Dirk W Lachenmeier

Dirk W Lachenmeier
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | CVUA · Plant-based foods

Dr. rer. nat. (PhD)
Current research interests include coffee by-products, cannabis, and unrecorded alcohol

About

536
Publications
356,792
Reads
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11,916
Citations
Citations since 2017
195 Research Items
6267 Citations
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Introduction
State-certified food chemist, toxicologist, head of the department of plant-based foods and co-head of the nuclear magnetic resonance laboratory at Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency, Karlsruhe, Germany, which is a governmental food, medicine and alcohol control authority. Avocationally working as scientist at the Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technical University of Dresden. PhD in Forensic Toxicology from University of Bonn. Email: DWLachenmeier@gmx.de
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Position
  • Head of Department
October 2013 - August 2015
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Position
  • Principal Investigator
October 2012 - October 2013
Ministry Of Rural Affairs And Consumer Protection Baden-Württemberg
Ministry Of Rural Affairs And Consumer Protection Baden-Württemberg
Position
  • Referent
Education
May 2000 - May 2003
Universitätsklinikum Bonn
Field of study
  • Toxicology
February 1999 - February 2000
October 1994 - January 1999
University of Bonn
Field of study
  • Food Chemistry

Publications

Publications (536)
Article
Full-text available
A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calcul...
Article
Full-text available
Background Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky beha...
Article
Background Given the association between alcohol consumption and negative health consequences, there is a need for individuals to be aware of their consumption of ethanol, which requires knowledge of serving sizes and alcoholic strength. This study is one of the first to systematically investigate the ability to discriminate alcoholic strength by t...
Article
In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic bever...
Article
Thirteen samples of authentic absinthe dating from the preban era (i.e., prior to 1915) were analyzed for parameters that were hypothesized as contributing to the toxicity of the spirit, including naturally occurring herbal essences (thujone, pinocamphone, fenchone), methanol, higher alcohols, copper, and antimony. The total thujone content of preb...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Cold-Brew-Kaffee hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren zu einem Trendgetränk entwickelt. Lebensmittelrechtliche Anforderungen hierzu wurden noch nicht festgelegt. Mit Hilfe einer Online-Umfrage wurde daher die Erwartung konsumierender Personen untersucht und daraus eine mögliche Verkehrsauffassung abgeleitet. Rund 70 % der befragten V...
Article
Full-text available
This opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) presents arguments for an updated risk assessment of diet-related exposure to acrylamide (AA), based on a critical review of scientific evidence relevant to low dose exposure. The SKLM arrives at the conclusion that a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the conference session summarized in this article was to bring together international experts on food toxicology and food safety and share the current scientific knowledge on these topics. The presentations covered a wide range of interdisciplinary issues, including (i) the impact of diet on body weight and health outcomes including...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee bean harvesting incurs various by-products known for their long traditional use. However, they often still end up being a waste instead of being used to their full potential. On the European market, coffee cherry (cascara) products are not yet common, and a novel food approval for beverages made from coffee cherry pulp was issued only recent...
Article
Full-text available
Die EFSA hat aktuell die Bewertung sämtlicher Novel-Food-Anträge zu CBD ausgesetzt (sog. Clock-Stop), da der Behörde keine ausreichenden Daten über die Sicherheit von CBD in Bezug auf zahlreiche Organsysteme des Menschen vorgelegt wurden, die im Tierversuch festgestellte Gefahren gesundheitsschädlicher Wirkungen widerlegen würden. Dieser Beitrag sc...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the European Union (EU), cannabidiol products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) located seve...
Article
Full-text available
This review of analytical methods for pot-honey research is intended to provide concise references to our contributions to a 35-day post-harvest at 30 °C, in an integrated study. Diverse methods were selected from specialized literature, from the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), and the International Honey Commission. Besides the...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products are widely marketed as over the counter products, mostly as food supplements. Adverse effects reported in anecdotal consumer reports or during clinical studies were first assumed to be due to hydrolytic conversion of CBD to psychotropic Δ ⁹ -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ ⁹ -THC) in the stomach after oral consumption....
Article
Full-text available
Roasted coffee silver skin is a coffee by-product, the uses of which are currently limited, e.g., as fertilizer, for energy production, or animal feed. Due to a low content of fat and carbohydrates combined with a high content of fiber, polyphenols and proteins, roasted silver skin is a valuable possible food ingredient. Potential applications incl...
Article
Full-text available
At present, foods containing cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabinoids are internationally being widely advertised and sold in increasing quantities. In the European Union (EU), these products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation, so that all available CBD oils and CBD-containing food supplements in the EU are currentl...
Article
Full-text available
An existing reference HPLC method (ISO 14502-2) was applied and validated for the matrix of coffee leaves (genus Coffea), which can be used to prepare a tea-like infusion. This method is usually used to measure conventional Camellia sinensis teas with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the purposes of method validation, robustness,...
Chapter
This review covers publications during the period January 2021 to December 2021 on adverse reactions to antiseptic drugs and disinfectants. Specific agents discussed are alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol), aldehydes (formaldehyde), ethylene oxide, guanidines (chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene guanidine, and polyhexamethylene biguanidine), benzalkonium...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of foods containing botanicals above toxicological thresholds poses challenges, as administrative court decisions have set high barriers for the application of Art. 14 para. 2a or 2b of the General Food Law Regulation (EC) No 178/2002. If the application of Art. 14 para. 2b of the General Regulation is restricted by a narrow interpre...
Article
Full-text available
The use of the flowers (blossoms) of the coffee plant (genus Coffea) has been neglected over the years, as the focus was primarily on cost-efficient production of coffee beans. Because of societal changes and economic pressures, there is an increasing demand for sustainability, so that the focus widened also toward the various by-products of the co...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that CBD in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of Δ9-THC. This study aims to validate this claim using a realistic e-cigarette setup. In addition, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during smoking of CBD-rich cannabis joints....
Article
Full-text available
Reducing the alcoholic strength in beverages as a strategy to reduce harmful alcohol use has been proposed by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization and governments worldwide. Different industrial and artisanal techniques are used to achieve low-alcohol content beverages. Therefore, regulations regarding the content of alco...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the result of a realist review based on a theory of change that substitution of higher strength alcohol products with lower strength alcohol products leads to decreases in overall levels of alcohol consumption in populations and consumer groups. The paper summarizes the results of 128 publications across twelve different themes....
Preprint
Full-text available
At present, foods containing cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabinoids are internationally being widely advertised and sold in increasing quantities. In the European Union (EU), these products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation, so that all available CBD oils and CBD-containing food supplements in the EU are currentl...
Article
Das Interesse von Verbrauchern an hanfhaltigen Lebensmitteln, insbesondere solchen mit hohen Gehalten an Cannabidiol (CBD), wächst kontinuierlich. Besonders beliebt sind CBD-Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, die aufgrund ihrer vermeintlich positiven Wirkung auf die Gesundheit stark beworben und verkauft werden [1]. Nachdem im November 2020 durch den EuGH e...
Article
The conversion of cannabidiol (CBD) to the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in electronic cigarettes is a repeatedly discussed topic, regarding the consumer safety of CBD liquids. Previous publications on this topic have reported contradictory results [1,2], raising the need for further research. This study investigated, whether THC can b...
Article
Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (NEM), die für Kinder bestimmt sind - insbesondere solche unter drei Jahren - sind vom Gesetzgeber nicht vorgesehen. Aufgrund der Gesetzeslücke und des rechtlichen Graubereichs sind derartige Produkte jedoch auf dem Markt verfügbar. Im Rahmen eines Projektes wurden am Chemischen und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruh...
Article
Kaffee ist weltweit ein sehr beliebtes Heißgetränk, welches aus gerösteten Kaffeebohnen zubereitet wird. Nach dem Röstprozess beinhalten Kaffeebohnen neben der bereits vorhandenen Vielzahl verschiedener Primär- und Sekundärmetaboliten auch prozessinduzierte Verbindungen, welche zu den organoleptischen Eigenschaften des aufgebrühten Getränks beitrag...
Article
Full-text available
The production of coffee leaf tea (Coffea arabica) in El Salvador and the influences of processing steps on non-volatile compounds and volatile aroma-active compounds were investigated. The tea was produced according to the process steps of conventional tea (Camellia sinensis) with the available possibilities on the farm. Influencing factors were t...
Article
Full-text available
These memoirs about Walter Lachenmeier (1945–2022) concentrate on his activities as head of the engineering sciences group of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), for which he worked from 1977 to 2007, and his following scientific activities in electric vehicle research and development, including a review of his pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
At present, foods containing cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabinoids are internationally being widely advertised and sold in increasing quantities. In the European Union (EU), these products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation, so that all available CBD oils and CBD-containing food supplements in the EU are currentl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim using a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur durin...
Article
Full-text available
Highly reactive decomposition products of deuterated chloroform can deteriorate samples dissolved in this commonly used solvent for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Samples for metabolomics studies often contain a complex mixture of sensitive substances such as phospholipids, peptides, unsaturated fatty acids or vitamins. If these rea...
Chapter
Full-text available
Das CVUA Karlsruhe stieß durch eine Verbraucheranfrage auf eine Verschwörungstheorie, wonach Hersteller von löslichem Kaffee die Bevölkerung mit dem Stoff Graphenoxid vergiften würden. Auslöser für die Anfrage war ein Video in sozialen Netzwerken. Dort war eine Person zu sehen, die mit einem Magneten magnetische Partikel (Graphenoxid?) aus lösliche...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the past 60 years, Cannabis sativa L. has been an object of increasing interest because of the psychotropic effects of some of its constituents. These effects mainly arise from the cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). C. sativa species also synthesize and accumulate the non-psychotropic compound cannabidiol (CBD). Due to th...
Article
Full-text available
Information about unsafe foods or feeds must be exchanged between European Union (EU) member states as quickly as possible. This is why the EU’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) exists. It helps to ensure that products that may be harmful to health do not enter the market or can be specifically withdrawn from the market. Different notif...
Article
Full-text available
Opinion on acetaldehyde as a flavouring substance: considerations for risk assessment Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in many foods and is also used as a flavouring due to its fruity aroma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified acetaldehyde as possibly carcinogenic to humans and, in combination with oral intake via alcohol...
Preprint
Highly reactive decomposition products of (deuterated) chloroform can deteriorate samples dissolved in this commonly used NMR solvent. For sensitive samples (such as peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins), this can lead to abnormal NMR spectra (e.g. signal shifts depending on pH, attenuation of signals over time due to chemical changes of ana...
Preprint
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim by a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim by a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during s...
Chapter
Hanflebensmittel haben das Randsortiment verlassen und sind im Mainstream angekommen, wie z.B. im Aktionssortiment einer großen Discounterkette im August 2021. Allerdings zeigte gerade diese Aktion die große Unsicherheit, die nach wie vor im Umgang mit Cannabisprodukten besteht, und im vorliegenden Fall erfolgte sogar sehr schnell ein freiwilliger...
Preprint
Full-text available
The production of coffee leaf tea (Coffea arabica) in El Salvador and the influences of processing steps on non-volatile compounds and volatile aroma-active compounds were investigated. The tea was produced according to process steps of conventional tea (Camellia sinensis) with available possibilities on the farm. Influencing factors were the leaf...
Presentation
Full-text available
Consuming very hot food and beverages poses a risk of oesophageal cancer. Although injury thresholds have been specified in industry standards and guidelines, there remain practical limitations in obtaining an exact measurement of the contact temperature from hot foodstuff in the oral mucosa inside the mouth. Dr Dirk Lachenmeier, a chemist and toxi...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica va...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim by a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during s...
Article
Full-text available
Subsequent to the dietary uptake of nitrate/nitrite in combination with acetaldehyde/ethanol, combination effects resulting from the sustained endogenous exposure to nitrite and acetaldehyde may be expected. This may imply locoregional effects in the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as systemic effects, such as a potential influence on endogeno...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica va...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, a fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety around choking, which was...
Article
Lebensmittelauthentizität ist eine komplexe Fragestellung mit vielfältigen Aspekten, wie z.B. dem geographischen Ursprung mit EU-Qualitätsregelungen. Produkte mit solchen Spezifikationen haben einzigartige Merkmale und sind häufig qualitativ hochwertig, weswegen sie oft gefälscht werden. Neben dem geographischen Ursprung gibt es weitere Möglichkeit...
Chapter
The consumption of alcoholic beverages is a lifestyle factor with worldwide prevalence that is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. While most of the effects, including the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages, are caused by ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde, other compounds were implicated as causing harms beyond ethanol. A...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Acetaldehyd kommt natürlicherweise in zahlreichen Lebensmitteln vor, wird aufgrund seines fruchtigen Aromas aber auch als Aromastoff eingesetzt. Die Internationale Agentur für Krebsforschung (IARC) stufte Acetaldehyd als möglicherweise krebserregend sowie in Verbindung mit der oralen Aufnahme über alkoholhaltige Getränke als humanes Kanzerogen ein....
Article
Full-text available
9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as the main psychotropic compound present in the hemp plant. It also occurs in commercially available hemp food products and may have adverse effects on consumers. This article provides an overview of the current situation of the THC content in hemp food products in Germany in recent years. The content of THC w...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee leaf tea is prepared as an infusion of dried leaves of Coffea spp. in hot water. It is a traditional beverage in some coffee-producing countries and has been authorized in 2020 within the European Union (EU) according to its novel food regulation. This article reviews current knowledge on the safety of coffee leaf tea. From the various ingre...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as fertilizer or animal feed. Modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to...
Article
Full-text available
Produkte mit Hanfextrakt sind als neuartige Lebensmittel ohne Zulassung weiter nicht verkehrsfähig. Der Europäische Gerichtshof schließt aber die Einstufung von Cannabidiol als Betäubungsmittel aus. Für Hanfblätter und -blüten muss laut BGH ein Missbrauch zu Rauschzwecken ausgeschlossen werden, jedoch ist dann gegebenenfalls eine Abgabe auch an End...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study reports about a case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety of choking, which was sho...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative assessments of the health risk of the constituents of alcoholic beverages including ethanol are reported in the literature, generally with hepatotoxic effects considered as the endpoint. Risk assessment studies on minor compounds such as mycotoxins, metals, and other contaminants are also available on carcinogenicity as the endpoint. T...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. The modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to waste redu...
Article
Full-text available
The leaves of the coffee plant Coffea are traditionally used in several countries worldwide to prepare tea-like beverages using aqueous infusion in hot water. There are currently no tested methods available to check the regulatory compliance of coffee leaf tea according to the European Union (EU) novel food authorization. This study shows that stan...
Chapter
This review covers publications during the period of January 2020 to December 2020 on adverse reactions to antiseptic drugs and disinfectants. Specific agents discussed are alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol), aldehydes (formaldehyde), guanidines (chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene guanidine, and polyhexamethylene biguanidine), benzalkonium compounds, tr...
Article
Background: The diverse forms of unrecorded alcohol, defined as beverage alcohol not registered in official statistics in the country where it is consumed, comprise about one fourth of all alcohol consumed worldwide. Since unrecorded alcohol is usually cheaper than registered commercial alcohol, a standard argument against raising alcohol excise t...
Article
Full-text available
An interesting and valuable discussion has arisen from our recent article (Lachenmeier et al., 2020) and we are pleased to have the opportunity to expand on the various points we made. Equally important, we wish to correct several important misunderstandings that were made by Kruse and Beitzke (2020) on behalf of the European Industrial Hemp Associ...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products are widely marketed as over the counter products, mostly as food supplements. Adverse effects reported in anecdotal consumer reports or during clinical studies were first assumed to be due to hydrolytic conversion of CBD to psychotropic Δ ⁹ -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ ⁹ -THC) in the stomach after oral consumption....
Article
Full-text available
Coffee silver skin is produced in large amounts as a by-product during the coffee roasting process. In this study, coffee silver skin of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner as well as silver skin pellets produced in the coffee industry were characterized with respect to both nutritional value and potential heat-...
Article
Full-text available
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the curr...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of animal protection, the trend of digested coffees such as Kopi Luwak produced by civet cats in captivity should not be endorsed. Previous studies on such coffees may have been flawed by sample selection and misclassification. As wild civets may prefer Coffea liberica beans, due to their higher sugar content, the chemical difference...
Article
Full-text available
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the curr...
Conference Paper
Food authenticity is a complex issue with multiple aspects, for example the geographical origin of products, more precisely geographical indications such as Protected Designation of Origin (POD) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Products with such specifications have unique characteristics and a high quality and, therefore, they are susc...
Article
Full-text available
The article of Kleinmeier et al. (2021) points out a controversial issue in the scientific literature, namely the potential for reduction of opium alkaloids during thermal processing of poppy seed containing foods. Due to its toxic effects above certain thresholds as well as the potential for confounding drug tests for opiates (Lachenmeier et al.,...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee by-products such as cascara, coffee leaves or alcohol made from fermented coffee materials, have been traditionally used in some coffee-producing countries. While the beans have been the major commodity, by-products have not typically reached the importing countries and often need regulatory approval. Coffee by-products may be an interesting...
Article
Full-text available
Das Internationale Krebsforschungszentrum IARC („International Agency for Research on Cancer“) der WHO hat im Rahmen seines Monographs-Programms im Dezember 2020 eine Bewertung von drei weiteren Stoffen vorgenommen, bei denen auch ein Vorkommen in bestimmten Lebensmitteln zu erwarten ist.
Article
Full-text available
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal li...
Article
Full-text available
Cold brew coffee is a new trend in the coffee industry. This paper presents pilot studies on several aspects of this beverage. Using an online survey, the current practices of cold brew coffee preparation were investigated, identifying a rather large variability with a preference for extraction of medium roasted Arabica coffee using 50–100 g/L at 8...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the materials presented during alcohol consumption assessment sufficiently aid interviewees in categorizing the beverages they consumed during their lifetime. In the cross-sectional “AF-CIDI” online survey, N = 162 adult drinkers (61% female, 40% non-students) aged 27 ± 8.2 years assigned bevera...