Dirk W Lachenmeier

Dirk W Lachenmeier
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | CVUA · Plant-based foods

Dr. rer. nat. (PhD)
Current research interests include coffee by-products, cannabis, and unrecorded alcohol

About

508
Publications
328,940
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10,961
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Introduction
State-certified food chemist, toxicologist, head of the department of plant-based foods and co-head of the nuclear magnetic resonance laboratory at Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency, Karlsruhe, Germany, which is a governmental food, medicine and alcohol control authority. Avocationally working as scientist at the Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technical University of Dresden. PhD in Forensic Toxicology from University of Bonn. Email: DWLachenmeier@gmx.de
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Position
  • Head of Department
October 2013 - August 2015
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Position
  • Principal Investigator
October 2012 - October 2013
Ministry Of Rural Affairs And Consumer Protection Baden-Württemberg
Ministry Of Rural Affairs And Consumer Protection Baden-Württemberg
Position
  • Referent
Education
May 2000 - May 2003
Universitätsklinikum Bonn
Field of study
  • Toxicology
February 1999 - February 2000
October 1994 - January 1999
University of Bonn
Field of study
  • Food Chemistry

Publications

Publications (508)
Article
Full-text available
A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calcul...
Article
Full-text available
Background Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky beha...
Article
Background Given the association between alcohol consumption and negative health consequences, there is a need for individuals to be aware of their consumption of ethanol, which requires knowledge of serving sizes and alcoholic strength. This study is one of the first to systematically investigate the ability to discriminate alcoholic strength by t...
Article
In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic bever...
Article
Thirteen samples of authentic absinthe dating from the preban era (i.e., prior to 1915) were analyzed for parameters that were hypothesized as contributing to the toxicity of the spirit, including naturally occurring herbal essences (thujone, pinocamphone, fenchone), methanol, higher alcohols, copper, and antimony. The total thujone content of preb...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim using a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur durin...
Article
Full-text available
Highly reactive decomposition products of deuterated chloroform can deteriorate samples dissolved in this commonly used solvent for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Samples for metabolomics studies often contain a complex mixture of sensitive substances such as phospholipids, peptides, unsaturated fatty acids or vitamins. If these rea...
Chapter
Full-text available
Das CVUA Karlsruhe stieß durch eine Verbraucheranfrage auf eine Verschwörungstheorie, wonach Hersteller von löslichem Kaffee die Bevölkerung mit dem Stoff Graphenoxid vergiften würden. Auslöser für die Anfrage war ein Video in sozialen Netzwerken. Dort war eine Person zu sehen, die mit einem Magneten magnetische Partikel (Graphenoxid?) aus lösliche...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the past 60 years, Cannabis sativa L. has been an object of increasing interest because of the psychotropic effects of some of its constituents. These effects mainly arise from the cannabinoid ∆ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆ 9-THC). C. sativa species also synthesize and accumulate the non-psychotropic compound cannabidiol (CBD). Due to t...
Article
Full-text available
Information about unsafe foods or feeds must be exchanged between European Union (EU) member states as quickly as possible. This is why the EU’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) exists. It helps to ensure that products that may be harmful to health do not enter the market or can be specifically withdrawn from the market. Different notif...
Article
Full-text available
Opinion on acetaldehyde as a flavouring substance: considerations for risk assessment Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in many foods and is also used as a flavouring due to its fruity aroma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified acetaldehyde as possibly carcinogenic to humans and, in combination with oral intake via alcohol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim by a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during s...
Chapter
Hanflebensmittel haben das Randsortiment verlassen und sind im Mainstream angekommen, wie z.B. im Aktionssortiment einer großen Discounterkette im August 2021. Allerdings zeigte gerade diese Aktion die große Unsicherheit, die nach wie vor im Umgang mit Cannabisprodukten besteht, und im vorliegenden Fall erfolgte sogar sehr schnell ein freiwilliger...
Preprint
Full-text available
The production of coffee leaf tea (Coffea arabica) in El Salvador and the influences of processing steps on non-volatile compounds and volatile aroma-active compounds were investigated. The tea was produced according to process steps of conventional tea (Camellia sinensis) with available possibilities on the farm. Influencing factors were the leaf...
Presentation
Full-text available
Consuming very hot food and beverages poses a risk of oesophageal cancer. Although injury thresholds have been specified in industry standards and guidelines, there remain practical limitations in obtaining an exact measurement of the contact temperature from hot foodstuff in the oral mucosa inside the mouth. Dr Dirk Lachenmeier, a chemist and toxi...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee pulp, obtained from wet coffee processing, is the major by-product accumulating in the coffee producing countries. One of the many approaches valorising this underestimated agricultural residue is the production of distillates. This research project deals with the production of spirits from coffee pulp using three different Coffea arabica va...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent research claimed that cannabidiol (CBD) in commercial electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids can be converted into psychotropic amounts of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study aims to validate this claim by a realistic e-cigarette setup. Additionally, this study also investigates if such a conversion may occur during s...
Article
Full-text available
Subsequent to the dietary uptake of nitrate/nitrite in combination with acetaldehyde/ethanol, combination effects resulting from the sustained endogenous exposure to nitrite and acetaldehyde may be expected. This may imply locoregional effects in the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as systemic effects, such as a potential influence on endogeno...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, a fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety around choking, which was...
Article
Lebensmittelauthentizität ist eine komplexe Fragestellung mit vielfältigen Aspekten, wie z.B. dem geographischen Ursprung mit EU-Qualitätsregelungen. Produkte mit solchen Spezifikationen haben einzigartige Merkmale und sind häufig qualitativ hochwertig, weswegen sie oft gefälscht werden. Neben dem geographischen Ursprung gibt es weitere Möglichkeit...
Chapter
The consumption of alcoholic beverages is a lifestyle factor with worldwide prevalence that is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. While most of the effects, including the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages, are caused by ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde, other compounds were implicated as causing harms beyond ethanol. A...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Acetaldehyd kommt natürlicherweise in zahlreichen Lebensmitteln vor, wird aufgrund seines fruchtigen Aromas aber auch als Aromastoff eingesetzt. Die Internationale Agentur für Krebsforschung (IARC) stufte Acetaldehyd als möglicherweise krebserregend sowie in Verbindung mit der oralen Aufnahme über alkoholhaltige Getränke als humanes Kanzerogen ein....
Article
Full-text available
9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as the main psychotropic compound present in the hemp plant. It also occurs in commercially available hemp food products and may have adverse effects on consumers. This article provides an overview of the current situation of the THC content in hemp food products in Germany in recent years. The content of THC w...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee leaf tea is prepared as an infusion of dried leaves of Coffea spp. in hot water. It is a traditional beverage in some coffee-producing countries and has been authorized in 2020 within the European Union (EU) according to its novel food regulation. This article reviews current knowledge on the safety of coffee leaf tea. From the various ingre...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as fertilizer or animal feed. Modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to...
Article
Full-text available
Produkte mit Hanfextrakt sind als neuartige Lebensmittel ohne Zulassung weiter nicht verkehrsfähig. Der Europäische Gerichtshof schließt aber die Einstufung von Cannabidiol als Betäubungsmittel aus. Für Hanfblätter und -blüten muss laut BGH ein Missbrauch zu Rauschzwecken ausgeschlossen werden, jedoch ist dann gegebenenfalls eine Abgabe auch an End...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study reports about a case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety of choking, which was sho...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative assessments of the health risk of the constituents of alcoholic beverages including ethanol are reported in the literature, generally with hepatotoxic effects considered as the endpoint. Risk assessment studies on minor compounds such as mycotoxins, metals, and other contaminants are also available on carcinogenicity as the endpoint. T...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. The modern, ecologically oriented society attaches great importance to waste redu...
Article
Full-text available
The leaves of the coffee plant Coffea are traditionally used in several countries worldwide to prepare tea-like beverages using aqueous infusion in hot water. There are currently no tested methods available to check the regulatory compliance of coffee leaf tea according to the European Union (EU) novel food authorization. This study shows that stan...
Chapter
This review covers publications during the period of January 2020 to December 2020 on adverse reactions to antiseptic drugs and disinfectants. Specific agents discussed are alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol), aldehydes (formaldehyde), guanidines (chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene guanidine, and polyhexamethylene biguanidine), benzalkonium compounds, tr...
Article
Background: The diverse forms of unrecorded alcohol, defined as beverage alcohol not registered in official statistics in the country where it is consumed, comprise about one fourth of all alcohol consumed worldwide. Since unrecorded alcohol is usually cheaper than registered commercial alcohol, a standard argument against raising alcohol excise t...
Article
Full-text available
An interesting and valuable discussion has arisen from our recent article (Lachenmeier et al., 2020) and we are pleased to have the opportunity to expand on the various points we made. Equally important, we wish to correct several important misunderstandings that were made by Kruse and Beitzke (2020) on behalf of the European Industrial Hemp Associ...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products are widely marketed as over the counter products, mostly as food supplements. Adverse effects reported in anecdotal consumer reports or during clinical studies were first assumed to be due to hydrolytic conversion of CBD to psychotropic Δ ⁹ -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ ⁹ -THC) in the stomach after oral consumption....
Article
Full-text available
Coffee silver skin is produced in large amounts as a by-product during the coffee roasting process. In this study, coffee silver skin of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner as well as silver skin pellets produced in the coffee industry were characterized with respect to both nutritional value and potential heat-...
Article
Full-text available
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the curr...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of animal protection, the trend of digested coffees such as Kopi Luwak produced by civet cats in captivity should not be endorsed. Previous studies on such coffees may have been flawed by sample selection and misclassification. As wild civets may prefer Coffea liberica beans, due to their higher sugar content, the chemical difference...
Article
Full-text available
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the curr...
Conference Paper
Food authenticity is a complex issue with multiple aspects, for example the geographical origin of products, more precisely geographical indications such as Protected Designation of Origin (POD) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Products with such specifications have unique characteristics and a high quality and, therefore, they are susc...
Article
Full-text available
The article of Kleinmeier et al. (2021) points out a controversial issue in the scientific literature, namely the potential for reduction of opium alkaloids during thermal processing of poppy seed containing foods. Due to its toxic effects above certain thresholds as well as the potential for confounding drug tests for opiates (Lachenmeier et al.,...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee by-products such as cascara, coffee leaves or alcohol made from fermented coffee materials, have been traditionally used in some coffee-producing countries. While the beans have been the major commodity, by-products have not typically reached the importing countries and often need regulatory approval. Coffee by-products may be an interesting...
Article
Full-text available
Das Internationale Krebsforschungszentrum IARC („International Agency for Research on Cancer“) der WHO hat im Rahmen seines Monographs-Programms im Dezember 2020 eine Bewertung von drei weiteren Stoffen vorgenommen, bei denen auch ein Vorkommen in bestimmten Lebensmitteln zu erwarten ist.
Article
Full-text available
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal li...
Article
Full-text available
Cold brew coffee is a new trend in the coffee industry. This paper presents pilot studies on several aspects of this beverage. Using an online survey, the current practices of cold brew coffee preparation were investigated, identifying a rather large variability with a preference for extraction of medium roasted Arabica coffee using 50–100 g/L at 8...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the materials presented during alcohol consumption assessment sufficiently aid interviewees in categorizing the beverages they consumed during their lifetime. In the cross-sectional “AF-CIDI” online survey, N = 162 adult drinkers (61% female, 40% non-students) aged 27 ± 8.2 years assigned bevera...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal li...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cold brew coffee is a new trend in coffee industry. This paper presents pilot studies into several aspect of this beverage. Using an online survey, the current practices of cold brew coffee preparation were investigated identifying a rather large variability with a preference for extraction of medium roasted Arabica coffee using 50-100 g/l at 8°C f...
Article
Full-text available
The food additive sorbic acid is considered as an effective preservative for certain cereal products, and propionic acid is commonly added in bakery wares, e.g., bread and fine bakery wares. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) method for the routine screening and quantification of...
Article
Full-text available
Two extraction schemes, conventional and high-pressure extraction methods were applied on Calligonum azel Maire leaves and roots, in purpose to exploit this plant as a source of natural antioxidants. The total phenolic content (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of extracts and solid materials were determined. Varying yields of act...
Article
Full-text available
Gewürze zählen zu den am häufigsten verfälschten Lebensmitteln. In Kurkuma aus Bangladesch, einem der Hauptanbauländer, wurden laut einer aktuellen Studie Bleikontaminationen mit gesundheitlich bedenklichen Gehalten von bis zu 1 g/kg vorgefunden. Als mögliche Ursache wird eine Farbschönung mit gelbem Bleichromat (PbCrO4) angegeben. Damit kann die F...
Preprint
Full-text available
The food additive sorbic acid is considered as an effective preservative for certain cereal products, and propionic acid is commonly added in bakery wares, e.g. bread and fine bakery wares. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR) method for routine screening and quantification of...
Article
Full-text available
While hot brewed coffee is a food item that is almost risk-free in terms of microbial safety, cold brew coffee offers good growing conditions for spoilage organisms and various pathogenic germs due to its production method. In a recent test, a series of samples was taken to determine whether cold brew coffee poses a microbial risk for consumers.
Data
Linda Claaßen, a Bachelor Student of Albstadt-Sigmaringen University, in collaboration and under the supervision of Prof. Gertrud Winkler, Dr. Steffen Schwarz (Coffee Consulate) and Dr. Dirk Lachenmeier (CVUA Karlsruhe) has been conducting her thesis on cold-brew coffee, aiming to investigate and optimize the product quality. As surveys at coffee r...
Article
Objective: About 25% of global alcohol consumption is unrecorded, that is, concerns alcohol not registered in the country where it is consumed. Unrecorded alcohol includes homemade, illicit, or surrogate alcohols. The aim of this review is to update the evidence on unrecorded alcohol and its impact on health. Method: A narrative review and quali...
Article
Full-text available
Während der Corona-Zeit kann es immer wieder zu Hamsterkäufen und leeren Heferegalen kommen. Abhilfe sollen laut Internet und diverser Zeitungsartikel selbst hergestellte Hefewässer schaffen. Diese "ganz natürliche Methode" soll zudem für bessere Verträglichkeit der damit hergestellten Backwaren sorgen. Wie das einzuschätzen ist und ob es gesundhei...
Article
Full-text available
It was generally accepted as a default assumption that No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels (NOAELs) or Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels (LOAELs) in long-term toxicity studies are lower than in short-term ones, i.e. the toxic potency increases with prolonged exposure duration. Recent studies on pesticides and industrial chemicals reported that su...
Article
Hanfprodukte und insbesondere solche mit Cannabidiol sind derzeit in aller Munde und beschäftigen alle Bereiche der Lebensmittelüberwachung mit Fragen der Untersuchung, Verkehrsfähigkeitsbeurteilung im Abgrenzungsbereich zum Betäubungsmittelgesetz, sowie den sich daraus ergebenden teilweise nichttrivialen Problemen für Lebensmittelkontrolle und -vo...
Article
Die zentrale Frage zur Verkehrsfähigkeit von Cannabidiol (CBD), sowie Produkten mit Hanfblüten und Hanfextrakt ist neben der notwendigen Novel Food-Zulassung die Prüfung der Einstufung als Betäubungsmittel, die nach Art. 2 Buchst. g der Verordnung (EG) Nr. 178/2002 einen sofortigen Ausschluss aus dem Lebensmittelbereich bedingen würde und die Produ...
Article
Full-text available
Cold brew coffee has emerged as a new trend over the last decade. However, "cold brew" is an extraction style of ground roasted coffee with water at lower than body temperature (typically 8 • C or room temperature), rather than a beverage per se. Cold brew extraction poses several challenges, including the need for specific optimization depending o...
Article
Full-text available
Due to legal regulations, the rise of globalised (online) commerce and the need for public health protection, the analysis of spirit drinks (alcoholic beverages >15% vol) is a task with growing importance for governmental and commercial laboratories. In this article a newly developed method using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Die Blätter der Kaffeepflanzen werden in Kaffeeherkunftsländern seit langem für die Zubereitung von teeähnlichen Getränken verwendet. Besonders in Westsumatra, Äthiopien, Jamaika, Jemen, Indien, Java und im Südsudan wird der Aufguss als traditionelles Lebensmittel konsumiert. Vor der Zubereitung des Getränks gibt es verschiedene Produktionsmethoden...
Article
Full-text available
The term “cold brew” describes a method for preparing a coffee beverage in the form of a certain extraction style. Several cold brew methods such as drip filtration, full immersion, or cold press are available but the key element is the water, which may be cold or room temperature, but never hot.
Article
Hanfhaltige Produkte eroberten in den vergangenen Jahren zunehmend den Lebensmittelmarkt, obwohl die meisten Produkte bis dato keine Zulassung als neuartige Lebensmittel gemäß der Novel-Food-VO besitzen [1]. Über die Analytik und Beurteilung hanfhaltiger Produkte haben wir bereits ausführlich berichtet [2,3]. Viele Produkte enthalten neben der psyc...
Article
Gewürze zählen zu den am häufigsten verfälschten Lebensmitteln. Vorsätzliche Täuschung lohnt sich wirtschaftlich sehr schnell. In Kurkuma aus Bangladesch, einem der Hauptanbauländer, wurden laut einer aktuellen Studie Bleikontaminationen mit gesundheitlich bedenklichen Gehalten von bis zu 1 g/kg vorgefunden. 11 % aller untersuchten Kurkuma Produkte...