Dirk Saelens

Dirk Saelens
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Department of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

164
Publications
40,753
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,240
Citations
Citations since 2016
93 Research Items
2574 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (164)
Article
The interest in model predictive control (MPC) for buildings has grown in recent years due to the widespread implementation of dynamic electricity tariffs, energy flexibility and distributed energy resources. The MPC applied on buildings is a computational-based methodology used to optimize the performance of heating, ventilation and air conditioni...
Article
Full-text available
On-site measured data in combination with statistical methods is used more and more to assess the actual performance of a building and to develop simplified models that can be used in model predictive control, fault detection, and optimization of energy grids. Most of the methods are based on a simplified heat balance of the building. For this heat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The District Energy Simulation Test (DESTEST) is a series of common exercises about modelling building stocks and district heating networks aiming at testing, benchmarking and verifying different urban-scale energy system simulation tools. For each common exercise, participants are modelling a case with well-defined characteristics, grid topology a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a B-splines integrated method combining in-situ data with grey-box modeling to estimate buildings' dynamic solar gain more efficiently than the conventional white-box model and much more precisely than the classic grey-box model. Solar gain, referring to the overall indoor energy gain supplied by solar radiation, plays a vital r...
Article
In educational buildings, the HVAC system is a major contributor to the total energy use. It is well-known that energy reductions could be achieved by more advanced control strategies for HVAC systems. A model predictive control (MPC) strategy could be a viable solution. Contrary to the standard rule based control (RBC), the predictive control can...
Article
Hospitals’ indoor conditions affect patients’ comfort. Comfort is predicted based on threshold values for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) indicators, but discrepancies with actual (dis)comfort occur. Current prediction methods ignore the role of patients’ adaptation or treat it as a ‘black box’. Therefore, we investigated how distinguishing betw...
Article
Research indicates that adaptation influences how people experience indoor conditions (ICs), and that the built environment influences both adaptation, via perceived control, and well-being. Their interlinkage is, however, not well understood. Therefore, we investigated how the design of hospital rooms can contribute to patients’ well-being by supp...
Article
Full-text available
Urban building energy modelling has an essential role in the estimation of energy demand at urban or neighbourhood scales. However, current modelling methods have limitations in reproducing realistic gross energy usage. Although it is theoretically possible to simulate all components of the heating system in detail, such an extensive approach signi...
Article
Full-text available
The combination of in-situ collected data and statistical modelling techniques proved to be a promising approach in actual building energy performance assessments, such as heat loss coefficient (HLC) evaluation. In this study, based on datasets of co-heating and pseudo-random binary sequence heating tests on a portable site office, the performance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmental policies are pushing cross-sector electrification, including the transport and heating sectors. However, the large integration of distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles (EV), heat pumps (HP), and photovoltaic (PV) systems, has a strong influence on the stability of low voltage (LV) distribution grids and can lead to h...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating low-carbon technologies (e.g. heat pumps, photovoltaic systems) in buildings influences the stability of the low-voltage grid, which therefore often requires to be reinforced. This article proposes a techno-economic methodology to identify the reinforcements needed to maintain grid stability at the lowest life-cycle cost. Novel contribu...
Conference Paper
Urban building energy modelling has an essential role in the estimation of energy demand at urban or neighbourhood scales. However, current modelling methods have limitations in reproducing realistic gross energy usage. Although it is theoretically possible to simulate all components of the heating system in detail, such an extensive approach signi...
Conference Paper
This article discusses different statistical methods to compare the predictions (in the form of time series) of urban-scale building energy models. It focuses on inter-model comparison without empirical measurements as a reference case. It is thus suggested to build a reference time series as a point-to-point mean average of all the models to be co...
Article
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications are key to increase the share of renewable energy in the built environment. A large potential for BIPV deployment is related to building facades. The assessment of BIPV facades depends on the accurate modelling of exterior convective heat transfer coefficients (eCHTC). However, eCHTC models commo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This work studies the transformation of energy grids of the European Union (EU) in the frame of the energy transition. Three energy grid types are considered namely the electricity, thermal and gas grids. This report was written in the frame of the H2020 EU project "sEEnergies".
Article
Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) is a crucial part of ventilation design used in buildings and its effects are widely studied in modern construction. To assess the effect of DCV, accurate models are required. The simulation of CO2-based DCV is still challenging due to the complexity of the system. In addition, in this type of system, there is a...
Article
To assess the impact of implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures, urban building energy models are emerging. In these models, due to the lack of data, the natural variability of the existing building stock is often highly underestimated and uncertainty on the simulated energy use arises. Therefore, this work proposes a probabili...
Article
Full-text available
The building sector has to significantly reduce the total energy use. A predictive control could be a solution to control an HVAC system more energy efficiently since it takes into account the current measurements and the future demand. In this study a predictive control framework is implemented in an educational building with two lecture rooms. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Network flexibility is the use of the thermal capacity of water that is contained in the district heating network pipes to store energy and shift the heat load in time. Through optimal control, this network flexibility can aid in applications such as peak shaving and operational heat pump optimisation. Yet, optimal control requires perfect predicti...
Article
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems provide an opportunity for renewable energy generation in the built environment. In order to quantify the BIPV potential, numerical models of varying levels of complexity have been developed. This paper investigates how the complexity of BIPV models affects their predictions. The study starts with a d...
Conference Paper
Hospitals’ indoor environmental quality (IEQ) impacts on patients’ well-being. Their experience is affected by environmental conditions, psychological and confounding factors (e.g., age, sex). Thermal, visual, and acoustical comfort and indoor air quality - considered the main IEQ parameters - are often examined separately. People’s overall assessm...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Starting in December 2020 for at least 1 year (see uploaded document for more information)
Article
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are considered a promising solution to increase the share of renewable energy in the built environment. To evaluate the BIPV performance at the building level, the implementation of BIPV models in building performance simulation tools is an essential step. This paper presents the development of a mult...
Article
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is a key concept for the realisation of sustainable buildings. Despite the progress in BIPV modelling, the use of sensitivity analysis (SA) is still scarce in the BIPV literature. SA can help the modeller to identify which input factors influence the model outputs the most. This paper presents a simulation fr...
Article
Full-text available
Since households are one of the most energy-intensive sectors in Europe, retrofit of dwellings is promoted to increase energy efficiency. Recent research, however, shows that the energy performance after retrofit does not always meet the target values, which can be caused by amongst other things, a deviating building envelope performance. This pape...
Article
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems may be catalyzers of sustainable, near-zero energy buildings. To maximize the benefits of employing BIPV, it is important to integrate them properly into the grid of the building. The discussion on AC versus DC distribution for microgrid and nanogrid backbones is currently revisited as the level of pe...
Article
With the increasing integration of multiple energy carriers in district energy systems, an accurate simulation of the district energy demand becomes more crucial. To reduce the required computational power, the district energy demand is often quantified through a limited set of archetype buildings, representing the whole district. As the temporal b...
Article
Buildings’ indoor environmental quality (IEQ) affects people’s comfort and wellbeing. However, even if comfort requirements for indoor environmental indicators are achieved, people are often not satisfied. Reducing this discrepancy requires reconsidering research methodologies. A scoping review examines how IEQ research and research about healing e...
Article
Over the years, several dedicated on-site measurement tests have been developed to assess the heat loss coefficient (HLC) of a building envelope. These tests, and their associated data analysis methods, take the single-zone heat balance as a starting point. This assumption is, however, challenged when the measurement data is no longer collected dur...
Article
Within the context of amongst others urban energy planning and energy system design, urban and district energy simulations have gained interest to quantify the energy use of existing districts. To reduce calculation time and in absence of adequate detailed building level data, urban energy simulations often deploy reductive modelling approaches bas...
Article
The past decade has seen the rapid development of sensor technologies. Monitoring data of the interior climate and energy consumption of in-use buildings, so-called on-board monitoring (OBM) data, offers the opportunity to identify as-built energy performance indicators, such as the heat loss coefficient (HLC) of the building envelope. To this end,...
Article
Full-text available
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology has gained attention as a solution to achieve low energy buildings. However, unlike conventional PV applications, BIPVs typically operate at non-optimal orientation, imposed by the building geometry. Moreover, the building integration reduces the heat exchange to the exterior, leading to higher tem...
Conference Paper
The building sector is considered a promising niche for photovoltaic (PV) deployment in general and in particular for the concept of building integrated PV (BIPV). An interesting BIPV application is in high-rise office buildings as facade elements, enabling the exploitation of large surface areas for energy generation in the built environment. This...
Article
Full-text available
IBPSA Project 1 develops and demonstrates an open-source BIM/GIS and Modelica Framework for building and community energy system design and operation. The project builds further on the completed project IEA EBC Annex 60 “New generation computational tools for building and community energy systems based on the Modelica and Functional Mockup Interfac...
Conference Paper
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are considered as a promising technology to achieve low energy buildings. Although a significant body of literature is available on BIPV modelling and validation, sensitivity analysis (SA) has not been extensively explored in a systematic way. SA provides insight on how the model responds to variation...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of an approach to characterize the as-built heat loss coefficient (HLC) of buildings based on a combination of on-board monitoring (OBM) and data-driven modeling. OBM is hereby defined as the monitoring of the energy consumption and interior climate of in-use buildings via non-intru...
Conference Paper
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology has gained attention as a solution to achieve low energy buildings. However, unlike conventional PV applications, BIPVs typically operate at non-optimal orientation, imposed by the building geometry. Moreover, the building integration reduces the heat exchange to the exterior, leading to higher tem...
Article
...Designing the electrical system with string inverters and a possible wide variety of module sizes and technologies is a challenging task. To overcome this issue, Module-Level Converters (MLCs) can be used. A supplementary benefit is that the consequences of partial shading can strongly be reduced. This paper investigates whether the current gene...
Conference Paper
Objective – To reduce the gap between patients being dissatisfied about hospitals’ indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and hospitals achieving target values for IEQ parameters, this paper aims to identify possible improvements of applied research methodologies. Background – Buildings’ IEQ affects users’ comfort, productivity, and well-being. Especia...
Article
This paper explores the concept of characterizing the as-built Heat Loss Coefficient (HLC) of buildings based on-board monitoring (OBM), via energy consumption and temperature sensors, and time series analysis. It is examined (1) how the coefficients of different Auto-Regressive with eXogenous inputs (ARX) models can be interpreted and (2) whether...
Article
Several studies have demonstrated the capability of data-driven modelling based on on-site measurements to characterise the thermal performance of building envelopes. Currently, such methods include steady-state and dynamic heating experiments and have mainly been applied to scale models and unoccupied test buildings. Nonetheless, it is proposed to...
Article
Heating electrification and distributed renewable generation in the residential sector are among prominent solutions advocated for energy saving and carbon emission reduction. However, research shows these low-carbon technologies may create issues at the low-voltage (LV)distribution grid. High-level policy assessment currently lacks the support to...
Article
European legislation on building performance and energy efficiency pushes the shift towards minimizing the environmental footprint of buildings. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is a promising technology that can accelerate the transition to energy-neutral buildings. Quantifying the potential of BIPV is crucial and one means of obtaining th...
Article
State-of-the-art Modelica tools for modelling and simulating multi-physical systems have reached certain maturity among the building physics community. Hence, simulation is widely used for control, sizing and performance assessment of energy systems. However, serious efficiency issues arise for large-scale models. This article proposes a practical...
Article
Full-text available
A large part of energy usage in buildings occurs during the operational phase, emphasising the need for e ffi cient and improved facility management, operation and control. Model Predictive Control (MPC) or Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) are among the strategies that allow minimising energy use and costs during operation. However, the need for f...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Flanders, an obligatory software tool (EPR) is used to assess the energy performance of new buildings offering a simplified procedure to estimate the energy use for heating. This calculation approach is based on the principle of multiplying the building’s heating demand with standardised (sub)system efficiencies. In this paper, the accuracy of t...
Article
Full-text available
In school and office buildings the ventilation system has a large contribution to the total energy use. A control strategy that adjusts the operation to the actual demand can significantly reduce the energy use. This is important in rooms with a highly fluctuating occupancy profile. However, a standard rule-based control is reactive, making the ins...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An increasing share of intermittent renewable energy sources calls for more flexible energy systems. This flexibility - the capability of shifting energy use in time and/or magnitude - can be obtained, amongst others, by integration of thermal energy storage in district heating systems. Adequate control of storage systems allows increasing intermit...
Article
Full-text available
The Air Handling Unit (AHU) is one of the most energy consuming devices in building systems. Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) methods integrated into AHUs can help to ensure that they comply with the intended design, and that their e ffi ciency is maintained throughout the entire operational stage of the building. Nonetheless, the implementation a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an up to date overview of the principal research topics and research trends within the Building Information Model (BIM) research domain. It also o ff ers a detailed review of the integration of BIM and Building Energy Performance Sim- ulation (BEPS). The di ff erent strategies to improve interoperability are reviewed together with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Urban building energy models (UBEMs) are expected to play a key role in the integrated assessment of sustainability measures on both district and city level. However, due to limited availability of data sources, those models are often created through an archetype approach, which is a deterministic method to allocate building envelope characteristic...
Conference Paper
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems have been attracting attention as a promising alternative to cope with the increasingly stricter building energy regulations. Although building energy simulation (BES) tools can be used to assess the BIPV potential contribution at the building level, the existing BIPV modelling in these tools is not f...
Conference Paper
Heat pumps and photovoltaic systems become more common in residential neighborhoods, where they alter the traditional relationship with the electricity distribution grid, causing congestion and voltage problems. This paper investigates the influence of weather data on low-voltage grid impact indicators calculated within a previously developed proba...
Conference Paper
Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology has experienced a significant development over the most recent years. Yet some barriers to its large deployment remain. One of them is the lack of design consideration regarding the installation of BIPV modules. This paper demonstrates the technical feasibility of a curtain wall BIPV concept that s...
Conference Paper
Two major causes of energy yield reduction in PV systems are partial shading and high operating temperatures. Both issues are particularly critical for BIPV systems. The correct assessment of the BIPV contribution to the built environment depends, therefore, on the accurate prediction of PV temperature and on the possibility of simulating shading e...
Conference Paper
This contribution handles about BIPV modules made with plated bifacial n-PERT cells from imec. For the cell interconnection the advanced smart wire connection technology (SWCT) was used that can reduce silver consumption at cell level considerably. These modules were made for installation in a facade installation of the KU Leuven, with monitoring o...
Article
To assess the feasibility of district energy systems as well as to design them in an optimal way, district energy simulations are often deployed, requiring an accurate spatial and temporal quantification of the district energy demand. Geographical information models and systems can provide input data to quantify the district energy demand, but the...
Article
Full-text available
Steadily increasing use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in all phases of building's lifecycle, together with more attention for openBIM and growing software support for the most recent version of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC 4) have created a very pro