Dinesh Uprety

Dinesh Uprety
Indian Agricultural Research Institute | IARI · Division of Plant Physiology

PhD, F.N.A.Sc.

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62
Publications
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Publications

Publications (62)
Chapter
The historical changes in temperature of the earth have been the concern of people since time immemorial. The exponential rise in the earth's temperature affects the production of crop plants. Taking the seriousness of such changes in temperature, it was considered important to measure them and their impact on agricultural crop production. Various...
Chapter
The discovery of methane gas in the atmosphere was first reported by an Italian scientist Alessandro Volta (1778), and its effect on global warming is described in the beginning of this chapter. Methods of methane emission measurements are described on the basis of its flux along with their advantages and disadvantages. Measurement of methane flux...
Chapter
Climate change significantly affects the water status of the soil and plants. Historical analysis of the soil and plant water status showed that it has been a topic of discussion since time immemorial. It was considered important to collect data on plant and soil water characters to explain the relationship of soil moisture and plant water status c...
Chapter
Nitrous oxide was first discovered by a British chemist Joseph Priestly in 1772. The historical analysis of its role as GHG in global warming and as a natural regulator of stratospheric ozone is described in this chapter. The quantitative measurement of nitrous oxide has been illustrated on the basis of soil surface flux distribution and using micr...
Chapter
This chapter starts with the historical aspect of CO2 and its natural and anthropogenic sources. Methodologies for measuring CO2 in the atmosphere, crops and soil are illustrated and explained. Technologies used for studying the responses of crop plants to the increasing concentration of CO2, namely Open Top Chamber (OTC), SPAR system, SACC technol...
Chapter
Tropospheric ozone is one of the GHGs, which adversely affects the productivity of crop plants and ecosystems, whereas stratospheric ozone protects people from harmful UV radiations. The ozone-generating system to study the effect of O3 on agricultural crops is described in detail. Open-top chambers (OTC) using filtered charcoal and ozone FACE syst...
Book
Full-text available
Covers technologies and methods including the simulation of the future climate changes. Elucidates the response of crop plants to GHGs and characterizes their responses. Includes the latest information on technologies for climate change research on agriculture. Useful literature in decision making to target policies aimed at amplifying agricultural...
Chapter
History of the climate has made significant contributions to the understanding of the past climate and could contribute much more than it has to present-day discussions about global climate change knowledge, impacts, and responses (Carey 2012). Climate is basically the history of weather over periods of years, decades, centuries, and more (Edwards...
Chapter
The history of climates is understood because of evidence left in tree rings, layers of ice in glaciers, ocean sediments, coral reefs, and layers of sedimentary rocks. For instance, air bubbles trapped in the glacial air can provide the history of greenhouse gases for back more than 800,000 years. Thus, chemical composition of the ice offers clues...
Chapter
Robert Boyle during the middle of the seventeenth century thought that atmosphere not only contains subtle matter or ether but also filled with the emanations of volcanoes, decaying vegetations, and animals. William Ramsay a century later narrated that the atmospheric air and its analysis will cover a great part of chemistry and physics. However, t...
Chapter
Physical scientists proposed the mitigation options to combat global warming by (1) burying the CO2 in deep ocean, (2) by supplying iron to the parts of the ocean to increase the photosynthesis in ocean vegetation, (3) by the addition of light scattering particles to the atmosphere to scatter sunlight back to space, (4) by adding propane to counter...
Chapter
The greenhouse gas CO2 was considered as plant nutrient when its role in photosynthesis identified. Kimball (1983) analyzed the response of 430 crop species. Strain and Sionit (1982) edited 778 references to demonstrate CO2-induced increase in growth and productivity of crop plants. The positive impact of elevated CO2 was recognized as early as 188...
Book
This book discusses the history of environmental science and climate change, and the initiation and development of different parameters determining climate changes. The account of the history of such changes and turmoil in India and abroad starts in the prehistoric period, long before the emergence of “Rigveda”, the first human written work. The bo...
Chapter
Various types of facilities are developed to study the impact of rising surface temperature on the responses of crops.
Chapter
Wheat is the most important crop for the human and animal nutrition. It is highly vulnerable to the global rise in temperature adversely affecting its production and consequently the human food supplies. Wheat production affects the health, nutrition, and livelihood of the world’s large population since its area of production is distributed in the...
Chapter
As soil organic matter decomposes, CO2 is released back into the atmosphere, which could further exacerbate additional global warming (Carney et al. 2007). The decomposition is faster in the summer and slow in the winter. Soil has a relatively large capacity to store energy, and therefore, soil temperature does not change rapidly. The temperature m...
Chapter
The temperature of the earth is exponentially rising with an increase by 0.2 °C per decade. It is predicted that the increase in earth’s temperature will range between 1.8 and 4.0 °C in 2100 than that of the current value. Rising temperature has become a major concern for crop production. The exponential rise in the concentration of greenhouse gase...
Book
The monograph entitled “Crop responses to Global warming” describes the normal historical shifts in the earth’s atmospheric temperature and weighs the evidence concerning anthropogenic induced changes in the level of temperature. The unprecedented increase in the earth’s temperature after pre industrial period has been possibly related to the anthr...
Chapter
Historical analysis showed temperature declined after A.D. 1000 until the late nineteenth century, followed by warming at a rate, unprecedented in the record. The change in temperature over the last 1000 years has been very small. Variability of temperature until the late nineteenth century can be accounted for by variation in the output of energy...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was laid out on carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization for 3 years in dry cropping seasons to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (e-CO2) (550 µmol mol−1) and elevated CO2 (550 µmol mol−1) + elevated temperature (+2 °C over ambient) (e-CO2 + T) on biomass production, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration in plant parts, its a...
Article
Full-text available
In an open top chamber study, two contrasting Brassica cultivars from two different species were grown under two distinct levels of CO2 concentration, 550 µmol mol-1 (elevated) and 390 µmol mol-1 (ambient). CO2 enrichment showed significant increase in growth, leaf area and dry matter production in both the species. The continuous higher rate of ph...
Article
Full-text available
The corms of healthy and mosaic affected plants of A. campanulatus revealed a higher percentage of protein in diseased corms than in the healthy ones.
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Climate change is now the single gravest threat in the current century. Its impact is being intensely felt by the countries which largely depend on agriculture, and India being recognized among the worst-hit countries of the world. In this review, both the climatic and biological effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on plant and soil, representi...
Book
Full-text available
This is a research based study for characterization of physiological and biochemical responses of crop plants to elevated level of atmospheric CO2 concentration which is one of the most likely outcomes of global climate change. The crop addressed is Indian mustard (Brassica spp.) which is being a C3 plant, is vulnerable to changes in atmospheric CO...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of elevated CO2 (550 ± 50 ?mol mol−1) on seed composition and quality in two cultivars of Brassica viz. RH 30 (B. juncea) and Pusa Gold (B. campestris) was studied in open-top chambers. Elevated CO2 enhanced yield attributes viz. seed yield, total number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod dry weight per plant, seed yield, th...
Article
Diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species of wheat were grown at ambient (375μll−1) or elevated (550μll−1) CO2 concentration [CO2] in a mid Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility, to study their differential response to CO2 enrichment. It was observed that elevated [CO2] consistently reduced the activity of Photosystem I (PS I) and PS II in all th...
Article
Full-text available
This review gives an account of mechanisms of methane production and emission from flooded paddy fields. Future methane emission scenarios show that methane emissions in 2030 in India are projected to reach 24.4 Tg (reference scenario), 21.3 Tg (medium mitigation scenario) and 17.6 Tg (strong mitigation scenario). Morpho-physiological parameters (l...
Article
Full-text available
There is a general concern that changes in plant productivity and composition caused by increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration will alter the chemical composition of the grain. This review describes the impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on the grain characteristics in wheat, rice, brassica, mungbean and soybean, which are significantly responsive...
Article
Triticum species of three ploidies were grown under ambient (375μl/l) or elevated (FACE, 550μl/l) CO2 concentration [CO2] to evaluate their response to CO2 enrichment. The consistent effect of elevated CO2 was an increase in concentration of starch and decrease in concentration of protein in the grain. Transmission electron micrographs revealed an...
Article
Full-text available
Study was done to compare the response of Triticum aestivum (hexaploid), Triticum durum (tetraploid) and Triticum monococcum (diploid) wheat species to the elevated CO2 using Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility. It was demonstrated that the modern cultivar of wheat Triticum aestivum (hexaploid) was largely sink limited. It appeared to have less...
Article
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This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
Article
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This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
Article
The effect of water stress and its subsequent recovery on the photosynthesis, productivity and water status, was examined in three mungbean varieties (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) i.e. PS 16, P 105 and Pusa Baisakhi. The variety P 105 was found relatively less susceptible to water stress compared to high susceptibility in Pusa Baisakhi and PS 16. The...
Article
An attempt has been made to study the interactive effect of elevated CO2 and moisture stress on photosynthesis, growth and water relations of Brassica species using open top chambers. It was observed that plants responded to elevated CO2 significantly under moisture stress condition mitigating the adverse effects on photosynthesis and growth of Bra...
Article
A study of the characterization of CO2 responsiveness in Brassica oxycamp and its parents Brassica oxyrrhina and Brassica campestris was done using open top chamber technology. The response of the X. B. oxycamp (hybrid) to elevated CO2 was significantly positive in respect of photosynthesis and growth and similar to that of its parent B. campestris...
Article
An attempt was made to investigate the effect of water stress treatment on the components of photosynthesis and water relations of triticale (Triticale octoploide), Russian rye (Secale cereale) and wheat, (Triticum aestivum var. Sonalika). The results revealed that there was no significant adverse effect of water stress on the photosynthesis of tri...
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Full-text available
Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars viz. PRH-10 (pusa rice hybrid-10) and PS-2 (Pusa Sugandh-2) were grown under two different day/night temperatures (31/24°C, 35/28°C) at ambient (370 μmol/mol) and elevated (550 μmol/mol) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, respectively, to characterize how an increase in CO2 and temperature affects rice phot...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, a number of technologies have been developed to study the impact of rising atmospheric CO2 in agricultural systems. Earlier techniques were based on the controlled environment such as phytotrons, closed chambers, cuvettes etc, which are far from the natural environment, in which plants generally grow. However, technologies such as...
Article
The interactive effect of moisture stress and elevated CO 2 on the oxidative injury in Brassica species, B.juncea cv. RH-30 and B. campestris cv. Pusa Gold was examined. CO 2 enrichment and moisture stress treatment were done using Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) and restricted irrigation technologies. Moisture stress treatment increased the accumu...
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Full-text available
The effect of elevated CO2 concentration (CE) on leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (N) contents and photosynthetic rate (PN) was evaluated during the post-flowering stages of rice grown at CE (570 ± 50 µmol mol−1) in open top chamber (OTC), at ambient CO2 concentration (∼ 365 µmol mol−1) in OTC and at open field. Thirty-five day old seedlings wer...
Chapter
Full-text available
Exponential rise in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration anthropogenically has aroused interest to characterize the possible response of crop plants to the elevated carbon dioxide in future. Open Top Chamber (OTC) and Free Air Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Enrichment (FACE) technologies were developed to study the crop responses. Study reveale...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of CO2 concentration elevated to 575 – 620 µmol mol-1 on growth, tillering, grain yield, net photosynthetic rate, dark respiration rate, stomatal conductance, sugar content and protein profile of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Pusa Basmati-1 and Pusa-677 at flowering stage was studied using open top chambers. The cultivar Pusa Basm...
Article
The level of carbon dioxide (CO 2) gas in earth's atmosphere is increasing exponentially due to global industrialization and is likely to reach double its pre-industrial value by the middle of present century. Free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) facilities, in which the simulation of elevated level of CO 2 is done in the open fields by artificially inj...
Article
The response of stomatal parameters of four rice cultivars to atmospheric elevated CO2 concentration (EC) was studied using open top chambers. EC brought about reduction in stomatal conductance and increase in stomatal index, size of stomatal guard cells, stroma, and epidermal cells. Such acclimation helped the regulation of photosynthesis to EC. T...
Article
The response of Brassica juncea var. Bio-183-92 to elevated CO2 under increased nitrogen treatment was studied. There was an interactive effect of CO2 and nitrogen nutrition, indicating that, on the addition of more nitrogen, the plants sustained the positive effect of CO2 enrichment by utilizing additional carbohydrates for the development of new...
Article
Study on the effect of elevated CO2 concentration on leaf structure of Brassica juncea L. cv. Bio-141 (95) under moisture stress revealed, that CO2 elevated to 600 mol mol–1 increased the length of epidermal cel and length of palisade parenchyma cells, and induced larger chloroplasts and more oval shaped starch granules in comparison with plants gr...
Article
The responses of Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold to elevated CO_2 was studied under water stress. Carbon accumulation in leaves, stem and roots was significantly higher at elevated CO_2 concentration. The water stress decreased the carbon content in these plant parts and this adverse effect was reduced by CO_2 enrichment. On the contrary nitrogen con...
Article
Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and moisture stress on photosynthesis, growth and water relation of Brassica species were studied using open top chamber technology. Brassica species responded to the elevated CO2 significantly under moisture stress condition. The adverse effect of moisture stress on the photosynthesis and plant water components...
Article
There are many technical difficulties in conducting crop response studies for elevated carbon dioxide. Available facilities include green house, leaf cuvettes, phytotron, and air exclusion systems. The environmental control on these systems induces uncertainity in the extrapolation of results to the variable natural environments. However, open top...
Article
Chlorophyll reduction and proline accumulation under moisture stress at three different growth stages in young and mature leaf tissues of B. carinata hybrids of reciprocal origin and their parents was studied. Greater chlorophyll reduction was observed in mature leaves at flowering stage, whereas proline accumulated significantly in young leaves at...
Article
The interactive effect of elevated CO2 (EC) and moisture stress (MS) on Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold was studied using open-top chambers. The EC markedly increased net photosynthetic rate and internal CO2 concentration and reduced variable and maximal chlorophyll fluorescence. Under MS, EC increased water potential and relative water content, and...
Article
Full-text available
The response of Brassica carinata hybrids and their parents to moisture stress at different growth stages was studied. B. carinata 226 was found to be susceptible to stress at pre-flowering and post-flowering stages while B. carinata 241 at flowering stage. Neither the changes in stomatal conductance nor in chlorophyll content could fully explain t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Responses of photosynthesis to water stress has been subjected to study in recent years. This review briefly describes, how stress affects photosynthesis in crops and the causes of the effects on cell metabolism. The section on ‘photosynthesis under field conditions’ outlines the variability of the crop species to moisture stress and refers to the...
Chapter
Genetic variation in photosynthetic characteristics in Triticum aestivum and related species, which include leaf photosynthetic rate at tillering and anthesis, electron transport and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activities are described. Causes of this variation in these characteristics are discussed at anatomical, physiological and biochemica...
Article
Cytoplasmic effects on the photosynthesis was investigated in experimentally produced Brassica carinatas of reciprocal cytoplasmic origin. These are obtained by hybridizing B. nigra x B. oleracea var. italica (B. carinata 226) and B. oleracea x B. nigra(B. carinata 241). Natural B. carinata and the two parents viz. B. nigra and B. oleracea var. ita...
Article
Studies with two dwarf wheat strains, HD(M)1592 and HD(M)1620A, show that the enhanced protein content observed following increased fertilizer application is mainly accounted for by an increase in gluten content. Bran and shorts have a higher percentage of protein than the flour. However, accumulation at high fertility takes place in the flour only...

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