Dinesh Kumar

Dinesh Kumar
RMIT University | RMIT · School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

PhD (IIT D), B.Tech (IIT M)

About

413
Publications
172,011
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4,663
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 1998 - present
RMIT University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (413)
Article
High-risk patients of cardiovascular disease can be provided with computerized electrocardiogram (ECG) devices to detect Arrhythmia. These require long segments of quality ECG which however can lead to missing the episode. To overcome this, we have proposed a deep-learning approach, where the scalogram obtained by continuous wavelet transform (CWT)...
Article
Full-text available
Dysarthria is an early symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) which has been proposed for detection and monitoring of the disease with potential for telehealth. However, with inherent differences between voices of different people, computerized analysis have not demonstrated high performance that is consistent for different datasets. The aim of this s...
Article
Full-text available
Early-stage detection of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is important for better management of the disease and prevents hospitalization. This study has investigated the complex nature of PR, QT, RR, and ST time segments of ECG signals by computing the fractal dimension (FD) of all segments from 20 min ECG recordings of people with different seve...
Article
Dynamic market growth for water-borne Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSAs) calls forth new developments over conventional PSA. In order to achieve this, we made a trade-off between the polymerization and carbonization of acrylamide (A) and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BA) without adding any additives to yield a series of carbonized polymer dots (CPD...
Article
Full-text available
Commonly used methods to assess the severity of essential tremor (ET) are based on clinical observation and lack objectivity. This study proposes the use of wearable accelerometer sensors for the quantitative assessment of ET. Acceleration data was recorded by inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors during sketching of Archimedes spirals in 17 ET p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning has been proposed for the assessment and classification of medical images. However, many medical image databases with appropriately labeled and annotated images are small and imbalanced, and thus unsuitable to train and validate such models. The option is to generate synthetic images and one successful technique has been patented whic...
Chapter
Wearable and wireless sensors and technologies have been developed to monitor the gait of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients. While there is significant research in this field, however, these are yet not being routinely used by clinicians. A systematic, state-of-the-art literature review of the relevant literature published in the last 10 years (fro...
Article
Background and objective The photopic negative response (PhNR) of the electroretinogram (ERG) can be useful in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Its utility is limited by its large degree of measurement variability, which can be caused by low frequency oscillations and baseline wander. In this work we show a new denoising strategy using the...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that results in the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are known to exhibit functional changes prior to cell loss. The electroretinogram (ERG) is a method that enables an objective assessment of retinal function, and the photopic negative response (PhNR) has conventionally been used to provide a...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether computerised analysis of writing and drawing could discriminate essential tremor (ET) phenotypes according to the 2018 Consensus Statement on the Classification of Tremors. The Consensus scheme emphasises soft additional findings, mainly motor, that do not suffice to diagnose another tremor syndrome. Ten men and nine women w...
Article
The computerized detection of Parkinson's disease (PD) will facilitate population screening and frequent monitoring and provide a more objective measure of symptoms, benefiting both patients and healthcare providers. Dysarthria is an early symptom of the disease and examining it for computerized diagnosis and monitoring has been proposed. Deep lear...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible visual field loss. The early detection and diagnosis of the disease are therefore necessary to prevent blindness. Pupillary light responses are an interesting new technique for the detection of glaucoma. However, the analysis of pupillary signals has been associated with manual supervision or involved hig...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Some people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently have an unsteady gait with shuffling, reduced strength, and increased rigidity. This study has investigated the difference in the neuromuscular strategies of people with early-stage PD, healthy older adults (HOA) and healthy young adult (HYA) during short-distance walking. Method Su...
Article
Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is a sight-threating complication of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the major cause of vision impairment in people with diabetes. Damage to the retinal vasculature causes them to leak, triggering an inflammatory response and deposition of exudative material on the retina. DME can occur at any stage of DR and diagnosis an...
Chapter
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and its prevalence is expected to increase with an aging population. About 0.5% of the global population have PD, with over 2 million diagnosed cases and significant number of undiagnosed ones.
Chapter
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) has complex and multi-symptoms, making it challenging to detect early-stage disease and to monitor the established patients. This also makes it challenging to design the protocol for conducting clinical trials to establish new medication and treatment to better support people with PD.
Article
Full-text available
Area analysis of thermal images can detect delayed healing in diabetes foot ulcers, but not venous leg ulcers (VLU) assessed in the home environment. This study proposes using textural analysis of thermal images to predict the healing trajectory of venous leg ulcers assessed in home settings. Participants with VLU were followed over twelve weeks. D...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this, study, we have investigated to identify the muscle fatigue using spatial maps of High-Density Electromyography (HDEMG). The experiment involves subjects performing plantar flexion at 40% maximum voluntary contraction until fatigue. During the experiment, HDEMG signal was recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle. The monopolar and bipolar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Micrographia, one element of the dysgraphia of Parkinson's disease (PD), may be classified according to the presence or absence of a decremental pattern. The decremental form, progressive micrographia, is an expression of the sequence effect seen generally in bradykinesia. Its responsiveness to levodopa has not been evaluated kinematica...
Article
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are the most common chronic wound types in older populations, with many wounds not healing in the normal trajectory. Many older people with wounds are treated in their homes, currently assessed by monitoring the wound area over weeks to ascertain the potential for healing. A noncontact method using thermal imaging has been...
Article
Purpose: Glaucoma is the second cause of vision loss with early diagnosis having significantly better prognosis. We propose the use of hippus, the steady-state pupil oscillations, obtained from an eye-tracker for computerized detection of glaucoma. Methods: Pupillary data was recorded using a commercial eye tracker device directly to the laptop....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multi-symptom neurodegenerative disease generally managed with medications, of which levodopa is the most effective. Determining the dosage of levodopa requires regular meetings where motor function can be observed. Speech impairment is an early symptom in PD and has been proposed for early detection and m...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the investigation of the use of the deep neural networks (DNN) for the detection of pathological speech. The state-of-the-art VGG16 convolutional neural network based transfer learning was the basis of this work and different approaches were trialed. We tested the different architectures using the Saarbrucken Voice database (SV...
Article
Full-text available
Essential tremor (ET) is diagnosed and monitored by movement disorder specialists based on clinical observations. While many ET cases are benign, some require pharmacological and surgical management, and there is a need for tools to assist clinicians in making informed decisions. This work aimed to develop a computerized technique to detect the pre...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The enhancement in the performance of the myoelectric pattern recognition techniques based on deep learning algorithm possess computationally expensive and exhibit extensive memory behavior. Therefore, in this paper we report a deep learning framework named 'Low-Complex Movement recognition-Net' (LoCoMo-Net) built with convolution neura...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the use of infrared (IR) images of the retina, obtained without flashes of light, for machine-based detection of macular oedema (ME). A total of 41 images of 21 subjects, here with 23 cases and 18 controls, were studied. Histogram and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters were extracted from the IR retinal images. T...
Conference Paper
Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the lower limb muscles has been proposed to evaluate motor dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Variability in the sEMG could be used as an indicator of poor muscle coordination, but previous studies have reported conflicting results. This study has examined the variability of muscle using the coeffi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study has investigated the efficiency of voice features in estimating the motor Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. A total of 26 PD patients (mean age = 72) and 22 control subjects (mean age = 66.91) were recruited for the study. The sustained phonation /a/, /u/ and /m/ were collected i...
Conference Paper
This paper evaluated the pupillary light reflex of glaucomatous eyes in the presence of constant lighting via light-induced pupillometry using sample entropy. The study used 20 patients and 15 controls, applied three different light intensities to their eyes, and recorded the behavior of the pupil. This study has validated that there is a differenc...
Conference Paper
Respiratory rate (RR) derived from photoplethysmogram (PPG) during daily activities can be corrupted due to movement and other artefacts. We have investigated the use of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based smart fusion approach for improving the RR extraction from PPG. PPG was recorded while subjects performed five different activiti...
Article
Excellent dispersion of nanofillers like carbon nanotubes (CNTS) in an aqueous medium of rubber latex through covalent interactions is required to achieve extraordinary reinforcement at very low filler concentration. Herein, aqueous dispersible carbon dots (CDOTS) have been used as dispersion aid to debundle CNTS in carboxylated acrylonitrile butad...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the gait features that are most suitable for the quantified assessment of the severity of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study computed the mean and variance of the four phases of gait intervals, i.e., stride, swing, stance and double-support intervals, and lateral difference to determine the difference betwee...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we have investigated the differences in the voices of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and age-matched control (CO) subjects when uttering three phonemes using two complexity measures: fractal dimension (FD) and normalised mutual information (NMI). Three sustained phonetic voice recordings, /a/, /u/ and /m/, from 22 CO (mean age = 66.91) and...
Article
This study reports a surface electromyogram and force of contraction model. The objective was to investigate the effect of changes in the size, type and number of motor units in the Tibialis Anterior muscle to surface electromyogram and force of dorsiflexion. A computational model to simulate surface electromyogram and associated force of contracti...
Chapter
This chapter provides a number of case studies that highlight the strengths and weakness of different approaches introduced in earlier chapters. All these case studies were intended to improve the learning outcomes for students when the students have access to their smartphones or other similar devices.
Chapter
With the growth of smartphones and associated technologies has come millions of smartphone programs which are called “apps”. Most apps are like any tool, if used sensibly they can be of value, but if used unwisely they can distract students to the detriment of their education. Many techniques that use smartphones have been proposed to help improve...
Chapter
Smartphones have changed student behaviour and expectations, and this continues to evolve. It has also changed the rules of engagement in the classrooms, changed the relationship between students, and between students and the teacher. This section looks at how the smartphones are affecting the traditional classroom and brings to light to the challe...
Article
The association between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the geometrical vascular parameters obtained from the fluorescein angiography (FA) of the eyes with macular edema (ME) was investigated. Data from 82 untreated eyes with ME were studied. Fractal dimension (FD), simple tortuosity, branching angle, total angle count and vessel to backgrou...
Chapter
This chapter contends that smartphones have a significant effect on the behaviour and values of people, young people in particular.
Chapter
The case studies and discussion in previous chapters have illuminated the successes and failures of attempting to ignore or use smartphones in an education environment. This chapter consolidates this material and provides a smorgasbord of techniques and tools that can be applied to your education environment.
Chapter
This book describes our research in the area of teaching University students when many of them carry smartphones and may often be distracted by these devices.
Chapter
This chapter addresses the issue of how to measure the education process in relation to smartphones.
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is the leading cause of vision loss in patients with diabetes. DME occurs when the damaged blood vessels inside the retina swell and leak leading to tissue swelling and vision distortion. Early detection and treatment of DME can decrease the risk of visual loss. This study has investigated the association between retina...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The area of the diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and its reduction over weeks is used for assessment in clinical practices; however, literature reports that this is not reliable parameter. This work has investigated the association of change in the mean temperature of the ulcers with three clinical conditions relevant to wound healing, i.e. peripheral vas...
Conference Paper
Smartphones have changed the way the people behave, their expectations, and interact with other people. Being more young people centric, these are now ubiquitous in the education environment which has higher representation of the youth, and have dramatically changed how our students behave in the classroom, what they expect, and how they learn. The...
Conference Paper
This study has investigated the relationship of the retinal vasculature and the retinal thickness for Macular Edema (ME) subjects. Ninety sets of Fluorescein Angiograph (FA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of 54 participants were analyzed. Multivariate analysis using the binary logistic regression model was used to study the association betw...
Chapter
This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Co‐crosslinking Adhesion Between Vulcanized Rubber and Unvulcanized Rubber or Partially Vulcanized Rubber Adhesion Between Vulcanized Rubber and Vulcanized Rubber Summary Acknowledgements List of Symbols List of Abbreviations
Article
Full-text available
Levodopa treatment does improve Parkinson’s disease (PD) dysgraphia, but previous research is not in agreement about which aspects are most responsive. This study investigated the effect of levodopa on the kinematics of writing. Twenty-four patients with PD of less than 10 years duration and 25 age-matched controls were recruited. A practically def...
Article
This work investigates the remarkable synergetic effect produced by in-situ covalent hybridization of carbon dots (CDs) with graphene oxide (GO) and carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene latex (XNBR). The carboxylic acid groups of GO and XNBR latex have been covalently conjugated to surface amine groups of CDs following carbodiimide chemistry. The c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study has investigated the use of inter-personnel mutual information computed from the phonetic sound recordings to differentiate between Parkinson's disease (PD) and control subjects. The normalized mutual information (NMI) denotes the amount of information shared between the voice recordings of people within the same group: PD and Control. T...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the difference in the gait of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), age-matched controls and young controls during three walking patterns. Experiments were conducted with 24 PD, 24 age-matched controls and 24 young controls, and four gait intervals were measured using inertial measurement units (IMU). Group differences bet...
Article
Full-text available
Progressive micrographia is decrement in character size during writing and is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study has investigated the kinematic features of progressive micrographia during a repetitive writing task. Twenty-four PD patients with duration since diagnosis of <10 years and 24 age-matched controls wrote the let...
Article
This paper has compared the performance of different color spaces of fundus images for automatic detection of exudates. A convolutional neural network was employed to assess the performances of different color spaces generated by orthogonal transformation of the original colors in red/green/blue (RGB) space. Experiments were conducted on two public...
Article
Full-text available
Background Color fundus photography have been extensively used to explore the link between retinal morphology changes associated with various disease i.e. Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma. The development of multimodal imaging system that integrates Infrared Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (IR-SLO) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) could help in s...
Article
This book explores how smartphones affect teaching activities, students’ behavior, and learning outcomes. The Internet and smartphones are a very recent phenomenon and are evolving very rapidly, and new devices, software apps and methodologies that may upset previous understandings are emerging on a regular basis. Based on the latest research, this...
Article
Full-text available
Background Convolution neural networks have been considered for automatic analysis of fundus images to detect signs of diabetic retinopathy but suffer from low sensitivity. Methods This study has proposed an alternate method using probabilistic output from Convolution neural network to automatically and simultaneously detect exudates, hemorrhages...
Article
Fluoroelastomer (FKM) rubber containing different weight percentage of in-situ generated nanosilica particles have been prepared by sol-gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursor and n-butyl amine as catalyst. FKM rubber with precipitated silica particles have also been prepared to compare the effect of in-situ generated nanosilica part...
Article
Diabetes is the most common cause of non‐traumatic amputations worldwide, and education is key to prevention. Mobile phones and applications (apps) are increasingly being used. This study co‐designed and assessed whether a foot health education app would be feasible and acceptable to support people with diabetes (PWD) to prevent serious foot compli...
Article
Presence of exudates on a retina is an early sign of diabetic retinopathy, and automatic detection of these can improve the diagnosis of the disease. Convolu-tional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been used for automatic exudate detection, but with poor performance. This study has investigated di↵erent deep learning techniques to maximize the sensitivi...
Article
Presence of exudates on a retina is an early sign of diabetic retinopathy, and automatic detection of these can improve the diagnosis of the disease. Convolu- tional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been used for automatic exudate detection, but with poor performance. This study has investigated different deep learning techniques to maximize the sensiti...
Article
Selectively localizing nanofillers in a particular phase of polymer blend to achieve required properties are hardly possible. Herein, an approach to solve the above mentioned problem is reported by exploring the effect of catalyst in preferentially growing in-situ generated nanosilica particles in the phases of incompatible natural rubber (NR): car...
Article
Full-text available
Sepiolite nanoclay needles have been selectively localized either in the natural rubber (NR) phase or in the carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) phase of the XNBR/NR (50/50) blend prepared by the solution casting method. In a systematic manner, the role of the difference value between the interaction parameter of individual blend components (NR or X...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction In clinical practice, both area and temperature of the ulcer have been shown to be effective in tracking the healing status of diabetes-related foot ulcer (DRFU). However, traditionally, the area of the DRFU is measured regardless of the temperature distribution. The current prospective, observational study used thermal imaging, as a m...