Dirk Uwe Sauer

Dirk Uwe Sauer
RWTH Aachen University · Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives

Prof. Dr.
University chair, research in batteries systems for Emobility and stationary application & future energy system analysis

About

905
Publications
622,572
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
18,739
Citations
Citations since 2016
488 Research Items
15232 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
Additional affiliations
October 2018 - present
acatech - Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften
Position
  • Executive
Description
  • Responsible for the field "Energy"
March 2016 - present
acatech - Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften, Leopoldina - Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften, Union der Deutschen Akademien der Wissenschaften
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • http://www.acatech.de/uk/home-uk/work-and-results/projects/esys-energy-systems-of-the-future-stage-2.html
January 2015 - present
Helmholtz Institute Münster (HI MS) - Ionic in Energy Storage
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Joint Institute with Forschungszentrum Jülich and University of Münster, headed by Prof. Martin Winter
Education
October 1989 - September 1994

Publications

Publications (905)
Article
This paper provides empirical data and a profitability estimation of public charging infrastructure usage in Germany. Given that, in Germany, there are now 2.5 as many vehicles per charging station compared to 2017, the system needs to allocate charging points efficiently. To this end, this paper presents representative data on energy consumption,...
Article
Full-text available
The current increase in the number of electric vehicles in Germany requires an adequately developed charging infrastructure. Large numbers of public and semi-public charging stations are necessary to ensure sufficient coverage of charging options. In order to make the installation worthwhile for the mostly private operators as well as public ones,...
Article
Full-text available
Digital twins for large-scale and investment-intensive Li-ion battery systems in marine and stationary applications have drawn increasing interest in recent years. Considering electrical cell-to-cell variations (CtCVs) within the underlying battery model of such a digital twin promises various advantages in the fields of model-based optimization an...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the optimal way to process retired batteries has gained attention from academics and industry. High energy and power density requirements of electric vehicles (EVs) might cause batteries to be retired together with the vehicle that could still be used in other applications. Therefore, transferring batteries into ''second-life'' applicat...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation at Battery Safety Summit 2022 for AI applications for battery safety.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Driving long distances with battery electric vehicles is becoming possible thanks to increasing battery capacities and a growing network of fast-charging stations. During peak usage hours, multiple users may require recharging, thereby exceeding available charge points resulting in a queue. An algorithm is necessary to predict when a charging stati...
Article
Batteries are central to modern society. They are no longer just a convenience but a critical enabler of the transition to a resilient, low-carbon economy. Battery development capabilities are provided by communities spanning materials discovery, battery chemistry and electrochemistry, cell and pack design, scale-up, manufacturing, and deployments....
Article
Full-text available
Electromobility has grown rapidly, and especially in China, Europe, and the United States. Within Europe, Germany is the largest market. Our goal in this paper is to provide a data-driven overview of the key data, including the number of vehicles sold, place of registration, battery capacity, and charging power, in Germany. The results were generat...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the spot and ancillary service markets have become a relevant source of revenue for stationary battery storage systems. During this period, many markets have become increasingly flexible with shorter service periods and lower minimum power requirements. This flexibility makes the markets attractive for pools of electric vehicles (E...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion batteries degrade due to usage and exposure to environmental conditions, which affects their capability to store energy and supply power. Accurately predicting the capacity and power fade of lithium-ion battery cells is challenging due to intrinsic manufacturing variances and coupled nonlinear ageing mechanisms. In this paper, we propos...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report analyzes the subsidy program for PV home storage systems in Baden-Württemberg, a federal state in Germany.
Article
In the development of battery systems for electric vehicles (EV), numerous components from different physical subareas must be harmonized with each other. Automotive engineers already use extensive simulation models to optimize individual components satisfying increasing demands of EV range and power. Yet, strategies for the combined optimization o...
Article
Significant challenges appear in the multiphysical engineering process of battery systems for electric vehicles. Thereby, individual standalone simulation models offer essential opportunities to develop components for cellmodule, cooling, mechanics, and electronics. However, in order to address requirements in range, performance, and general instal...
Article
Large-scale battery storage systems are predestined for balancing the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energies and supporting the electricity grid due to their high efficiency. As a result, large-scale storage has gained importance in the market for frequency support reserve (FCR). While the first LSS projects had to be planned without operation...
Article
Full-text available
By collecting battery data from the field and building up the battery digital twin in the cloud, the degradation of batteries can be monitored online on the electrode level and the information regarding the degradation modes can be extracted from the data. Here, we present a degradation diagnosis framework for lithium-ion batteries by integrating f...
Article
Full-text available
Charging of electric vehicles may cause stress on the electricity grid. Grid planners need clarity regarding likely grid loading when creating extensions. In this paper, we analyse the simultaneity factor (SF) or peak power of public electric vehicle charging stations with different recharging strategies. This contribution is the first of its kind...
Article
Efficient battery thermal runaway prognosis is of great importance for ensuring safe operation of electric vehicles (EVs). This presents formidable challenges under widely varied and ever-changing driving conditions in real-world vehicular operations. In this article, an enabling thermal runaway prognosis model based on abnormal heat generation (AH...
Article
Utility-scale Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are becoming increasingly important for the transition to large shares of renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. Hybrid battery storage systems are an interesting option to increase the profitability of BESS by combining low-cost battery technologies with more expensive, but also more e...
Technical Report
Ladesäulen bilden das Fundament des flächendeckenden Ausbaus der Elektromobilität. Doch wie komfortabel die Nutzung und vor allem die Ladung des Elektrofahrzeugs ist, hängt heute leider noch stark vom Strukturraum ab. Wo es gut läuft und wo es Verbesserungen gibt, haben Professor Dirk Uwe Sauer, Christopher Hecht und Jan Figgener vom Lehrstuhl für...
Presentation
Full-text available
Net CO2 emissions in Germany are to be reduced to zero by 2045. Other countries have committed to similar targets to protect the climate. In Germany, the mobility sector contributes around 20% to total emissions and, unlike most other sectors, has not recorded any significant reductions since 1990. In addition to efforts to reduce the volume of tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electric vehicles are booming and with them the required public charging stations. Knowing how charging stations are used is crucial for operators of the charging stations themselves, navigation systems, electricity grids, and many more. Given that there are now 2.5 as many vehicles per charging station compared to 2017, the system needs to allocat...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive electric vehicle model is developed to characterize the behavior of the Smart e.d. (2013) while driving, charging and providing vehicle-to-grid services. To facilitate vehicle-to-grid strategy development, the EV model is completed with the measurement of the on-board charger efficiency and the charging control behavior upon externa...
Article
Europe's aim of climate neutrality by 2050 places higher demands on the electricity grid due to the expansion of renewable energies with fluctuating feed-in. With their high flexibility and reaction speed, large-scale storage systems (LSS) are predestined to compensate the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energies and to support the electricity g...
Article
Full-text available
The current increase of electric vehicles in Germany requires an adequately developed charging infrastructure. Large numbers of public and semi-public charging stations are necessary to ensure sufficient coverage. To make the installation worthwhile for the mostly private operators as well as public ones, a sufficient utilization is decisive. An es...
Presentation
Full-text available
Accurate models describing the thermodynamic behavior of lithium-ion batteries serve as strong tools to increase overall battery performance in various fields of application, such as consumer electronics, electric vehicles and battery storage systems. Physically motivated models rely on a predefined open circuit potential as a function of lithium c...
Presentation
Full-text available
Recent work at ISEA, RWTH Aachen, regarding data-driven parameterization for lithium-ion batteries.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Der Einsatz von Batterien wird in den kommenden Jahren erheblich zunehmen. 2013 entsprach die Ankündigung der ersten Gigafactory für Batterien durch den Fahrzeughersteller Tesla mit einer Kapazität von 35 GWh noch einer Verdopplung der gesamten weltweiten Produktionskapazität für Li-Ionen-Batterien. Inzwischen wird für 2025 ein Bedarf von weltweit...
Article
Full-text available
The energy transition in the electrical energy supply sector is leading to a steadily increasing share of fluctuating renewable energy sources in the power grid. Thus, control reserves such as frequency containment reserve are gaining in importance and need further investigation. In Germany, the power grid is divided into balancing groups, in which...
Article
In this study, the reversible thickness change of a large-format lithium-ion automotive pouch cell is investigated under precisely monitored cell pressure and temperature using an in-house built actively controlled pneumatic cell press. The quantitative and qualitative contribution of the state-of-the-art NMC811 cathode and the SiO-graphite composi...
Article
In recent years, the market of electric vehicles has been growing strongly. This growth is accompanied by discussions on vehicle-to-home strategies that allow households with a photovoltaic system and an electric vehicle both to charge the vehicle with solar energy and to supply energy from the vehicle to the household. However, vehicle-to-home tec...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Um die globale Erwärmung auf unter 2°C oder besser auf 1,5°C zu begrenzen, müssen wir einen Teil des ausgestoßenen Kohlendioxids (CO2) wieder aus der Atmosphäre entfernen. Das zeigt die Auswertung von Klimamodellen des Weltklimarates. Diese CO2-Entnahme wird auch als „negative Emissionen“ bezeichnet. Aufforstung ist eine erprobte Methode, der Atmos...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as the first choice for green batteries, have been widely used in energy storage, electric vehicles, 3C devices, and other related fields, and will have greater application prospects in the future. However, one of the obstacles hindering the future development of battery technology is how to accurately evaluate and mon...
Technical Report
Full-text available
News on research activities, publications and events from the Institute of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA) at RWTH Aachen University.
Poster
Full-text available
Lithium titanate oxide (LTO) based batteries are one of the most promising technologies for various types of future applications with high-power demands due to their long cyclic stability and superior safety. In this further analysis we investigated different mechanisms influencing the ageing behaviour of LTO cells. Our analysis shows, that in cont...
Presentation
Full-text available
Poster
Full-text available
The knowledge of the dynamic available charging and discharging power is essential for the safety and longevity of the battery systems. In this work, an electrochemical model-based online state-of-power prediction algorithm under different time horizons is developed for a safer and more reliable operation of lithium-ion batteries. The safety constr...
Presentation
Full-text available
Modeling the effects of thermal cell-to-cell variations within a so-called digital twin running in parallel to the physical battery system offers various advantages, especially for large-scale and investment-intensive automotive, marine or stationary systems. In this context, FEM/CFD approaches as well as thermal equivalent circuit models represent...
Poster
Full-text available
Future battery materials are frequently published in the scientific literature. The influence of these materials on the actual cell performance cannot be easily estimated from the material properties only. However, since constructing a prototype is timeand money-intensive, it is advantageous to make an initial approximation on a simulative basis. F...
Presentation
Full-text available
Most lithium-ion batteries contain areas of active material with no opposing counter-electrode as a result of the production process. This overhang, which is formed by the graphite anode in most lithium-ion battery designs, contributes to the overall cell performance as a sink or a source of cyclable lithium inventory over time periods ranging from...
Presentation
Full-text available
Was bedeutet der Krieg in der Ukraine für die Batterieproduktion? Wir haben mit Prof. Dr. Dirk Uwe Sauer von der RWTH Aachen darüber gesprochen. Er erwartet Engpässe bei Nickel, steigende Rohstoff-Preise und ein Ausweichen auf Lithium-Eisen-Phosphat. Dennoch sieht er die heimische Batteriewirtschaft endlich im Aufwind – auch dank der Ansiedlung von...
Preprint
Full-text available
Utility-scale Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are becoming increasingly important for the transition to large shares of renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. Hybrid battery storage systems are an interesting option to increase the profitability of BESS by combining low-cost battery technologies with more expensive, but also more e...
Technical Report
Anders als bei den gewerblichen Photovoltaikanlagen ist der Gewerbespeichermarkt in einem schwierigen Investitionsumfeld gewachsen. Warum der Titel „Rekordjahr“ trotzdem trügt, der Großspeichermarkt schwächelte und dennoch vorsichtiger Optimismus angebracht ist, erklären Jan Figgener, Christopher Hecht und Dirk Uwe Sauer von der RWTH Aachen.
Presentation
Full-text available
Ein Gespräch mit Prof. Dr. Dirk Uwe Sauer - - Vor dem Hintergrund des aktuellen Kriegs in der Ukraine wird als mögliche Sanktion ein sofortiger Stopp von russischen Erdgas erwogen, was circa 55 Prozent der Importe ausmacht. Was würde es kurzfristig und langfristig für die Energieversorgung bedeuten, wenn Deutschland kein Gas mehr aus Russland imp...
Preprint
Full-text available
With this update of our previous publications, we publish the latest data of the market development of battery storage systems (BSS) in Germany, one of the leading storage markets worldwide. For the analyses of both stationary and mobile storage markets, we use the public registrations of the German Federal Network Agency and the Federal Motor Tran...
Article
Full-text available
The main challenge in developing electric and electrified vehicles is the drivetrain with the associated battery system. Within the battery system, individual modules consisting of multiple interconnected battery cells provide the engine with power and energy. A crucial part of developing the electric vehicle’s battery is the optimized dimensioning...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of the liquid electrolyte is a key factor in lifetime performance of lithium‐ion batteries. The selection and quantification of additives to the electrolyte is an active field of research. This study focuses on finding the optimal additive combination of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) for NMC622‐Graphite...
Article
Full-text available
The expansion of renewable energy with its volatile feed-in character places higher demands on the power grid of the future. Large-scale storage systems (LSS) are a promising option for supporting the electricity grid and have been gaining importance in the last years, both on the market for frequency containment reserve (FCR) and in research. The...
Article
Aging effects of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries are highly controversial and still not fully understood. Known degradation effects of LTO such as surface layer formation or gas formation are state of charge (SOC) dependent and strongly accelerated at high temperatures. However, very few long-term studies have investigated the SOC depen...
Article
Full-text available
The market ramp-up of electromobility is shifting vehicle-to-grid (V2G) issues into the focus of research and industry. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to support the trend towards renewable energies in their role as storage units during idle times. To participate in balancing power and energy markets, EVs are pooled via aggregators. Ins...
Article
The lithium-sulfur battery belongs to the group of promising technologies known as post lithium-ion batteries, due to its high specific capacity of 1672Ahkg−1, specific energy density of around 2600Whkg−1 and the expected low price. Due to low performance, capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency, the commercialization is slow. The complex mech...
Presentation
Full-text available
Video des Vortrags: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nah4GWw2WRs Die Herausforderungen für die Energiewende sind schon lange bekannt. Durch die Nachschärfungen durch EU und Bundesregierung in Folge des Bundesverfassungsgerichtsurteils vom Frühjahr 2021, werden nun die Veränderungen und ihre Umsetzung enorm schnell kommen. Die Energieversorgung wi...
Article
Full-text available
The internal mechanical condition of a lithium-ion battery is often disregarded but delivers essential information about the battery performance and lifetime. This work presents a method to measure the internal mechanical condition of lithium-ion cells with high spatial resolution through scanning acoustic imaging. An open-hardware ultrasound scan...
Conference Paper
The number of applications for lithium-ion batteries has been steadily increasing in the last years. In order to carry the deployment forward, the cost of battery systems must further decrease. One way to achieve this is to reduce costly and time-consuming test efforts by simulating the electrical and thermal behavior as well as the aging effects o...
Presentation
Full-text available
We introduce a data-driven prognostics framework to predict both capacity and power fade simultaneously with multi-task learning. The model is able to predict the degradation trajectory of both capacity and internal resistance together with knee-points and end-of-life points accurately with as little as 100 cycles. The stable prediction ability of...
Article
Accurate current measurement is indispensable for the management of lithium-ion battery (LIB), especially for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation. However, accurate current sensing is challenging in electric vehicles (EVs) due to the electromagnetic interference. Moreover, the currents across the parallel branches of battery pack are even unmeasur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Die Entwicklung der Lithium-Ionen-Batterietechnologie in den 30 Jahren seit ihrer Marktein-führung 1991 ist eine technologische Erfolgsgeschichte, die wesentliche Teile der Energie-wende erst ermöglicht. Dazu trägt auch bei, dass die Kosten pro kWh auf ein Dreißigstel ge-genüber dem Zeitpunkt der Markteinführung reduziert werden konnten. Gleichzeit...