account usage differences of the two types of cattle...
Article
Full-text available
Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial growth. Therefore, bacteria have evolved chelation mechanisms to acquire iron for their survival. Enterobactin, a chelator with high affinity for ferric iron, is secreted by Escherichia coli and contributes to its improved bacterial fitness. In this preliminary study, we evaluated enterobactin deficiency...
Article
Full-text available
Leptospira (L.) interrogans are invasive bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis. They possess two periplasmic endoflagellae that allow their motility. L. interrogans are stealth pathogens that escape the innate immune recognition of the NOD-like receptors NOD1/2, and the human Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, which senses peptidogly...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB). MTBC species are distinguished by their ability to sustain in distinct host populations. While Mycobacterium bovis (Mbv) sustains transmission cycles in cattle and wild animals and causes zoonotic TB, M. tuberculosis (Mtb) affects human popul...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a chronic zoonotic disease where host genetic is thought to contribute to susceptibility or resistance. One of the genes implicated is the SLC11A1 gene, that encodes for the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1). The aim of this study was to identify SLC11A1 polymorp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Leptospira interrogans are invasive bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis. They possess two periplasmic endoflagella that allow their motility. L. interrogans are stealth pathogens that escape the innate immune responses of the NOD-like receptors NOD1/2, and the human Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, sensing peptidoglycan and lipop...
Article
The innate immune system is activated upon virus invasion of a host cell by recognizing viral component, such as dsRNA through specific receptors, resulting in the production of type- I IFNs, which confer an antiviral state within the invaded as well as surrounding cells. In the present study, fibroblast, monocyte and macrophage cells derived from...
Article
Full-text available
Many members of the C-type lectin family of glycan-binding receptors have been ascribed roles in the recognition of microorganisms and serve as key receptors in the innate immune response to pathogens. Other mammalian receptors have become targets through which pathogens enter target cells. These receptor roles have often been documented with bindi...
Article
Full-text available
Eimeria infection impacts upon chicken welfare and economic productivity of the poultry sector. Live coccidiosis vaccines for chickens have been available for almost 70 years, but the requirement to formulate blends of oocysts from multiple Eimeria species makes vaccine production costly and logistically demanding. A multivalent vaccine that does n...
Article
Full-text available
Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) at both the individual cow and the herd level has become a key target in dairy production systems, for both environmental and economic reasons. Cost-effective and large-scale phenotyping methods are required to improve NUE through genetic selection and by feeding and management strategies. The aim of this stu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with 305‐day milk yield and lactation curve parameters on primiparous (n = 9,910) and multiparous (n = 11,158) Holstein cows. The SNP solutions were estimated using a weighted single‐step genomic BLUP approach and imputed high‐density panel (777k) genotypes. The proportion of genetic...
Article
Full-text available
CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor found on B lymphocytes and other cells, contains a C-terminal lectin-like domain that resembles C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) found in many glycan-binding receptors. In most mammalian species, the CD23 residues required to form a sugar-binding site are present, although binding of CD23 to IgE doe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Canine chronic enteropathies (CE) are a group of intestinal diseases that can be categorized based on treatment response into diet- or food- responsive enteropathy (FRD), antibiotic-responsive enteropathy, steroid-responsive enteropathy, and non-responsive enteropathy. CE can often be associated with intestinal dysbiosis and thus admini...
Article
In periparturient dairy cows, immune suppression, resulting in decreased neutrophil numbers and function, leads to increased susceptibility to postpartum conditions such as mastitis, retained placenta, and metritis. Administration of polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (pegbovigrastim, Imrestor; Elanco Animal...
Article
Full-text available
Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, represents one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. Macrophages (MØs) are mediators of the innate immune response against infection and likely one of the first cells encountered by the parasite during the host infection process. In this study, we investigated in vitro...
Article
The aim of this study was to describe metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows by clustering cows based on glucose, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), free fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) using the k-means method. Predictive models for metabolic clusters were created and validated using 3 sets of milk biomarkers (milk metabolites and enz...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii is responsible for one of the most prevalent infections in people. T. gondii profilin (TgPr) is a protein integral to parasite movement and cellular invasion. Murine TLRs has been described to bind TgPr. Furthermore, more recently, human TLR5 has been described to recognise recombinant TgPr, as well as bacterial flagellin. In addi...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a cardiac progenitor cell population, which have been shown to possess cardiac regenerative properties and can improve heart function in a variety of cardiac diseases. Studies in large animal models have predominantly focussed on using autologous cells for safety, however allogeneic cell banks would allow for a...
Article
Full-text available
The palatine tonsil is the portal of entry for food and air and is continuously subjected to environmental challenges, including pathogens, which use the tonsil and pharynx as a primary site of replication. In pigs, this includes the viruses causing porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome, and classical and African swine fever; diseases that...
Article
Full-text available
Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is considered a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between the intestinal immune system, intestinal microbiota and environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Although IBD can affect any breed, German shepherd dogs (GSD) in the UK are at increased risk of developing the di...
Data
Single SNP Fst analysis. Here, the top five most divergent SNPS are reported. (DOCX)
Data
Gene list ±1Mb far from the SNPs that are consensus in all the single SNPs analyses. The three consecutive SNP on chromosome 9 were considered as a cluster. (DOCX)
Data
Logistic association results with no covariates added in the model of the top SNPs, that are below the moderate association threshold but that overlapped with the case-control analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Logistic association results of the top SNPs using population structure covariates, that are below the moderate association threshold but that overlapped with the case-control analysis. Note that results are the same as the S1 Table, but the genomic inflation factor is different between the two comparisons. (DOCX)
Data
Gene list ±200Kb far from the windows considered for the Fst windows based approach. (DOCX)