Dipak Kalra

Dipak Kalra
University College London | UCL · Centre for Health Informatics and Multiprofessional Education

About

223
Publications
45,872
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,284
Citations
Citations since 2017
61 Research Items
1800 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300

Publications

Publications (223)
Article
Full-text available
The delicate balance of funding research and development of treatments for rare disease is only imperfectly achieved in Europe, and even the current provisional equilibrium is under a new threat from well-intentioned policy changes now in prospect that could—in addition to the intrinsic complexities of research—reduce the incentives on which commer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to the heterogeneity of Electronic Health Record (EHR) standards, the decision-making teams, who are not experts in health information, express confusion for selecting and applying these resources in their data platforms. For this reason, a group of experts has analyzed strengths and weaknesses about design, modeling capabilities, flexibility a...
Preprint
Full-text available
p>Due to the heterogeneity of Electronic Health Record (EHR) standards, the decision-making teams, who are not experts in health information, express confusion for selecting and applying these resources in their data platforms. For this reason, a group of experts has analyzed strengths and weaknesses about design, modeling capabilities, flexibility...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this study representation of chemical substances in IDMP is reviewed, with an exploration of aggregation levels for substance used in the virtual drug data models of RxNorm, SNOMED-CT, ATC/INN, and the Belgian SAM database, for products with a single substance and combinations of substances. Active moiety and available solid states forms are exp...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Digital therapeutics (DTx) can be a valuable contribution to the successful scale up of P5 Medicine (personalized, participatory, predictive, preventive, precision medicine) as they offer powerful means of delivering personalization and active patient participation in disease self-management. We investigated how the approval and adopti...
Article
Full-text available
Can EU initiatives inform US policy makers? The German Digital Healthcare Act is one of the first countries to reimburse digital healthcare solutions for patients. Doctors prescribe selected apps covered by public insurance, covering about 73 million citizens. What’s the selection process and cost? Learn more about EU health data governance, data q...
Article
Full-text available
Data dictionaries for clinical trials are often created manually, with data structures and controlled vocabularies specific for a trial or family of trials within a sponsor’s portfolio. Microsoft Excel is commonly used to capture the representation of data dictionary items but has limited functionality for this purpose. The conect4children (c4c) ne...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for the use of real-world data (RWD) to generate real-world evidence (RWE) that can inform clinical decision-making and health policy is increasingly recognized, albeit with hesitancy in some circles. If used appropriately, the rapidly expanding wealth of health data could improve healthcare research, delivery of care, and patient out...
Presentation
Full-text available
Welcome to the Digital Magazine of the European mHealth Innova-tion and Knowledge Hub, a well--established knowledge-sharing initiative aiming to collect and share national ex-periences on mHealth, and to support countries and regions in setting up large-scale mHealth pro-grammes
Conference Paper
Issue Recently, innovative clinical trial designs have been proposed, which have the potential to revolutionize clinical research. Whereas classical trials mostly evaluate only one investigational drug, platform trials embed various trials under a shared master protocol to enable the evaluation of multiple interventions for a disease or condition....
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To summarize key contributions to current research in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) and to select best papers published in 2020. Method: A bibliographic search using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) descriptors and free-text terms on CRI was performed using PubMed, followed by a double-blind review in...
Technical Report
This document reports on the European Health Data Space (EHDS) consultation of DHE with citizens, as healthy individuals and as patients, in order to explore their expectations of, and possible interactions with, the EHDS.
Article
Sustainable health care systems should be focused on outcomes instead of reimbursing for the services provided. Critical levers for accelerating this are patient engagement and a more comprehensive, standardized collection of patient outcomes. Also, more expertise is required on how these data can best be incorporated into the care process. The Inn...
Research
Our BMJ eLetter to the Editor/Rapid Response, in response to Redman, et al 2021, and the BMJ´s recent collection on "Increasing the Impact of Health Research through Co-production of Knowledge"... TO CITE: Cash-Gibson, L; Pericàs, JM; van de Ketterij, E; Kalra, D; Patalano, F; Genescà, J. 2021. Rapid Response: EU-PEARL: Co-production of knowledge t...
Article
Patient access to their own electronic health records (EHRs) is likely to become an integral part of healthcare systems worldwide. It has the potential to decrease the healthcare provision costs, improve access to healthcare data, self-care, quality of care, and health and patient-centered outcomes. This systematic literature review is aimed at ide...
Preprint
BACKGROUND There is increasing recognition that health care providers need to focus attention, and be judged against, the impact they have on the health outcomes experienced by patients. The measurement of health outcomes as a routine part of clinical documentation is probably the only scalable way of collecting outcomes evidence, since secondary d...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is increasing recognition that healthcare providers need to focus attention, and be judged against, the impact they have on the health outcomes experienced by patients. The measurement of health outcomes as a routine part of clinical documentation is probably the only scalable way of collecting outcomes evidence, since secondary data collecti...
Article
Full-text available
The Multiple Sclerosis Data Alliance (MSDA), a global multi-stakeholder collaboration, is working to accelerate research insights for innovative care and treatment for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) through better use of real-world data (RWD). Despite the increasing reliance on RWD, challenges and limitations complicate the generation, collect...
Article
There is now an urgent need to scale up our collective capability to learn insights from health data, to improve patient care pathways and health services, to ensure that public health measures and strategies are underpinned by real time evidence, and to accelerate research such as the development of drugs, vaccines and AI algorithms. Europe is inv...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolomics offers systematic identification and quantification of all metabolic products from the human body. This field could provide clinicians with new sets of diagnostic biomarkers for disease states in addition to quantifying treatment response to medications at an individualised level. This literature review aims to highlight the technology...
Article
Full-text available
Digital technologies and the digital environment offer new opportunities for identifying needs and delivering healthcare from prevention and health promotion to curative interventions and self-management. This paper sets out the framework for the opportunities both to respond to health emergencies and to deliver the sort of care that can bring pers...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid and continuing advances in biomarker testing are not being matched by take-up in health systems, and this is hampering both patient care and innovation. It also risks costing health systems the opportunity to make their services more efficient and, over time, more economical. This paper sets out the potential of biomarker testing, the unfoldi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Empowerment of patients is often an explicit goal of various information and communications technology (ICT) (electronic, digital) interventions where the patients themselves use ICT tools via the internet. Although several models of empowerment exist, a comprehensive and pragmatic framework is lacking for the development of such interv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid and continuing advances in biomarker testing are not being matched by take-up in health systems, and this is hampering both patient care and innovation. It also risks costing health systems the opportunity to make their services more efficient and, over time, more economical. The potential that genomics has brought to biomarker testing in dia...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To summarize key contributions to current research in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) and to select best papers published in 2019. Method: A bibliographic search using a combination of MeSH descriptors and free-text terms on CRI was performed using PubMed, followed by a double-blind review in order to select a list of c...
Preprint
BACKGROUND There is an increasing need to organise the care around the patient and not the disease, as well as taking into account the complex realities of multiple physical, psycho-social conditions and polypharmacy. Integrated patient-centred care delivery platforms have been developed for both patients and clinicians. These platforms could provi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This paper presents the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical, and ethical aspects, and focuses on the usability evaluation of the system. There was a need for a system to be developed for the memory clinics of Berkshire Healthcare National Health Service (NHS) Foundatio...
Article
Background: There is an increasing need to organize the care around the patient and not the disease, while considering the complex realities of multiple physical and psychosocial conditions, and polypharmacy. Integrated patient-centered care delivery platforms have been developed for both patients and clinicians. These platforms could provide a pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: C3-Cloud is an integrated care ICT infrastructure offering seamless patient-centered approach to managing multimorbidity, deployed in three European pilot sites. Challenge: The digital delivery of best practice guidelines unified for multimorbidity, customized to local practice, offering the capability to improve patient personalizatio...
Article
Introduction: Computable phenotypes are gaining importance as structured and reproducible method of using electronic health data to identify people with certain clinical conditions. A formal standard is not available for defining and formally representing phenotyping algorithms. In this paper, we have tried to build a formal representation of such...
Article
Full-text available
The scope and potential of personalised health care are underappreciated and underrealised, often because of resistance to change. The consequence is that many inadequacies of health care in Europe persist unnecessarily, and many opportunities for improvement are neglected. This article identifies the principal challenges, outlines possible approac...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Empowerment of patients is often an explicit goal of various Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions where the patients themselves use ICT tools via the internet. Although several models of empowerment exist, there is a lack of a comprehensive and pragmatic framework for the development of such interventions. OBJECT...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Empowerment of patients is often an explicit goal of various information and communications technology (ICT) (electronic, digital) interventions where the patients themselves use ICT tools via the internet. Although several models of empowerment exist, a comprehensive and pragmatic framework is lacking for the development of such interv...
Article
Full-text available
The European Institute for Innovation through Health Data (i~HD) has been formed as one of the sustainable entities arising from the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) and SemanticHealthNet projects, in collaboration with other European Commission projects and initiatives. The vision of i~HD is to become the European organisat...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is changing the world we live in, and it has the potential to transform struggling healthcare systems with new efficiencies, new therapies, new diagnostics, and new economies. Already, AI is having an impact on healthcare, and new prospects of far greater advances open up daily. This paper sets out how AI can bring new...
Article
Full-text available
The European Medical Information Framework (EMIF) project, funded through the IMI programme (Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under Grant Agreement No. 115372), has designed and implemented a federated platform to connect health data from a variety of sources across Europe, to facilitate large scale clinical and life sciences resea...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To summarize key contributions to current research in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) and to select best papers published in 2018. Method: A bibliographic search using a combination of MeSH descriptors and free-text terms on CRI was performed using PubMed, followed by a double-blind review in order to select a list of c...
Article
Full-text available
Older age is associated with an increased accumulation of multiple chronic conditions. The clinical management of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions is very complex, disconnected and time-consuming with the traditional care settings. Integrated care is a means to address the growing demand for improved patient experience and health...
Article
Objective: To determine if inclusion/exclusion (I/E) criteria of clinical trial protocols can be represented as structured queries and executed using a secure federated research platform (InSite) on hospital electronic health records (EHR) systems, to estimate the number of potentially eligible patients. Methods: Twenty-three clinical trial prot...
Article
In an environment in which most regulatory and authoritative health strategy decisions are made on the basis of randomised control trials, real-world evidence (RWE), primarily derived from electronic health records, remains a second-class citizen. Real world evidence is widely taken to include Pragmatic clinical trials and insights derived from the...
Article
Electronic health records in hospitals contribute to improving the quality of care by enabling better management of clinical information. The databases thus constituted facilitate the exchange of health information with healthcare providers and optimize multidisciplinary coordination for better therapeutic results. The EHR4CR (Electronic Health Rec...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To summarize key contributions to current research in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) and to select best papers published in 2017. Method: A bibliographic search using a combination of MeSH descriptors and free terms on CRI was performed using PubMed, followed by a double-blind review in order to select a list of candid...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Integrating Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems into the field of clinical trials still contains several challenges and obstacles. Heterogeneous standards and specifications are used to represent healthcare and clinical trial information. Therefore, this work investigates the mapping and data interoperability between healthcare and...
Article
Objective Specifying the content in electronic health records (EHRs) through standardized headings based on international reference classifications will facilitate their semantic interoperability. The objective of this study was to specify potential chapter headings for EHRs aligned with the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classific...
Article
Demand for healthcare services is unprecedented. Society is struggling to afford the cost. Pricing of biopharmaceutical products is under scrutiny, especially by payers and Health Technology Assessment agencies. As we discuss here, rapidly advancing technologies, such Real-World Data (RWD), are being utilized to increase understanding of disease. R...
Data
Objectives. We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. Design and methods. This was a consensus-building process among the members of a multistakeholder task fo...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. Design and methods This was a consensus-building process among the members of a multistakeholder task for...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to identify the extent to which real world data (RWD) is being utilized, or could be utilized, at scale in drug development. Through screening peer-reviewed literature, we have cited specific examples where RWD can be used for biomarker discovery or validation, gaining a new understanding of a disease or disease assoc...
Article
Full-text available
The European Institute for Innovation through Health Data (i~HD) has been formed as one of the sustainable entities arising from the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) and SemanticHealthNet projects, in collaboration with other European Commission projects and initiatives. The vision of i~HD is to become the European organisat...
Article
Full-text available
Medical data is routinely collected, stored and recorded across different institutions and in a range of different formats. Semantic harmonization is the process of collating this data into a singular consistent logical view, with many approaches to harmonizing both possible and valid. The broad scope of possibilities for undertaking semantic harmo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) technological platform has been developed to enable the trustworthy reuse of hospital electronic health records data for clinical research. The EHR4CR platform can enhance and speed up clinical research scenarios: protocol feasibility assessment, patient identification for r...
Article
Introduction: The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. Methods: T...
Article
Full-text available
The Andalusian Health Service is the public healthcare provider for 8.302.923 inhabitants in the South Spain. This organization coordinates primary and specialized care with an IT infrastructure composed by multiple Electronic Health Record Systems. According to the large volume of healthcare professionals involved, there is a need for providing a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. METHODS: The...
Conference Paper
Background The scope of the research was to characterise to what extent it was possible to use the electronic medical records today to perform the cancer related studies which are traditionally done with the help of paper records, and to propose what might be possible in the future, based on current plans for capturing further electronic data. To t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ASSESS CT is an EU funded project that aims at contributing to better semantic interoperability of eHealth services in Europe. Its main goal is the investigation of the fitness of the international clinical terminology SNOMED CT as a potential standard for EU-wide eHealth deployments. This panel will report on the current use of SNOMED CT's in Euro...
Article
Full-text available
The European Institute for Innovation through Health Data (i~HD, www.i-hd.eu) has been formed as one of the key sustainable entities arising from the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (IMI-JU-115189) and SemanticHealthNet (FP7-288408) projects, in collaboration with several other European projects and initiatives supported by the Euro...
Article
Full-text available
In parallel with the advances in big data-driven clinical research, the data safe haven concept has evolved over the last decade. It has led to the development of a framework to support the secure handling of health care information used for clinical research that balances compliance with legal and regulatory controls and ethical requirements while...
Article
Objective: Clinical information models are formal specifications for representing the structure and semantics of the clinical content within electronic health record systems. This research aims to define, test, and validate evaluation metrics for software tools designed to support the processes associated with the definition, management, and imple...
Article
Full-text available
The creation of a clinical application requires models that describe the structure of data in a way that can be displayed, exchanged and stored. A number of approaches for this have been proposed and are in widespread use. However, these are often complex and/or have shortcomings in the breadth of data that they are able to represent. The annotatio...
Article
Interoperability assets is the term applied to refer to any resource that can support the design, implementation and successful adoption of eHealth services that can exchange data meaningfully. Some examples may include functional requirements, specifications, standards, clinical models and term lists, guidance on how standards may be used concurre...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical information systems in the National Health Service do not need to conform to any explicit usability requirements. Poor usability can increase the mental workload experienced by clinicians and cause fatigue, increase error rates and impact the overall patient safety. Mental workload can be used as a measure of usability. Objecti...
Article
Full-text available
This article is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper “Combining Health Data Uses to Ignite Health System Learning” written by John D. Ainsworth and Iain E. Buchan [1]. It is introduced by an editorial. This article contains the combined commentaries invited to independently comment on the paper of A...
Article
Purpose: To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and d...
Article
Full-text available
Editorial With widespread use, Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have become a very important tool from which new services can be provided. This major breakthrough is already starting to transform research and development of innovative health products by enhancing and speeding up existing processes. This is because EHR data can be used to rapidly op...
Article
Full-text available
A “Medication Profile,” the information about the medicines a person is using and has used, is a core part of many electronic health record systems and summaries. However, there is little objective research into the data elements that the profile should contain to support the uses it must serve. With the increasing emphasis on secondary uses of ele...
Article
Full-text available
. The conduct of clinical trials is increasingly challenging due to greater complexity and governance requirements as well as difficulties with recruitment and retention. Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) aims at improving the conduct of trials by using existing routinely collected data, but little is known about stakeholder...
Data
The complete questionnaires used to conduct the interviews are available as Supplementary Materials to this paper online. There were two interview schedules used-one for staff involved with Ethics committees and one for other staff categories.
Article
Full-text available
To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linka...
Article
This paper describes the implementation of an Electronic Healthcare Record server inside a PostgreSQL relational database without dependency on any further middleware infrastructure. The five-part international standard for communicating healthcare records (ISO EN 13606) is used as the information basis for the design of the server. We describe som...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, diabetes mellitus presents a substantial and increasing burden to individuals, health care systems and society. Structuring and coding of information in the electronic health record underpin at