Dirk Gevers

Dirk Gevers
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard · Genome Sequencing and Analysis Program

Ph.D.

About

373
Publications
65,327
Reads
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53,078
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - present
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Position
  • Group Leader in Microbial Systems & Communities
Description
  • Together with his colleagues and collaborators, he is taking on several projects that bring together advanced sequence-based technologies and novel bioinformatic tools to characterize the vast complexity of the human microbiome in both health and disease.
April 2008 - October 2010
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Position
  • Computational Biologist on the Human Microbiome Project
Description
  • Computational Biologist at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA, USA : 'The Human Microbiome Project'.
June 2006 - March 2008
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Visiting postdoc at the Polz Lab, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA: 'A population-level analysis of the bacterial species' (FWO travel grant).

Publications

Publications (373)
Article
Full-text available
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully applied to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in humans, but a precise method to measure which bacterial strains stably engraft in recipients and evaluate their association with clinical outcomes is lacking. We assembled a collection of >1,000 different bacterial strains that...
Article
Full-text available
The human microbiome, described as an accessory organ because of the crucial functions it provides, is composed of species that are uniquely found in humans1,2. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the impact of routine interpersonal contacts in shaping microbiome composition. In a relatively ‘closed’ cohort of 287 people from the Fiji Islands,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human microbiome, described as an accessory organ because of the crucial functions it provides, is composed of species that are uniquely found in humans. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the impact of routine interpersonal contacts in shaping microbiome composition. In a relatively 'closed' cohort of 287 people from the Fiji Islands, whe...
Article
Full-text available
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that targets pancreatic islet beta cells and incorporates genetic and environmental factors¹, including complex genetic elements², patient exposures³ and the gut microbiome⁴. Viral infections⁵ and broader gut dysbioses⁶ have been identified as potential causes or contributing factors; however, human st...
Article
Full-text available
We show that a citizen science, self-selected cohort shipping samples through the mail at room temperature recaptures many known microbiome results from clinically collected cohorts and reveals new ones. Of particular interest is integrating n = 1 study data with the population data, showing that the extent of microbiome change after events such as...
Preprint
Full-text available
To examine the functional contribution of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) microbes to immune homeostasis and colitis, we colonized unchallenged and colitis-susceptible germ-free mice with over twenty human intestinal microbiotas from healthy and IBD donors. Compared to healthy microbiotas, IBD microbiotas led to expanded RORγt ⁺ Th17 cells and red...
Article
The classroom microbiome is different from the home microbiome. Higher classroom microbial diversity is associated with increased asthma symptoms. In this pilot study, a school-level integrated pest management intervention changed the classroom microbiome.
Article
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donor to patient is a treatment for microbiome-associated diseases. Although the success of FMT requires donor bacteria to engraft in the patient's gut, the forces governing engraftment in humans are unknown. Here we use an ongoing clinical experiment, the treatment of recurrent Clostridium diffic...
Article
Full-text available
Oral squamous cell carcinomas are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, and poor oral hygiene are established risk factors. To date, no large-scale case-control studies have considered the effects of these risk factors on the composition of the oral microbiome, nor microbial community associations with or...
Article
Full-text available
Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that is associated with changes in the gut microbiome. Here, we sought to identify strain-specific functional correlates with IBD outcomes. Methods We performed metagenomic sequencing of monthly stool samples from 20 IBD patients and...
Article
Growing evidence suggests that microbes can influence the efficacy of cancer therapies. By studying colon cancer models, we found that bacteria can metabolize the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine (2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine) into its inactive form, 2′,2′-difluorodeoxyuridine. Metabolism was dependent on the expression of a long isoform of the bac...
Article
Our 2014 study published in Cell Host & Microbe, "The Treatment-Naive Microbiome in New-Onset Crohn's Disease,'' was designed to improve our understanding of the microbiome's role in Crohn's disease by studying a unique, well-suited cohort and sample set. This commentary provides a hindsight perspective of this original study as well as future outl...
Article
Objective Patients with IBD display substantial heterogeneity in clinical characteristics. We hypothesise that individual differences in the complex interaction of the host genome and the gut microbiota can explain the onset and the heterogeneous presentation of IBD. Therefore, we performed a case–control analysis of the gut microbiota, the host ge...
Article
Background: The microbiota in the lumen of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by reduced diversity, particularly Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. It is unknown whether the introduction of the intestinal microbiota from healthy individuals could correct this dysbiosis and reverse mucosal inflammation. We investigated the response to f...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has underscored the importance of the microbiome in human health, and has largely attributed differences in phenotype to differences in the species present among individuals. However, mobile genes can confer profoundly different phenotypes on different strains of the same species. Little is known about the function and distribution of m...
Article
Full-text available
Colonization of the fetal and infant gut microbiome results in dynamic changes in diversity, which can impact disease susceptibility. To examine the relationship between human gut microbiome dynamics throughout infancy and type 1 diabetes (T1D), we examined a cohort of 33 infants genetically predisposed to T1D. Modeling trajectories of microbial ab...
Article
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Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclu...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims Microbial dysbiosis and aberrant host–microbe interactions in the gut are believed to contribute to the development and progression of Crohn’s disease (CD). Microbiome studies in CD typically have focused on microbiota in feces or superficial mucosal layers of the colon because accessing DNA from deeper layers of the bowel is chal...
Article
Full-text available
Deep sequencing of the gut microbiomes of 1135 participants from a Dutch population-based cohort shows relations between the microbiome and 126 exogenous and intrinsic host factors, including 31 intrinsic factors, 12 diseases, 19 drug groups, 4 smoking categories, and 60 dietary factors. These factors collectively explain 18.7% of the variation see...
Article
Full-text available
BackgroundA gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome, but it is largely unknown how a switch to a GFD affec...
Article
According to the hygiene hypothesis, the increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases in western countries may be explained by changes in early microbial exposure, leading to altered immune maturation. We followed gut microbiome development from birth until age three in 222 infants in Northern Europe, where early-onset autoimmune diseases are common...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are linked both with host genetics and with environmental factors, including dysbioses of the gut microbiota. However, it is unclear whether these microbial changes precede disease onset. Twin cohorts present a unique genetically-controlled opportunity to study the relationships between lifestyle factors...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: There is an unexplained association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with the intestinal microbiota implicated as an important factor. The study aim was to compare the structure of the intestinal microbiota of patients with UC with and without PSC. Methods: UC patients with PSC (PSC-UC...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The composition of bacteria in and on the human body varies widely across human individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions. While microbial communities are influenced by environmental factors, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. This study is part of an expanding ef...
Article
Analyses of metagenomic datasets that are sequenced to a depth of billions or trillions of bases can uncover hundreds of microbial genomes, but naive assembly of these data is computationally intensive, requiring hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes of RAM. We present latent strain analysis (LSA), a scalable, de novo pre-assembly method that separate...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Evidence suggests the gut microbiome is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the host-microbe interaction regulating immune and metabolic pathways. However, there was no firm evidence for associations between microbiota and metabolic risk factors for CVD from large-scale studies in humans. In particular, the...
Article
An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short...