Dirk Schlicke

Dirk Schlicke
Graz University of Technology | TU Graz · Institute of Structural Concrete

Assoc.Prof. Priv.-Doz. Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Dr.techn.

About

61
Publications
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300
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - December 2014
Graz University of Technology
Position
  • University Assisstant
November 2006 - December 2008
University of Leipzig
Position
  • University Assisstant

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the focus is placed on essential aspects of finite element modelling of thermo-mechanical behaviour of massive foundation slabs at early ages. Basic decision-making issues are discussed in this work: the potential need to explicitly consider the casting process in the modelling, the necessary size of the underlying soil to be modelle...
Chapter
The structural design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures requires the use of adequate methodologies for control of crack widths, in order to ensure proper service life behavior. When RC elements are subjected to the combined effect of restrained deformations and external loads, which is a relatively common situation in civil engineering structu...
Article
Limiting crack widths to an acceptable level and determining the required minimum reinforcement are important tasks in the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Experience with different types of structures, ranging from watertight concrete structures to prestressed concrete bridges, shows that the concept currently applied in G...
Article
Full-text available
Mass foundation slabs represent unique structures because of the considerable thermal effects generated by the exothermic reactions of cement hydration that occur during concrete curing. Arising temperature variations in early age concrete generate tensile thermal stresses that may reach values resulting in cracking in foundation slabs. That is why...
Article
de Die Begrenzung von Rissbreiten auf ein akzeptables Maß und die Ermittlung der erforderlichen Mindestbewehrung sind wichtige Bestandteile der Planung von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken. Erfahrungen mit unterschiedlichen Bauweisen und Tragwerkstypen von Weißen Wannen bis hin zu Spannbetonbrücken zeigen, dass das derzeit verwendete Konzept in...
Article
Full-text available
These recommendations have been prepared by the corresponding working group within RILEM TC 287-CCS “Early-age and long-term crack width analysis in RC structures”, following work by the previously ceased RILEM TC 254-CMS “Thermal cracking of massive concrete structures”. This recommendations document is developed in complementarity to the state-of...
Article
Full-text available
Mass concrete members such as thick foundation slabs and blocks have always been an integral part of our human-created environment. Building with mass concrete is a challenging task as improper design or performance of the execution process may lead to considerable risk of thermal cracking. The presented paper is initially focused on a summary of e...
Chapter
Crack width control is an important design task to achieve the required durability and serviceability of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The thickness of the member is an important contributing factor for the mode of cracking—and thus for the required reinforcement for crack control. While in thin RC elements, e.g. industrial floors or tank wa...
Chapter
Numerical and analytical simulation of cracking in reinforced concrete (RC) structures requires laboratory testing for validation of assumptions and calibration of modelling strategies. The scale, complexity and innovation of these experiments can present a challenge, even for experienced professionals, and a significant amount of time, effort and...
Article
de Die statische Analyse des Lastflusses mittels 3D‐Gebäudemodellen ist in der Praxis weit verbreitet – aber nicht unumstritten. Üblicherweise werden linear elastische Berechnungsmodelle aufgebaut, die aber mitunter deutlich andere Ergebnisse als eine konventionelle Berechnung mit extrahierten 2D‐Teilmodellen liefern. Diese Unterschiede wurden in e...
Article
Cracks are an essential characteristic of reinforced concrete (RC) construction. Serviceability and durability, however, require a reasonable limitation of the maximum crack width. The prediction of the maximum crack width of RC, however, is not trivial and has been much debated over the past decades. This article starts with a fundamental comparis...
Article
Full-text available
Tensile stresses resulting from a combination of thermal volumetric changes, due to the heat of hydration and ambient conditions, autogenous deformations and boundary restraints, often induce a significant intrinsic load on massive concrete structures. Whenever such stresses attain the concrete tensile strength, cracking occurs, which may in turn i...
Conference Paper
p>Holistic 3D calculation models have become an indispensable part of the structural analysis of complex and/or unconventional structures. The determined load distribution within the structure and the particular stressing of the members are hereby strongly depending on the modelling approaches. This contribution shows the effects of different model...
Article
This paper deals with the analytical assessment of restraint forces and crack widths in end-restrained building slabs. The analysis concentrates on the service limit state (SLS) and the challenge is hereby the appropriate consideration of the combined effect of axial restraint due to imposed deformations and bending cracking due to loading. As for...
Article
This paper presents a long-term experimental campaign for simulation of the combined effects of restrained shrinkage and vertical loads on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs, performed in the scope of the research project “IntegraCrete: a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to the combined effects of applied loads and thermal/shrinkage deformations...
Article
de 3D‐Gebäudemodelle sind heutzutage ein weit verbreitetes Werkzeug für die Tragwerksanalyse in der Praxis. Die ermittelte Lastverteilung mittels 3D‐Gebäudemodell unterscheidet sich allerdings mitunter deutlich von den Ergebnissen einer konventionellen Berechnung mit extrahierten 2D‐Teilmodellen. Hintergrund ist, dass im 3D‐Berechnungsmodell die Ve...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is an effect of coordinated efforts of Working Group 7 of RILEM TC 254-CMS: Thermal cracking in massive concrete structures. The paper deals with a negative effect of restrained hardening-induced strains in reinforced concrete wall-on-slab structures which is cracks formed at the stage of construction of the walls. The aim of the paper w...
Article
Round Robin Testing (RRT) is a well-known method for assessing the reproducibility of a test or verification of a new test procedure of almost any kind. In the EU funded network COST Action TU1404 “Towards the next generation of standards for service life of cement-based materials and structures”, an Extended Round Robin Testing program (RRT⁺) was...
Article
Cracking control of reinforced concrete (RC) is of paramount importance to ensure a proper service behaviour on RC structures, during their lifespan, without excessive maintenance costs. Current design codes and recommendations for RC structures provide methodologies for reinforcement design on elements subjected to the independent effects of eithe...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of thermal and shrinkage cracking in concrete has been long recognised by researchers and engineers as it can jeopardise the intended serviceability of a concrete structure. This has led researchers to develop testing devices which aim to simulate the behaviour of concrete under restrained deformations. Such devices are discerned in pas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crack control throughout the service life of a structure has always been a somewhat challenging task for engineers and asset owners who are involved particularly with the design and construction of liquid retaining structures , such as tanks, nuclear containment buildings, basements or even dams. For these reasons, several standardised methods exis...
Chapter
holistic experimental simulation of the stress history due to imposed deformations including cracking and crack opening by time, as well as
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beschreibt die Zwangbeanspruchung und die Rissbreitenbeschränkung in Stahlbetonbauteilen und das Verhalten eines Stahlbetonzugstabs unter Lastbeanspruchung. Es erklärt das Bemessungskonzept auf Grundlage der Verformungskompatibilität. Bei der Bemessung von Betonbauteilen sind in der Regel verschiedene Verformungseinwirkungen zu berüc...
Book
The book examines advanced, non-standardized techniques that have been developed for determining different properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete, and provides state-of-the-art information on methods for monitoring hydration-induced changes in cement-based materials (CBMs). These methods are often nondestructive and allow quasi-continuous...
Article
Full-text available
Preface: This special issue of the Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology presents seven invited journal papers, which were selected on basis of outstanding conference contributions during the International RILEM/COST conference SynerCrete’18, held on 24-26 October 2018 in Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal, which gathered 183 participants. The sel...
Article
Modeling the structural behavior of concrete at early ages is one of the most challenging, yet fundamental, tasks for civil engineers working on mass concrete. To obtain a reasonably accurate model, a number of factors should be taken into account. Considerations should include both external influences as well as the changes occurring in the comple...
Article
The distribution of restraint stresses in bottom-restrained walls is an important information for the efficient crack control of wall-like concrete members. Practical examples are retaining walls, bridge abutment walls or tank walls, for which the results can be used in order to assess the risk and intensity of harmful separating cracks over the wa...
Chapter
This chapter is focused on the cracking risk at early ages. After general considerations about cracking, the cracking risk prediction is discussed. Two main ways to assess this risk are considered: through an evaluation of the tensile stresses and through an evaluation of the strains. Finally, the evaluation of crack opening at early ages and the r...
Chapter
Full-text available
On-site monitoring of mass concrete offers several benefits. It may comprise a wide range of objectives from (i) the maintaining of adequate temperature conditions for the evolution of the desired concrete properties and to (ii) the determination of thermal and mechanical parameters for verification of the calculation models and assumptions applied...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of recent research activities on the hardening-induced stresses and the risk of cracking in very thick concrete members. These activities focus on a very large member with bloc-like dimensions. In contrast to typical member types such as ground slabs or foundation walls, bloc-like members are dominated by temperature...
Article
Modelling of early-age behaviour of cement-based materials is still a challenging task. The challenge is implied by the extent of the knowledge on the subject which results in a variety of different models used for simulation of cement-based materials. That is why a numerical benchmark program has been launched within the COST Action TU1404 aiming...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Two independent approaches to predict the restraint-induced macrocrack patterns in walls have been recently proposed by the authors [1, 2]. The model of Knoppik-Wróbel and Klemczak [1] is fully numerical whereas the approach of Schlicke and Tue [2] is a simplified engineering model on the basis of analytical considerations. Both approaches are macr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to the current design code the crack width control is provided by a minimum reinforcement covering any restraints as well as crack width verifications for the decisive load combinations, whereas the interaction of both is generally not pursued further. Almost all guidelines advise to control the crack width due to restraint by a minimum r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution presents first results of comprehensive FE-studies on hardening-induced stress histories of very thick concrete members with compact dimensions. The motivation is to improve the understanding of their structural behaviour in order to provide an efficient but safe crack width control of such members. The strict application of curre...
Article
Um das tatsächliche Verhalten von Stahlbetonbauteilen unter vorwiegender Zwangbeanspruchung experimentell zu untersu-chen, wurde an der Technischen Universität Graz ein neuer Versuchsaufbau konzipiert. Im Vordergrund steht hierbei die zusammenhängende Betrachtung der Spannungsgeschichte und Rissbildung, beginnend mit der erhärtungsbedingten Zwangbe...
Article
In der Praxis wird für die Ermittlung der Mindestbewehrung zur Begrenzung der Rissbreite oftmals der zentrische Zwang im frühen Betonalter zugrunde gelegt. Aus mechanischer Sicht kann diese Vorgehensweise nur als eine pragmatische Lösung angesehen werden, da hierbei die maßgebenden Faktoren, wie die zeitliche Entwicklung der Materialeigenschaften u...
Article
In der Praxis wird für die Ermittlung der Mindestbewehrung zur Begrenzung der Rissbreite oftmals der zentrische Zwang im frühen Betonalter zugrunde gelegt. Aus mechanischer Sicht kann diese Vorgehensweise nur als eine pragmatische Lösung angesehen werden, da hierbei die maßgebenden Faktoren, wie die zeitliche Entwicklung der Materialeigenschaften u...
Conference Paper
The creep behavior of concrete members is of major importance for their serviceability. Besides its negative influence on deflections under load impact, creep strains are supposed to positively reduce the hardening induced restraint stresses after temperature equalization - which is an essential assumption for today's design practice of neglecting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many existing mass concrete structures are unreinforced because of economic aspects. Based upon the fact that no national or international standards for the design of such structures are available, each of them has to be treated as individual case. This often leads to safety concerns or concerns of reliability. An efficient design of unreinforced m...
Article
The minimum reinforcement for crack width control of restrained concrete members is directed in the actual design code EC2 [1] by the limitation of the steel strain at taking up the cracking force of the cross section or relevant parts of it. But with the simplification of a restricted view on the cross section, this approach is unable to cover the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently a mechanically consistent design model for crack width control in restrained concrete members is developed in a cooperation of the German Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) and the Institute for Structural Concrete of Graz University of Technology in Austria. Regarding the deformation compatibility the whole member...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Kooperation mit der Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau wird derzeit am Institut für Betonbau der TU Graz ein mechanisch konsistentes Modell für die Ermittlung der Mindestbewehrung zur Begrenzung der Rissbreiten entwickelt. Im Unterschied zum traditionellen risskraftbasierten Modell basiert das neue Modell auf der Verformungskompatibilität und ermöglich...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
KURZFASSUNG: Derzeit entwickelt die TU Graz zusammen mit der Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau ein allgemeingültiges und mechanisch konsistentes Bemessungsmodell für die Mindestbewehrung zur Begrenzung der Rissbreite von vorwiegend zwangbeanspruchten Betonbauteilen. Hierbei sollen die Zwangbeanspruchungen in der gesam-ten Bauwerkslebensdauer berücksichti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
KURZFASSUNG: Dieser Artikel behandelt den derzeitigen Normungsstand von unbewehrten massigen Betonbauteilen. Dazu werden relevante Normen auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene verglichen, und anschließend den Er-fahrungen aus der Herstellung eines unbewehrten Massenbetonbauteils gegenübergestellt. Hierbei wird gezeigt, dass die derzeitige Normun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crack assessment of hardening concrete members is an important task within concrete design and planning of construction process. Of main interest are cases with external restraint due to adjacent already hardened members. Most of those cases can be described with the model of a hardening wall restrained by the foundation as illustrated in Fig. 1. F...
Article
Full-text available
Concrete structures may suffer considerable restraint stresses during their hardening period. This is caused by several deformation impacts, especially temperature field changings due to hydration heat and volume changes due to autogenous shrinkage. Mainly affected are massive concrete members, but also the application of new concrete types or the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To provide serviceability and tightness of large gravity dams, which are erected by roller-compacted concrete (RCC), a reinforced conventional concrete facing (CMC) can be placed simultaneously with the RCC. With regard to interaction between CMC-facing and RCC-dam body at hardening of CMC as well as in case of overall performance of the RCC-CMC-co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
KURZFASSUNG: Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Bestimmung der Zwangbeanspruchungen in massiven Betonbauteilen. Hierfür werden zum einen Verfahren zur messtechnischen Erfassung am Bauwerk diskutiert, und zum anderen werden Lösungen vorgestellt, die eine rechnerische Bestimmung dieser Zwangspannungen ermög-lichen. Im Detail wird hierbei auf das rel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution presents an approach for the numerical investigation of the processes in hardening concrete members. In detail statements on temperature development and evolution of strength under consideration of different material behaviors are possible. To get practical understanding of the modeling, this approach will be exemplified by a cool...
Article
Zwang während des Hydratationsprozesses kann zu Rissbildung führen. Zur Sicherstellung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit müssen die Rissbreiten entsprechend den Expositionsklassen begrenzt werden. Das zurzeit in Massivbaunormen auf den Rissschnittgrößen basierende Konzept zur Ermittlung der Mindestbewehrung weist einige Schwächen auf, insbesondere für dick...
Article
Hydration induced restraint forces can lead to crack formation in hardening concrete members. Securing serviceability and durability of the construction crack widths have to be limited according to exposition class. For this actual standards use the concept of the cracking force. This approach is not free from failings, especially for thick concret...
Article
Der nachfolgende Aufsatz behandelt die Berechnung und Messung von hydratationsbedingten Zwangspannungen in massigen Betonbauteilen. Dabei wird auf das zeitveränderliche und viskoelastische Materialverhalten des Betons und dessen Berücksichtigung innerhalb eines numerischen Berechnungsverfahrens besonders eingegangen. Die vorgestellten Zusammenhänge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To guarantee serviceability of large gravity dams, which are erected by roller-compacted concrete (RCC), seepage and associated uplift at the upstream face must be avoided. In special cases, this requires the prevention of crack formation in the RCC periphery, caused by thermal restraint due to hydration heat and climatic conditions. Using the fini...
Conference Paper
Große Staumauern aus Walzbeton bedürfen im Falle einer Vielzahl horizontaler Arbeitsfugen oberstromseitiger Abdichtmaßnahmen. Für die Ausführung des Diamer Basha Damms in Pakistan wurde die Möglichkeit der Abdichtung des Dammkörpers mit einer bewehrten Schicht aus konventionellem Massenbeton untersucht. Deren erforderliche Wandstärke sowie die zur...
Article
Große Staumauern aus Walzbeton bedürfen im Falle einer Vielzahl horizontaler Arbeitsfugen oberstromseitiger Abdichtmaßnahmen. Für die Ausführung des Diamer-Basha-Damms in Pakistan wurde die Möglichkeit der Abdichtung des Dammkörpers mit einer bewehrten Schicht aus konventionellem Massenbeton untersucht. Deren erforderliche Wandstärke sowie die zur...
Article
To prevent seepage and associated uplift, a sealing system for the upstream face of huge gravity dams, which are erected by roller-compacted concrete (RCC), was developed. The solution includes a reinforced conventional concrete facing (CMC), placed simultaneously with the RCC. For the tender design of the Diamer Basha Dam in Pakistan minimum thick...
Article
Mit dem Ziel einer sicheren und wirtschaftlichen Auslegung von Bodenplatten zukünftiger Neubauvorhaben untersuchte die Universität Leipzig im Auftrag der VATTENFALL EUROPE GENERATION AG & Co. KG die Zwangbeanspruchungen massiver Bodenplatten (d > 1,50 m) infolge des Abfließens der Hydratationswärme. Neben der messtechnischen Erfassung und Analyse d...
Article
Als Grundlage für die Erstellung eines mechanisch fundierten Bemessungskonzeptes zur Begrenzung der Rissbreite infolge des Abfließens der Hydratationswärme in sehr dicken Betonbauteilen wurde ein Messprogramm im Zuge des Neubaus der Schleuse Sülfeld-Süd durchgeführt. Primäres Ziel dieser Untersuchung war die Beschreibung der tatsächlichen Beanspruc...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution the thermal restraint in thick concrete members due to outflow of hydration heat is presented. For this in situ measurements in bottom slabs and walls as well as 3D-Finite-element-simulations were carried out. The result show that in thick bottom slabs only small constraint occurs whereas restraint moment and residual stress ar...

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Projects (4)
Project
The newly established RILEM Technical Committee CCS on early-age and long-term cracking of reinforced concrete structures is currently working on the book on crack width analysis. One of the chapters will be related to code-based approaches to crack width analysis. We are aiming at presenting a critical overview of the methods used worldwide for control of the width of cracks caused by the restrained imposed strains and their superposition width additional loads in long term. We are open to cooperation with new contributors familiar with such codes.
Project
18th - 22nd March 2019 Rovinj, Croatia SMSS2019 conference is organised as a supporting event of RILEM Spring Convention. The scope of the conference is to gather scientists, practitioners, members of technical committees and users of technical recommendations, to jointly at the same place discuss and envision the future sustainable development of materials, systems and structures in a holistic, global way. To ensure that sustainability in civil engineering is tackled in a holistic way, conference is divided into several mini symposiums / segments, with each symposium targeting a specific field within SMSS. Having segmented efforts, with their specific chairs, topics, scientific committee and allocated time during the event, will enable a platform for a detailed and focussed discussion among interested parties on a specific segment of SMSS. Having all these segments discussed during the same week at the same (beautiful) location, will ensure their interconnection, knowledge exchange and will hopefully strengthen existing and create new networks for future collaboration.
Archived project
The program of the course has intricate connections with the objectives of COST action TU1404, with particular emphasis on subjects related to Work Group 2 "Modelling of cement-based materials and structures". This course offers an opportunity that is mainly targeted to young researchers (normally enrolled in PhD programmes) and allowing them to have a deep contact with several subjects related to modelling of cement-based materials at different levels (from micro to macroscopic modelling).