# Dimitris A PinotsisCity, University of London · Department of Psychology

Dimitris A Pinotsis

MSc Physics, PhD Mathematics (Cambridge)

## About

79

Publications

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Introduction

pinotsislab.com
Associate Professor (Reader) at the Center for Mathematical Neuroscience and Psychology at University of London—City. Research Affiliate at MIT's Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences.PhD in Mathematics from the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics of the University of Cambridge. MA in Theoretical Physics from the University of Cambridge. Research has been funded by USAFOSR, UK Research Councils and the Wellcome Trust.

Additional affiliations

February 2018 - present

January 2016 - January 2018

October 2009 - December 2015

Education

October 2002 - September 2006

September 2001 - July 2002

## Publications

Publications (79)

Many recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are rooted in visual neuroscience. However, ideas from more complicated paradigms like decision-making are less used. Although automated decision-making systems are ubiquitous (driverless cars, pilot support systems, medical diagnosis algorithms etc.), achieving human-level performance in decisio...

Neural activity is organized at multiple scales, ranging from the cellular to the whole brain level. Connecting neural dynamics at different scales is important for understanding brain pathology. Neurological diseases and disorders arise from interactions between factors that are expressed in multiple scales. Here, we suggest a new way to link micr...

It is known that the exact neurons maintaining a given memory (the neural ensemble) change from trial to trial. This raises the question of how the brain achieves stability in the face of this representational drift. Here, we demonstrate that this stability emerges at the level of the electric fields that arise from neural activity. We show that el...

We propose and present converging evidence for the Cytoelectric Coupling Hypothesis: Electric fields generated by neurons are causal down to the level of the cytoskeleton. This could be achieved via electrodiffusion and mechanotransduction and exchanges between electrical, potential and chemical energy. Ephaptic coupling organizes neural activity,...

It is increasingly clear that memories are distributed across multiple brain areas. Such "engram complexes" are important features of memory formation and consolidation. Here, we test the hypothesis that engram complexes are formed in part by bioelectric fields that sculpt and guide the neural activity and tie together the areas that participate in...

It is increasingly clear that memories are distributed across multiple brain areas. Such “engram complexes” are important features of memory formation and consolidation. Here, we test the hypothesis that engram complexes are formed in part by bioelectric fields that sculpt and guide the neural activity and tie together the areas that participate in...

We apply Dynamic Causal Models to electrocorticogram recordings from two macaque monkeys performing a problem-solving task that engages working memory, and induces time-on-task effects. We thus provide a computational account of changes in effective connectivity within two regions of the fronto-parietal network, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex a...

During resting-state EEG recordings, alpha activity is more prominent over the posterior cortex in eyes-closed (EC) conditions compared to eyes-open (EO). In this study, we characterized the difference in spectra between EO and EC conditions using dynamic causal modelling. Specifically, we investigated the role of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivi...

A major difficulty with treating psychiatric disorders is their heterogeneity: different neural causes can lead to the same phenotype. To address this, we propose describing the underlying pathophysiology in terms of interpretable, biophysical parameters of a neural model derived from the electroencephalogram. We analyzed data from a small patient...

Much of current artificial intelligence (AI) and the drive toward artificial general intelligence (AGI) focuses on developing machines for functional tasks that humans accomplish. These may be narrowly specified tasks as in AI, or more general tasks as in AGI – but typically these tasks do not target higher-level human cognitive abilities, such as...

During resting-state EEG recordings, alpha activity is more prominent over the posterior cortex in eyes-closed (EC) conditions compared to eyes-open (EO). In this study, we characterized the difference in spectra between EO and EC conditions using dynamic causal modelling. Specifically, we investigated the role of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivi...

It is known that the exact neurons maintaining a given memory (the neural ensemble) change from trial to trial. This raises the question of how the brain achieves stability in the face of this representational drift. Here, we demonstrate that this stability emerges at the level of the electric fields that arise from neural activity. We show that el...

In this paper, we provide a computational account of changes in synaptic connectivity within two regions of the fronto-parietal network, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the pre-supplementary motor area, applying Dynamic Causal Models to electrocorticogram recordings from two macaque monkeys performing a problem-solving task that engages work...

A major difficulty with treating psychiatric disorders is their heterogeneity: different neural causes can lead to the same phenotype. To address this, we propose describing the underlying pathophysiology in terms of interpretable, biophysical parameters of a neural model derived from the electroencephalogram. We analyzed data from a small patient...

Background
Diminished synaptic gain – the sensitivity of postsynaptic responses to neural inputs – may be a fundamental synaptic pathology in schizophrenia. Evidence for this is indirect, however. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pyramidal cells or interneurons (or both) are affected, or how these deficits relate to symptoms.
Methods
Participant...

Diminished synaptic gain - the sensitivity of postsynaptic responses to neural inputs - may be a fundamental synaptic pathology in schizophrenia. Evidence for this is indirect, however. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pyramidal cells or interneurons (or both) are affected, or how these deficits relate to symptoms. Participants with schizophrenia...

In the era of Big Data, large scale electrophysiological data from animal and human studies are abundant. These data contain information at multiple spatiotemporal scales. However, current approaches for the analysis of electrophysiological data often contain information at a single spatiotemporal scale only.
We discuss a multiscale approach for t...

Whether thalamocortical interactions play a decisive role in conscious perception remains an open question. We presented rapid red/green color flickering stimuli, which induced the mental perception of either an illusory orange color or non-fused red and green colors. Using magnetoencephalography, we observed 6-Hz thalamic activity associated with...

Neural activity is organized at multiple scales, ranging from the cellular to the whole brain level. Connecting neural dynamics at different scales is important for understanding brain pathology. Neurological diseases and disorders arise from interactions between factors that are expressed in multiple scales. Here, we suggest a new way to link micr...

Neural rhythms or oscillations are ubiquitous in neuroimaging data. These spectral responses have been linked to several cognitive processes; including working memory, attention, perceptual binding and neuronal coordination. In this paper, we show how Bayesian methods can be used to finesse the ill-posed problem of reconstructing—and explaining—osc...

Many recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are rooted in visual neuroscience. However, ideas from more complicated paradigms like decision-making are less used. Although automated decision-making systems are ubiquitous (driverless cars, pilot support systems, medical diagnosis algorithms etc.), achieving human-level performance in decisio...

There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether the capacity limit might be explained by differences in neuronal coupling. We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from...

There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether the capacity limit might be explained by differences in neuronal coupling. We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from...

Memories are assumed to be represented by groups of co-activated neurons, called neural ensembles. Describing ensembles is a challenge: complexity of the underlying micro-circuitry is immense. Current approaches use a piecemeal fashion, focusing on single neurons and employing local measures like pairwise correlations. We introduce an alternative a...

The paper dissects the intricacies of Automated Decision Making (ADM) and urges for refining the current legal definition of AI when pinpointing the role of algorithms in the advent of ubiquitous computing, data analytics and deep learning. ADM relies upon a plethora of algorithmic approaches and has already found a wide range of applications in ma...

With the advent of non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods in the late 1970s, localization theories of language—based on brain lesion studies—have long given way to distributed models of language, implicating a network of sequential and parallel functional connections. This renders the processes within the speech and language network well suit...

Background: The “dysconnection hypothesis” of psychosis suggests that a disruption of functional integration underlies cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms. Impairments in the P300 potential are well documented in psychosis. We investigated intrinsic (self-)connectivity in a cortical hierarchy during a P300 experiment. We used Dynamic Causal Mo...

The ?dysconnection hypothesis? of psychosis suggests that a disruption of functional integration underlies cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms. Impairments in the P300 potential are well documented in psychosis. Intrinsic (self-)connectivity in a frontoparietal cortical hierarchy during a P300 experiment was investigated. Dynamic Causal Modeli...

We review two new approaches for studying cortical representations of sensory stimuli. These exploit optimization algorithms and auto-encoders from machine learning and high resolution electrophysiology data. We show how these approaches can shed new light into the information processing and maintenance taking place in neuronal populations. These a...

Neural models describe brain activity at different scales, ranging from single cells to whole brain networks. Here, we attempt to reconcile models operating at the microscopic (compartmental) and mesoscopic (neural mass) scales to analyse data from microelectrode recordings of intralaminar neural activity. Although these two classes of models opera...

The paper dissects the intricacies of automated decision making (ADM) and urges for refining the current legal definition of artificial intelligence (AI) when pinpointing the role of algorithms in the advent of ubiquitous computing, data analytics and deep learning. Whilst coming up with a toolkit to measure algorithmic determination in automated/s...

This article describes the first application of a generic (empirical) Bayesian analysis of between-subject effects in the dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electrophysiological (MEG) data. It shows that (i) non-invasive (MEG) data can be used to characterize subject-specific differences in cortical microcircuitry and (ii) presents a validation of DC...

This paper shows that it is possible to estimate the subjective precision (inverse variance) of Bayesian beliefs during oculomotor pursuit. Subjects viewed a sinusoidal target, with or without random fluctuations in its motion. Eye trajectories and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were recorded concurrently. The target was periodically occluded,...

This chapter reviews some recent advances in dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of electrophysiology, in particular with respect to conductance based models and clinical applications. DCM addresses observed responses of complex neuronal systems by looking at the neuronal interactions that generate them and how these responses reflect the underlying neu...

The mismatch negativity (MMN) evoked potential, a preattentive brain response to a discriminable change in auditory stimulation, is significantly reduced in psychosis. Glutamatergic theories of psychosis propose that hypofunction of NMDA receptors (on pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons) causes a loss of synaptic gain control. We measured c...

Biophysical modeling of brain activity has a long and illustrious history (Ermentrout, 1998; Deco et al., 2008; Coombes, 2010) and has recently profited from technological advances that furnish neuroimaging data at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution (Guillory and Bujarski, 2014; Sporns, 2014). Neuronal modeling is a very active area of rese...

This review surveys recent trends in the use of local field potentials-and their non-invasive counterparts-to address the principles of functional brain architectures. In particular, we treat oscillations as the (observable) signature of context-sensitive changes in synaptic efficacy that underlie coordinated dynamics and message-passing in the bra...

This paper shows how recordings of gamma oscillations – under different experimental conditions or from different subjects – can be combined with a class of population models called neural fields and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical structure and function. This approach exploits inter-subj...

This chapter considers the relationship between neural field and mass models and their application to modelling empirical data. Specifically, we consider neural masses as a special case of neural fields, when conduction times tend to zero and focus on two exemplar models of cortical microcircuitry; namely, the Jansen-Rit
and the canonical microcirc...

Using high-density electrocorticographic recordings - from awake-behaving monkeys - and dynamic causal modelling, we characterised contrast dependent gain control in visual cortex, in terms of synaptic rate constants and intrinsic connectivity. Specifically, we used neural field models to quantify the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences...

This paper shows how gamma oscillations can be combined with neural population models and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical excitability and microstructure. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma...

We showcase three case studies that illustrate how neural fields can be useful in the analysis of neuroimaging data. In particular, we argue that neural fields allow one to : (i) compare evidences for alternative hypotheses regarding neurobiological determinants of stimulus-specific response variability; (ii) make inferences about between subject v...

This paper shows how gamma oscillations can be combined with neural population models and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical excitability and microstructure. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma...

This chapter considers the relationship between neural field and mass models and their application to modelling empirical data. Specifically, we consider neural masses as a special case of neural fields, when conduction times tend to zero and focus on two exemplar models of cortical microcircuitry; namely, the Jansen-Rit and the Canonical Microcirc...

This technical note introduces a conductance-based neural field model that combines biologically realistic synaptic dynamics-based on transmembrane currents-with neural field equations, describing the propagation of spikes over the cortical surface. This model allows for fairly realistic inter-and intra-laminar intrinsic connections that underlie s...

Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) provides a framework for the analysis of effective connectivity among neuronal subpopulations that subtend invasive (electrocorticograms and local field potentials) and non-invasive (electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography) electrophysiological responses. This paper reviews the suite of neuronal population mo...

This paper presents a dynamic causal model based upon neural field models of the Amari type. We consider the application of these models to non-invasive data, with a special focus on the mapping from source activity on the cortical surface to a single channel. We introduce a neural field model based upon the canonical microcircuit (CMC), in which n...

This paper uses mathematical modelling and simulations to explore the dynamics that emerge in large scale cortical networks, with a particular focus on the topological properties of the structural connectivity and its relationship to functional connectivity. We exploit realistic anatomical connectivity matrices (from diffusion spectrum imaging) and...

We present some new formulae for the solutions of boundary value problems for a two-dimensional isotropic elastic body. In particular, using the so-called Dbar formalism and the method introduced in [A. S. Fokas, A unified approach to boundary value problems. CBMS-NSF Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics 78. Philadelphia, PA: Society f...

The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to introduce a neural field model motivated by a well-known neural mass model; second, to show how one can estimate model parameters pertaining to spatial (anatomical) properties of neuronal sources based on EEG or LFP spectra using Bayesian inference. Specifically, we consider neural field models of cortica...

This paper describes a neural field model for local (mesoscopic) dynamics on the cortical surface. Our focus is on sparse intrinsic connections that are characteristic of real cortical microcircuits. This sparsity is modelled with radial connectivity functions or kernels with non-central peaks. The ensuing analysis allows one to generate or predict...

We investigate the spectrum of certain integro-differential-delay equations (IDDEs) which arise naturally within spatially distributed, nonlocal, pattern formation problems. Our approach is based on the reformulation of the relevant dispersion relations with the use of the Lambert function. As a particular application of this approach, we consider...

We first revisit Quaternionic Analysis in
\mathbb R3\mathbb R^3 and discuss a representation of a quaternion-valued function in terms of two real harmonic functions. Then, we present certain
integral representations of the solutions of elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in three dimensions, such as the
Poisson, inhomogeneous Biharmoni...

We bring together commutative quaternions, functions of two complex variables and spectral analysis to: (i) introduce some novel formulae for commutative quater-nions; (ii) present a new application of this theory, namely the solution of boundary value problems. We first consider functions of two complex variables and derive an analogue of the well...

We study certain boundary value problems for the one-dimensional wave equation posed in a time-dependent domain. The approach we propose is based on a general transform method for solving boundary value problems for integrable nonlinear PDE in two variables, that has been applied extensively to the study of linear parabolic and elliptic equations....

We introduce some novel formulae in the theory of Segre quaternions, namely a Dbar (or Pompeiu-Borel) formula as well as certain variations of the fundamental theorem of calculus. The latter enable us to obtain the solution to a boundary value problem of a four dimensional Laplace equation by using spectral analysis.

We consider boundary value problems for the elliptic sine-Gordon equation posed in the half plane y > 0. This problem was considered in Gutshabash and Lipovskii (1994 J. Math. Sci. 68 197–201) using the classical inverse scattering transform approach. Given the limitations of this approach, the results obtained rely on a nonlinear constraint on the...

We consider boundary value problems for the N-wave interaction equations in one and two space dimensions, posed for x⩾0 and x,y⩾0, respectively. Following the recent work of Fokas, we develop an inverse scattering formalism to solve these problems by considering the simultaneous spectral analysis of the two ordinary differential equations in the as...

This monograph studies an important generalisation of the Cauchy integral formula, called the Dbar formula. In particular, it investigates the physical significance of this formula, its extension to three, four and higher dimensions and the applications of the relevant formalism to: (i) The solution of boundary value problems for linear partial dif...

We solve an initial-boundary problem for the Klein-Gordon equation on the half line using the Riemann-Hilbert approach to solving linear boundary value problems advocated by Fokas. The approach we present can be also used to solve more complicated boundary value prob-lems for this equation, such as problems posed on time-dependent domains. Furtherm...

We solve a Dirichlet boundary value problem for the Klein–Gordon equation posed in a time-dependent domain. Our approach is based on a general transform method for solving boundary value problems for linear and integrable nonlinear PDE in two variables. Our results consist of the inversion formula for a generalized Fourier transform, and of the app...

Manuscript Region of Origin: Abstract: We construct a mapping from complex recursive linguistic data structures to spherical wave functions using Smolensky's filler/role bindings and tensor product representations. Syntactic language processing is then described by the transient evolution of these spherical patterns whose amplitudes are govern...