Dirk Riehle

Dirk Riehle
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg | FAU · Department of Computer Science

Dr. Sc.-Techn., M.B.A.

About

152
Publications
49,131
Reads
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2,845
Citations
Introduction
Dirk Riehle currently works at the Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. Dirk does research in Software Engineering. Their most recent publication is 'The QDAcity-RE method for structural domain modeling using qualitative data analysis'.

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
This article defines and discusses one particular commercial open source business model, called the (open source) distributor model. It can attract significant venture capital, thereby contributing to the long-term sustainability of open source.
Article
Full-text available
Using qualitative data analysis (QDA) to perform domain analysis and modeling has shown great promise. Yet, the evaluation of such approaches has been limited to single-case case studies. While these exploratory cases are valuable for an initial assessment, the evaluation of the efficacy of QDA to solve the suggested problems is restricted by the c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pattern discovery, the process of discovering previously unrecognized patterns, is often performed as an ad-hoc process with little resulting certainty in the quality of the proposed patterns. Pattern validation, the process of validating the accuracy of proposed patterns, remains dominated by the simple heuristic of "the rule of three". This artic...
Conference Paper
Companies without expertise in software development can opt to form consortia to develop open source software to meet their needs, as an alternative to the build-or-buy decision. Such user-led foundations are little understood, due to a limited number of published examples. In particular, almost nothing is known about the ecosystems surrounding use...
Chapter
Software vendors need to manage the dependencies of the open source components used in their products. Without this management, license compliance would be impossible, export restrictions could not be maintained, and security vulnerabilities would remain unknown to the vendor. The management of these dependencies has grown in an ad-hoc fashion in m...
Chapter
Companies without expertise in software development can opt to form consortia to develop open source software to meet their needs, as an alternative to the build-or-buy decision. Such user-led foundations are little understood, due to a limited number of published examples. In particular, almost nothing is known about the ecosystems surrounding use...
Article
A business model describes how a company operates and achieves its goals. Open source itself is not a business model, but it can be an important strategy to help a company reach its goals. While each firm has its own distinct plan, there are naturally distinguishable types of business models. Single-vendor open source firms own some piece of softwa...
Article
We draw on the concept of episodic volunteering (EV) from the general volunteering literature to identify practices for managing EV in free/libre/open source software (FLOSS) communities. Infrequent but ongoing participation is widespread, but the practices that community managers are using to manage EV, and their concerns about EV, have not been p...
Technical Report
https://dirkriehle.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/cs-fau-tr-2020-01.pdf Pattern discovery, the process of discovering previously unrecognized patterns, is usually performed as an ad-hoc process with little resulting certainty in the quality of the proposed patterns. Pattern validation, the process ofvalidating the accuracy of proposed patterns, ha...
Conference Paper
Interview analysis is a technique employed in qualitative research. Researchers annotate (code) interview transcriptions, often with the help of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS). The tools available today largely replicate the manual process of annotation. In this article, we demonstrate how to use natural language proc...
Chapter
When companies opt to open source their software, they may choose to offer the project to an open source foundation. Donating the software to an open source foundation offers a number of advantages, such as access to the foundation’s existing tools and project management. However, in donating the software, the company relinquishes control of the so...
Conference Paper
When companies opt to open source their software, they may choose to offer the project to an open source foundation. Donating the software to an open source foundation offers a number of advantages, such as access to the foundation’s existing tools and project management. However, in donating the software, the company relinquishes control of the so...
Conference Paper
Commercial use of open source software is on the rise as more companies realize the benefits of using FLOSS components in their products. At the same time, the ungoverned use of such components can result in legal, financial, intellectual property, and other risks. To mitigate these risks, companies must govern their use of open source through appr...
Article
Virtually all software products incorporate free/libre and open source software (FLOSS) components. However, ungoverned use of FLOSS components can result in legal and financial risks, and risks to a firm’s intellectual property. To avoid these risks, companies must govern their FLOSS use through open source governance processes and by following in...
Chapter
Almost all software products today include open-source components. However, the obligations that open-source licenses put on their users can be difficult or undesirable to comply with [14, 20, 25]. As a consequence, software vendors and related companies need to govern the process by which open-source components are included in their products [7, 2...
Conference Paper
Corporate use of open source in software products is on the rise. While this brings a number of technological and business benefits to companies, it also comes with potential legal and financial risks caused by license non-compliance and ungoverned use of open source components. Companies address these threats with free/libre and open source softwa...
Article
Full-text available
Open source has given us many innovations. This article provides an overview of the most important innovations and illustrates the impact that open source is having on the software industry and beyond. The main innovations of open source can be grouped into four categories: legal, process, tool, and business models. Probably the best known innovati...
Article
Full-text available
The creation of domain models from qualitative input relies heavily on experience. An uncodified ad-hoc modeling process is still common and leads to poor documentation of the analysis. In this article we present a new method for domain analysis based on qualitative data analysis. The method helps identify inconsistencies, ensures a high degree of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Successful Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects incorporate both habitual and infrequent, or episodic, contributors. Using the concept of episodic volunteering (EV) from the general volunteering literature, we derive a model consisting of five key constructs that we hypothesize affect episodic volunteers’ retention in FLOSS communit...
Article
Full text available here: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8477174 Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) communities are composed, in part, of volunteers, many of whom contribute infrequently. However, these infrequent volunteers contribute to the sustainability of FLOSS projects, and should ideally be encouraged to continue participatin...
Chapter
Almost all software products today incorporate free/libre, and open source software (FLOSS) components. Companies must govern their FLOSS use to avoid potential risks to their intellectual property resulting from the use of FLOSS components. A particular challenge is license compliance. To manage the complexity of license compliance, companies shou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inner source (IS) is the use of open source software development (SD) practices and the establishment of an open source-like culture within an organization. IS enables and requires developers to collaborate more than traditional SD methods such as plan-driven or agile development. To better understand IS, researchers and practitioners need to measu...
Article
Full-text available
Inner Source (IS) is the use of open source software development practices and the establishment of an open source-like culture within organizations. The organization may still develop proprietary software but internally opens up its development. A steady stream of scientific literature and practitioner reports indicates the interest in this resear...
Article
Full-text available
Inner source is an approach to collaboration across intra-organizational boundaries for the creation of shared reusable assets. Prior project reports on inner source suggest improved code reuse and better knowledge sharing. Using a multiple-case case study research approach, we analyze the problems that three major software development organization...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In qualitative research, results often emerge through an analysis process called coding. A common measure of validity of theories built through qualitative research is the agreement between different people coding the same materials. High intercoder agreement indicates that the findings are derived from the data as opposed to being relative results...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globally distributed software development projects are on the rise. However, 69% of cross-regional projects fail completely or partially, because of lack of cross-cultural understanding. This paper presents a qualitative study of the impact of communication on Global Software Development (GSD) within firms due to cultural differences. In particular...
Chapter
Today’s software systems build on open source software. Thus, we need to understand how to successfully create, nurture, and mature the software development communities of these open source projects. In this article, we review and discuss best practices of the open source volunteering and recruitment process that successful project leaders are usin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the increasing prominence of open collaboration as found in free/libre/open source software projects and other joint production communities, potential participants need to acquire skills. How these skills are learned has received little research attention. This article presents a large-scale survey (5,309 valid responses) in which users and de...
Article
Full-text available
Software developers with open source project experience acquire verifiable technical expertise, peer-certified competencies, and positional power--advantages that align with companies' need to obtain a competitive advantage.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traceability is an important quality aspect in modern software development. It facilitates the documentation of decisions and helps identifying conflicts regarding the conformity of one artifact to another. We propose a new approach to requirements engineering that utilizes qualitative research methods which have been well established in the domain...
Article
Full-text available
This is a report from the Free/Libre/Open Source (FLOSS) research track at the 10th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym 2014), which took place in Berlin, Germany, August 27-29. As part of a broader community interested in "everything open", including open access, open data, open educational resources, Wikipedia, wikis and open c...
Article
Detecting and understanding changes between document revisions is an important task. The acquired knowledge can be used to classify the nature of a new document revision or to support a human editor in the review process. While purely textual change detection algorithms offer fine-grained results, they do not understand the syntactic meaning of a c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Every open source project needs to decide on an open source license. This decision is of high economic relevance: Just which license is the best one to help the project grow and attract a community? The most common question is: Should the project choose a restrictive (reciprocal) license or a more permissive one? As an important step towards answer...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental unit of work in programming is the code contribution ("commit") that a developer makes to the code base of the project in work. An author's commit frequency describes how often that author commits. Knowing the distribution of all commit frequencies is a fundamental part of understanding software development processes. This paper prese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A fundamental unit of work in programming is the code contribution ("commit") that a developer makes to the code base of the project in work. We use statistical methods to derive a model of the probabilistic distribution of commit sizes in open source projects and we show that the model is applicable to different project sizes. We use both graphica...
Book
Welcome to the proceedings of OpenSym 2014, the 10th international symposium on open collaboration! Open collaboration is collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to...
Article
In fast jedem Softwareprodukt, auch in großer Standardsoftware, sind heute Open-Source-Komponenten enthalten. Die Hersteller dieser Software müssen die Geschäftsrisiken, die mit der Integration von Open-Source-Software in kommerzielle Produkte verbunden sind, verstehen und vernünftig managen. Dieser Beitrag zeigt ein Modell verschiedener rechtliche...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many open source projects have long become commercial. This paper shows just how much of open source software de-velopment is paid work and how much has remained volun-teer work. Using a conservative approach, we find that about 50% of all open source software development has been paid work for many years now and that many small projects are fully...
Article
Full-text available
Article
WikiSym + OpenSym 2013 is the 2013 Joint International Symposium on Open Collaboration, a conference for and by researchers and practitioners of open collaboration, which took place in Hong Kong on Aug 5-7, 2013.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The organic growth of wikis requires constant attention by contributors who are willing to patrol the wiki and improve its content structure. However, most wikis still only offer textual editing and even wikis which offer WYSIWYG editing do not assist the user in restructuring the wiki. Therefore, "gardening" a wiki is a tedious and error-prone tas...
Article
Whereas most research on Internetware has focused on new technologies for keeping track of a changing Internet, little attention has been paid to the software development process. A large portion of the software running the Internet is open source software. Open source software is developed both by volunteers and commercial companies, often jointly...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Every open source project needs to decide on an open source license. This decision is of high economic relevance: Just which license is the best one to help the project grow and attract a community? The most common question is: Should the project choose a restrictive (reciprocal) license or a more permissive one? As an important step towards answer...
Conference Paper
Commercial open source software has become an important part of the packaged software product industry. This paper provides a model of individual product features, rather than full-fledged business models, and their perceived value to customers. The model is the result of a three-iteration study, including interview analysis, literature review and...
Conference Paper
Many community open source projects are of high economic relevance. As these projects mature, their leaders face a choice of continuing the project as is, making the project join an existing foundation, or creating their own foundation for the project. This article presents a model of open source developer foundations that project leaders can use t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wiederverwendung von Softwarekomponenten verspricht, Softwareentwicklung schneller und günstiger zu machen und die Ergebnisqualität zu steigern. Trotz diverser methodischer Ansätze ist es für viele Softwareentwicklungsorganisationen schwierig geblieben, diese Ziele auch nur ansatzweise zu erreichen. Vor diesem Hintergrund bietet „Inner Source“, die...
Article
Full-text available
The design of software development tools follows from what the developers of such tools believe is true about software development. A key aspect of such beliefs is the size of code contributions (commits) to a software project. In this paper, we show that what tool developers think is true about the size of code contributions is different by more t...
Article
Full-text available
Single-vendor commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Single-vendor commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The heart of each wiki, including Wikipedia, is its content. Most machine processing starts and ends with this content. At present, such processing is limited, because most wiki engines today cannot provide a complete and precise representation of the wiki's content. They can only generate HTML. The main reason is the lack of well-defined parsers t...
Article
Commercial software firms can control or steer open source software projects to meet their business needs.
Article
Full-text available
Design patterns help in the creative act of designing, implementing, and documenting software systems. They have become an important part of the vocabulary of experienced software developers. This article reports about the author’s experiences and lessons learned with using and applying design patterns in industry projects. The article not only dis...
Article
By establishing a successful open source platform, software firms can compete more effectively across technology stacks and thereby increase their addressable market.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development processes of open source soft-ware are different from traditional closed source development processes. Still, open source software is frequently of high quality. This raises the question of how and why open source software creates high quality and whether it can maintain this quality for ever larger project sizes. In this paper, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design pattern density is a metric that measures how much of an object-oriented design can be understood and represented as instances of design patterns. Expert developers have long believed that a high design pattern density implies a high maturity of the design under inspection. This paper presents a quantifiable and observable definition of this...
Conference Paper
The quantitative analysis of software projects can provide insights that let us better understand open source and other software development pro- jects. An important variable used in the analysis of software projects is the amount of work being contributed, the commit size. Unfortunately, post-facto, the commit size can only be estimated, not measu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development processes of open source software are different from traditional closed source development processes. Still, open source software is frequently of high quality. Thus, we are investigating how open source software creates high quality and whether it can maintain this quality for ever larger project sizes. In this paper, we look at on...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes our experiences using open source software development practices at SAP. SAP is a major software developer and leader in business applications. We've found that open source practices can complement traditional top-down software development with bottom-up collective intelligence. Software forges offer a mechanism for advancing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a di- rect and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic para- dox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite a broad range of collaboration tools already available, enterprises continue to look for ways to improve internal and external communication. Microblogging is such a new communication channel with some considerable potential to improve intra-firm transparency and knowledge sharing. However, the adoption of such social software presents cert...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growing economic importance of open source, we need to improve our understanding of how open source software development processes work. The analysis of code contributions to open source projects is an important part of such research. In this paper we analyze the size of code contributions to more than 9,000 open source projects. We review...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software development is undergoing a major change away from a fully closed software process towards a process that incorporates open source software in products and services. Just how significant is that change? To answer this question we need to look at the overall growth of open source as well as its growth rate. In this paper, we quantitatively...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Commercial software firms are increasingly using and contributing to open source software. Thus, they need to understand and work with open source software development processes. This paper investigates whether the practice of continuous integration of agile software development methods has had an impact on open source software projects. Using fine...
Article
Full-text available
When business software fails to provide the desired functionality, users typically turn to spreadsheets to perform simple but general computational tasks. However, spreadsheets enforce a view of the world that consists mostly of tables and numbers rather than the domain concepts users have in mind. We are using wikis as a platform for empowering en...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the design of the unit testing framework JUnit v3.8. The documentation technique employed is an enhanced ver- sion of collaboration-based design, also known as role modeling. In collaboration-based design, objects are viewed as playing mul- tiple roles in different contexts, and different contexts are viewed as task specific co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
What are the effective practices for taking new ideas and innovating them into products based on software while avoiding the challenge of under-delivering on too high expectations? Often, the feasibility of The Grand project is assumed based on scope/scale-limited tech trials. Feasibility is further constrained by market pressure on both schedule a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Today's wiki engines are not interoperable. The rendering engine is tied to the processing tools which are tied to the wiki editors. This is an unfortunate consequence of the lack of rigorously specified standards. This paper discusses an EBNF-based gram- mar for Wiki Creole 1.0, a community standard for wiki markup, and demonstrates its benefits....
Conference Paper
Wikis empower users to collaborate with each other using prose. Users imprint data structures and processes onto wiki pages using social and technical conventions.
Article
Full-text available
Wikis empower users to collaborate with each other using prose. Users imprint data structures and processes onto wiki pages using social and technical conventions. Application wikis enhance wiki engines with lightweight programming features that aid in making data structures and processes explicit. Using these features, end- users can program a wik...
Article
Full-text available
Today's wiki engines are not interoperable. This is an unfortunate consequence of the lack of rigorously specified standards. This technical report presents a complete and validated EBNF-based grammar for Wiki Creole, a community standard for wiki markup. Wiki Creole is also the only standard currently available. Wiki Creole is being specified usin...
Article
Full-text available
Wikis have become an important application on the web and in the enterprise, yet there are no interoperability standards between different wiki engines. We present the first complete XML representation format of Wiki Creole 1.0. Wiki Creole is a community standard for wiki markup, the language used to write wiki pages. This report presents the comp...