Dirk Enzmann

Dirk Enzmann
University of Hamburg | UHH · School of Law

PhD

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89
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Publications

Publications (89)
Technical Report
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Researchers who read about effect sizes or want to report effect sizes will be confronted with a plethora of different names and symbols – the same measures may go under different names, and different measures for different purposes may go under the same symbol. Focusing on standardized effect size measures for the difference of means from two inde...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the first results of the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2), a large international collaborative study of delinquency and victimization of 12—15-year-old students. The analysis is based on a subsample of the data set: 43,968 respondents from 63 cities and 31 countries. The prevalence rates of the maj...
Article
Full-text available
Based on two samples of juveniles (total n = 1,629), this experimental study explores effects of modifying the design (not the wording) of a self-report questionnaire on prevalences and incidences of delinquency - the core instrument of the second International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD-2) study. Research questions are: Do rates of self-reporte...
Chapter
The ISRD-2 as a comparative study of youth crime and victimization has two distinguishing features: (1) the rather large number of participating countries and (2) the explicitly standardized comparative design. There is no question that an explicit comparative design has many advantages over other designs. Yet, the cross-national standardized appro...
Chapter
Social responses to criminal offending were measured in the ISRD-2 survey in three different ways: (a) by asking victims of robbery, assault, or theft whether (and how many of) the offenses experienced in the last year became known to the police, (b) by asking offenders who reported having committed a certain offense during life-time whether they w...
Article
Our study draws from a natural experiment created by the school lockdowns in Finland during the 2020 coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic to compare at-school and home-based responses to an online youth crime survey. Using our quasi-experimental design, we examine how at-home responses during the Covid-19 lockdown affected the sample composition...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document describes the background and methodology of the fourth round of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD4). Drawing from the fields of criminology, public health and cross-national methodology, the ISRD is an ongoing multi-national research study that aims to describe and explain adolescents’ experiences with crime and vi...
Article
The review discusses the authors' clarification of the concepts of crime and self-control, the overlap of social bonding, social-control, and morality, and the authors' conclusions regarding the implications of their theory for public policy and the criminal justice system.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ist es richtig, dass der im Rahmen eines Signifikanztests berechnete p-Wert (z.B. p = .05) – die Wahrscheinlichkeit ist, dass die Resultate auf Zufall beruhen? – bedeutet, dass die Chancen 95 % sind, dass die wissenschaftliche Hypothese korrekt ist? – ein Maß der Power ist, z.B. das Verhalten einer Population vorherzusagen? – ein Maß des Vertrauens...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates the association between physical child maltreatment and juvenile delinquent behavior in the context of the Situational Action Theory (SAT) (Wikström, 2006, 2017, 2020). Self-control, morality and exposure to criminogenic settings are proposed as possible mechanisms explaining the association between physical child mal...
Article
In: Rechtspsychologie (RPsych): Zeitschrift für Familienrecht, Strafrecht, Kriminologie und soziale Arbeit, 4, 456-476. // Zahlreiche Studien haben die langfristigen negativen Folgen körperlicher Bestrafung durch Eltern und elterlicher Misshandlung für die Delinquenz und das Problemverhalten im späteren Leben nachgewiesen. Beginnend mit der Gesetzg...
Article
A general theory of moral rule breaking - situational action theory (SAT) - is applied to socially desirable responding in surveys, which can be seen as acts that break the rule to answer honestly. Using ISRD3 data, we explore the effects of SAT's key concepts at the person and country level on under- and overreporting of drug use. While country-le...
Chapter
This chapter uses the third sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3) to explore the prevalence and predictors of parental violence against children. Using the 27 countries in the 2017 dataset of ISRD3, it shows very wide variations across country. Clear correlations also emerged across country between the prevalence of paren...
Chapter
The concluding chapter discusses why this monograph limits itself to the presentation of methodological findings, on the one hand, and to descriptive findings about offending and victimization, on the other. That is, methodological and descriptive analysis are a necessary precursor to the sort of theory-testing that forms the central ambition of IS...
Chapter
The ISRD has two distinguishing features as a comparative study of youth crime and victimization: (1) the large number and cultural diversity of participating countries and (2) the explicitly comparative design. This chapter provides an overview of the core data features of the ISRD, including listing of participating countries, sample size, respon...
Chapter
This brief chapter reports on how ISRD3 has incorporated a test of the impact of cultural variability on self-report responses to questions about offending. The results show that concerns about cultural variability (in the social desirability related to admitting delinquent behavior) are empirically supported and that caution is warranted when maki...
Chapter
Chapter 4 shifts the focus from young people’s offending to their experience as victims of crime. This chapter presents initial ISRD3 findings on victimization from 27 countries. The chapter presents data for (1) victimization in the previous year and (2) whether the police were notified of this victimization. Patterns of victimization are presente...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter presents a brief background to the third round of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3), an internationally collaborative study of delinquency among 7th, 8th, and 9th graders. The three core objectives of the ISRD are: (1) to measure the prevalence and incidence of offending and victimization; (2) to test...
Book
This Brief presents the first major release of findings from the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3). ISRD is a major international research collaboration that now covers some 35 countries. It surveys young people aged 12 to 16 in their schools, asking about their experience of crime – both as offenders and as victims – and ab...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report of a study to understand and prevent youth crime in Hamburg (Germany) -- a survey of 7 to 9th grade students (n = 2,122) -- as part of the third sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-3): Victimization experiences and violence prevention measures at schools; the influence of norms, controls, and structural characteris...
Chapter
In kriminologischen Studien, in denen mittels standardisierter Befragungen Personen zu ihren eigenen Gesetzesverstößen befragt werden, ist damit zu rechnen, dass die Antworten von sozial erwünschtem Antwortverhalten beeinflusst sind. Unter sozial erwünschtem Antwortverhalten wird hier verstanden, dass die Befragten versuchen, in einer Weise zu antw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Victimization experiences and reporting victimizations to the police are related to perceptions of procedural justice in two ways: On the one hand victimization may have a negative impact on trust in justice and the police, on the other hand trust in justice and the police will determine whether victims of crime will report their victimization expe...
Book
Full-text available
The institutional anomie theory (IAT) is a macro sociological approach to explain rates of crime. According to the IAT, the structure and level of crime depend on the integration of society's institutions. The study tries to assess the dominance of the economy by measuring the norm transmission strength (NTS) of non-economic institutions. By explor...
Chapter
Full-text available
Es wird untersucht, wie sich Anzeigequoten in Deutschland und darüber hinaus deliktspezifisch darstellen und entwickelt haben. Des Weiteren wird die Frage behandelt, welche Rolle die polizeiliche Registrierungspraxis für die Diskrepanz von Hell- und Dunkelfelddaten spielt. Schließlich wird das Anzeigeverhalten selbst thematisiert. Hierzu gehören Gr...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter discusses different ways to measure rates of reporting victimizations to the police. It is shown that measurement descisions affect the size of estimated reporting rates: In general, reporting rates based on the last victimization experienced or prevalence based reporting rates are substantially higher than reporting rates based on inci...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study is an international comparative survey on young people's crime victimization and offending. The third wave of the survey, ISRD3, targeted school grades 7 to 9 (age 12-15 years). In Germany, the cities of Hamburg and Cologne were surveyed between January and July 2015. Primary sampling units wer...
Code
-nb_adjust- is a Stata .ado-program to identify and adjust (or remove) outliers of a variable assuming that its values follow a negative binomial distribution -- as it is often the case with count data. Per default a value is defined as an outlier if its expected frequency is less than 0.5 (rule-based outlier definition). A more detailed descripti...
Chapter
Definition and nature of robbery and extortion in law and criminology is presented together with prevalence rates in recent official crime statistics and self-report studies. Characteristics of offenders and the distinctive features of juvenile offenses as to robbery and extortion are discussed.
Data
Full-text available
Book
This book presents the first comprehensive analysis of the second International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD-2). An earlier volume, Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond (Springer, 2010) focused mainly on the findings with regard to delinquency, victimization and substance use in each of the individual participating ISRD-2 countries. The...
Chapter
The school is an important social context for young people’s socialization as they spend a considerable amount of time there. At school, they make friends and are supervised by their teachers. However, the role of the school in the lives of children is often underestimated. When compulsory education was introduced in most countries in the nineteent...
Chapter
Full-text available
Most children commit their first offence when they are 12, 13 or 14 years old (see Chap. 3). This is the adolescencet period where children seek autonomy and identity and are increasingly expected to make their own decisions and take more responsibility. Their need for independence means that parents become less important, while school and especial...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in cross-cultural comparisons both among academics and among policy makers, which is related to general trends such as increasing globalization, the advantage of scientific collaboration in terms of building knowledge, and the need for policy makers to be informed about different kinds of solutions to comparable problems...
Chapter
Full-text available
Delinquency and victimization are correlated. However, this does not imply that all victims are offenders, or that all offenders become victims of crimes. Elderly people and women especially commit substantially fewer offences, but nonetheless at times may experience victimization. However, among juveniles, the correlation between victimization and...
Chapter
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This final chapter wants to accomplish three objectives. First, we provide an overview of the main findings of the study. Then, in order to place our findings in a wider theoretical context, we report on the results of a multilevel analysis of the data. The central question in the multilevel analysis is to determine if there are similarities or dif...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since about the 1970s, a number of authors have called attention to the role of neighbourhoods in generating delinquency (Shaw and McKay 1942; Kornhauser 1978; Bursik and Grasmick 1993; Sampson and Laub 1993; Sampson and Raudenbush 1999; Sampson et al. 1997, 1999; Wikström 1998; Morenoff et al. 2001). If one wants to study whether growing up in spe...
Chapter
Full-text available
Describing the nature and distribution of delinquency in 30 countries is an awesome task. In order to make this task more manageable, we make extensive use of six country clusters based on Esping-Andersen (1990) and Saint-Arnaud and Bernard (2003) (see Chaps. 1 and 2). We will start by presenting some of our results from the total combined sample a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Regardless of the multiple theories concerning the aetiology or genesis of criminal behaviour in young people, the family, undoubtedly always plays a central role. This chapter will analyze the various ways in which families effect juvenile behaviour. In doing this we will examine the different hypotheses which attempt to explain the impact of fami...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the scaling of the unobserved latent dependent variable in logistic and probit multilevel models, the lowest level residual variance is always pi^2/3 (logistic regression) or 1.0 (probit regression). As a consequence, a change of regression coefficients and variance components between hierarchically nested models cannot be interpreted un...
Article
r2_mz is a post-estimation command that computes McKelvey & Zavoina's R2 for multilevel logistic regression, random effects, and fixed effects logit and probit models.
Chapter
Alcohol and drug use in relation to criminal activities has a long and colourful history. Several studies convey that problem behaviour such as heavy substance use and criminal behaviour are highly related (Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990; Junger- Tas et al. 1992; Franken 2003; Monshouwer et al. 2004). In accordance with these findings, this chapter w...
Article
Full-text available
meresc rescales the results of mixed nonlinear probability models such as xtmelogit, xtlogit, or xtprobit to the same scale as the intercept-only model. This allows to compare regression coefficients or variance components across hierarchically nested models.
Article
dta2sav creates SPSS syntax and a Stata data file to convert Stata data into SPSS data. Extended missing values which are labeled will be recoded into "numeric" values which will be defined as missing by using SPSS syntax commands created by dta2sav. This allows to preserve labels of missing values as defined in Stata for subsequent use in SPSS.
Chapter
In the preceding chapters, we made frequent use of Hirschi’s social bond theory, first presented in the classic Causes of Delinquency (1969). This theory argues that delinquent acts are inhibited to the extent that an individual is connected to a conventional life through social bonds – to family, school, and peers; and delinquency results “when an...
Article
moments2 calculates various measures of skewness and kurtosis. Based on Nicholas Cox's moments, it also calculates mean and standard deviation for a list of variables. moments2 differs from moments only in allowing different measures of skewness and kurtosis and making the measures used in SAS and SPSS the default.
Chapter
The present volume is the first official publication on the second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2), an international collaborative research enterprise with a cross-national description and explanation of juvenile delinquency as its main objective. In general, the cross-national description of the prevalence and incidence of del...
Chapter
The contributions in this book provide a first glimpse into the rich data from our collaborative international study of self-reported delinquency and victimisation. Each chapter stands on its own and tells its own story, albeit with a common core content: Tables of life-time and last year prevalences of offending. It is tempting to compare the prev...
Chapter
This chapter presents, primarily, the descriptive findings of the German component of the second ISRD study. In the first part, some facts about Germany, the German school system, juvenile justice and official statistics concerning juvenile delinquency are presented. Next, the methodology of the study is explained, followed by a description of the...
Article
Full-text available
Based on official crime statistics, violent crimes of youths in Germany and Central and Eastern Europe had appeared to have increased considerably between 1990 and 2000. Survey data that can overcome limitations of police data and allow to compare crime trends across countries are rare. Based on self-report delinquency studies of 15year old juvenil...
Article
Full-text available
Results of the second International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD2) study as to the 12 month prevalences of victimiation experiences and self-reported delinquency are presented by comparing prevalence rates of cities/regions of 27 countries in Europe, South America and the US.
Article
To make an interpretation of a factor solution easier, sortl sorts the rotated loadings (pattern matrix) or rotated components stored by rotate into the matrix e(r_L). It also sorts the matrix e(Psi) of the unique or unexplained variances created by factor or by pca into the same order.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report of the German part of the second sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2) of 7 to 9th grade students (N = 3,747) in 7 cities: Design and sampling, survey instrument, sample characteristics, prevalence and incidence of self-reported delinquency and victimization, reporting behavior, detection risks, multivariate model...
Article
Using row functions of egen, scores calculates scores according to fcn using variables listed in varlist and assigns them to the new variable newvar. If the number of valid values of varlist is less than minvalid(#) the resulting score will be set to missing. fcn can be one of several egen functions.
Article
Full-text available
Data of a survey on victimization, delinquency, and attitudes towards violence among representative samples of juveniles in Russia (Volgograd) (N = 1747) and several cities of Germany (N = 7238) show that measures of attitudes towards violence have a different factorial structure in Russia and Germany. In Germany attitudes towards instrumental viol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Survey data on victimization, delinquency, and attitudes towards violence among representative samples of juveniles in Russia (Volgograd) (n = 1,747) and several cities of Germany (n = 7,238) show that measures of attitudes towards violence have a different factorial structure in Russia and Germany. In Germany attitudes towards instrumental violenc...
Chapter
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Discussion of the conceptualization and operationalization of burnout as a reaction to emotionally demanding interactions and suggestion to re-conceptualize burnout as a truely emotional exhaustion.
Chapter
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Based on a sample of 2075 young adult prisoners (14-24y) from three prisons in Germany (first prison terms), the prevalence of substance use (alcohol and drugs) and addiction, its relationship to criminal offenses of the convicted, therapeutic interventions experienced during or on occasion of the prison term, and subsequent recidivism of 1069 rele...
Article
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Ulrich Mueller criticizes a report on juvenile criminal violence in Germany, published by Christian Pfeiffer, Ingo Delzer, and the authors (Pfeiffer et al. 1998). We emphatically reject the accusation of unsound scientific methodology and dishonesty. The reply focuses on the issue of methodological rigor and the validity of the substantial results....
Article
Full-text available
In Germany, official statistics of crimes known to the police as well as recent self-report studies show that juveniles of certain migrant groups exhibit significantly higher rates of criminal offending. At the same time, these groups live under the most unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. The high rate of violent delinquency of male juveniles is...
Article
Full-text available
The change in self-esteem and the stabilising role of accommodative coping resources among incarcerated young male offenders is investigated using a longitudinal approach with three occasions of measurements (begining of prison term, 2 months later, end of prison term). Data from 211 participants with a complete set of measurements were analysed, e...
Chapter
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Discussion of the contribution of the culture of honor and violence legitimizing norms of masculinity (VLNM) to explain ethnic differences of self-reported violent behavior of juveniles. The chapter shows the psychometric properties and the items of the VLNM scale.
Article
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The article presents research on ethnic minorities' involvement in juvenile crime. It is based on the results of a self-report delinquency study in Germany in 2000. The sample consists of 11,071 15-year old students. The juveniles of different ethnic backgrounds are compared according to their involvement in property and violent offences. Using hie...
Chapter
Based on a three wave longitudinal study of incarcerated juveniles daily experiences of inmates are investigated. The survey focuses on strains, worries, expectations and their correlates during the prison term. Results show that the most dominant stressor is the relationship with fellow prisoners.
Article
The negative effect of a custodial sentence on juvenile self-esteem is discussed. It is argued that individual coping resources offer an explanation for the inconclusive findings of earlier studies in this field. Findings of a cross-sectional study of 299 prisoners (14 to 24 years) are presented. The results show that the stability of self-esteem d...
Article
Full-text available
Based on self-reported delinquency studies of 9th grade studens in 8 German cities the study describes attitudes towards violence and delinquent behavior of juveniles and investigates the role of experienced violence at home (parental violence, maltreatment), subjective norms of parents and peers, and attachment to peers on the effect of attitudes...
Article
Results are presented of a study on burnout among 249 Dutch elementary and secondary school teachers. The current study considers burnout in terms of the exchange of investments and outcomes at interpersonal (teacher-student) and organizational (teacher-school) levels. In addition, demographic (age and gender) and work-related factors (school type,...
Article
Full-text available
The dimensionality and validity of the BM (Burnout Measure) is investigated in Dutch samples of human services professionals and white-collar workers (total N = 2190). Results show that, in contrast to the presumed dimensions 'physical exhaustion', 'emotional exhaustion' and 'mental exhaustion', the factors of the BM are 'demoralization', 'exhausti...
Book
Full-text available
Burnout is a common metaphor for a state of extreme psychophysical exhaustion, usually work-related. This book provides an overview of the burnout syndrome from its earliest recorded occurrences to current empirical studies. It reviews perceptions that burnout is particularly prevalent among certain professional groups - police officers, social wor...
Book
Based on longitudinal data of health care professionals the causal effects of work and client related stressors on burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) are investigated. The model includes mediating and moderating effects of defensive coping and different forms of empathic reactions on the stress-burnout relationship.
Chapter
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The convergent and discriminant validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is investigated in three national samples of health care professionals (France, n = 267; Germany, n = 266; the Netherlands, n = 659). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses show that the psychometric properties of the MBI are similar across nations. Although the c...
Book
An international bibliography of research on burnout 1969 - 1990 with an introductory chapter on trends of development of literature on burnout.
Book
Full-text available
In the course of social changes a crisis of helping professions becomes visible that is reflected individually in stress and burnout. The book offers a comprehensive analysis of concepts of burnout known so far. After screening relevant research on stress and burnout in the helping professions and based on concepts of clinical as well as occupation...
Data
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