Dimitra Dodou

Dimitra Dodou
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Biomechanical Engineering

PhD

About

153
Publications
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3,916
Citations

Publications

Publications (153)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Flexible steerable needles can follow complex curved paths inside the human body. In a previous work, we developed a multiple-part steerable needle prototype with a diameter of 1.2 mm, inspired by the ovipositor of parasitoid wasps. The needle consisted of seven nickel-titanium longitudinally aligned wires held together at the tip by a cylindrical...
Article
Full-text available
High accuracy and precision in reaching target locations inside the human body is necessary for the success of percutaneous procedures, such as tissue sample removal (biopsy), brachytherapy, and localized drug delivery. Flexible steerable needles may allow the surgeon to reach targets deep inside solid organs while avoiding sensitive structures (e....
Article
Full-text available
This study explored how people look at The Night Watch (1642), Rembrandt's masterpiece. Twenty-one participants each stood in front of the painting for 5 min, while their eyes were recorded with a mobile eye-tracker and their thoughts were verbalized with a think-aloud method. We computed a heatmap of the participants' attentional distribution usin...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer diagnosis and focal laser ablation treatment both require the insertion of a needle for biopsy and optical fibre positioning. Needle insertion in soft tissues may cause tissue motion and deformation, which can, in turn, result in tissue damage and needle positioning errors. In this study, we present a prototype system making use of...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study explored how people look at The Night Watch (1642), Rembrandt’s masterpiece. Twenty-one participants each stood in front of the painting for 5 minutes, while their eyes were recorded with a mobile eye-tracker and their thoughts were verbalized with a think-aloud method. We computed a heatmap of the participants’ attentional distribution...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perceived (i.e., subjective) risk is a key construct in traffic psychology and, more recently, in the area of automated driving. If the automated vehicle would be able to estimate the risk perceived by its occupants, this would allow the automated vehicle to adjust its behavior accordingly. This paper examines whether perceived risk in images of tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) capable of signaling whether pedestrians can cross the road. Industry and academia have proposed a variety of eHMIs featuring a text message. An eHMI message can refer to the action to be performed by the pedestrian (egocentric message) or the automated vehicle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Past research suggests that displays on the exterior of the car, known as eHMIs, can be effective in helping pedestrians to make safe crossing decisions. This study examines a new application of eHMIs, namely the provision of directional information in scenarios where the pedestrian is almost hit by a car. In an experiment using a head-mounted disp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automated vehicles (AVs) may feature blinded (i.e., blacked-out) windows and external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMIs), and the driver may be inattentive or absent, but how these features affect cyclists is unknown. In a crowdsourcing study, participants viewed images of approaching vehicles from a cyclist’s perspective and decided whether to brake...
Article
Full-text available
The last few years have seen a wealth of research on external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs). It has been argued that eHMIs are vital because they fill the social interaction void that arises with the introduction of automated vehicles (AVs). However, there is still much discussion about whether eHMIs are needed. The present article surveys argum...
Preprint
Full-text available
The last few years have seen a wealth of research on external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs). It has been argued that eHMIs are vital because they fill the social interaction void that arises with the introduction of automated vehicles (AVs). However, there is still much discussion about whether eHMIs are needed. The present article surveys argum...
Preprint
Full-text available
Raven’s matrices have been regarded as a pure test of cognitive abilities. Previous research has examined whether cognitive strategies, as measured using eye tracking, are predictive of the number of correct responses to the Raven items. This study aims to explain test responses more directly from ‘effort’ (centrality of the matrix cells) and ‘visu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chunking theory and previous eye-tracking studies suggest that expert chess players rely on peripheral vision when judging a chess position and determining the best move to play. However, so far, the role of peripheral vision in chess has mostly been inferred rather than based on controlled experimentation. In this study, we used a gaze-contingent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The need for a training modality for tooth extraction procedures is increasing, as dental students do not feel properly trained. In this study, a prototype of a training setup is designed, in which extraction procedures can be performed on jaw models and cadaveric jaws. The prototype was designed in a way that it can give real-time feedback on the...
Article
Full-text available
Many fatal accidents that involve pedestrians occur at road crossings, and are attributed to a breakdown of communication between pedestrians and drivers. Thus, it is important to investigate how forms of communication in traffic, such as eye contact, influence crossing decisions. Thus far, there is little information about the effect of drivers' e...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, harvesting delicate and high-value fruits, vegetables, and edible fungi requires a large input of manual human labor. The relatively low wages and many health problems the workforce faces make this profession increasingly unpopular. Meanwhile, robotic systems that selectively harvest crops are being developed. Whilst the moving platform,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many fatal accidents that involve pedestrians occur at road crossings, and are attributed to a breakdown of communication between pedestrians and drivers. Thus, it is important to investigate how forms of communication in traffic, such as eye contact, influence crossing decisions. Thus far, there is little information about the effect of drivers’ e...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicles are increasingly equipped with sensors that capture the state of the driver, the vehicle, and the environment. These developments are relevant to formal driver testing, but little is known about the extent to which driving examiners would support the use of sensor data in their job. This semi-structured interview study examined the opinion...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nowadays, harvesting delicate and high-value fruits, vegetables and edible fungi requires a large input of manual human labor. The relatively low wages and many health problems the workforce faces make this profession increasingly unpopular. Meanwhile, robotic systems that selectively harvest crops are being developed. Whilst the moving platform, m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vehicles are increasingly equipped with sensors that capture the state of the driver, the vehicle, and the environment. These developments are relevant to formal driver testing, but little is known about the extent to which driving examiners would support the use of sensor data in their job. This semi-structured interview study examined the opinion...
Article
Full-text available
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with scrip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes method....
Chapter
Full-text available
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes method....
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with scrip...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction : Conventional cancer treatments such as radical surgery and systemic therapy targeting the organ or organ system might have side effects because of damage to the surrounding tissue. For this reason, there is a need for new instruments that focally treat cancer. Areas covered : This review provides a comprehensive overview of the pate...
Article
Full-text available
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON'T WALK, W...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter highlights four common pitfalls in the use of statistics in the area of traffic psychology. Through computer simulations of scenarios that are typical in the field, it is first shown that a statistically significant p-value does not prove that the effect is true, especially when the effect is surprising and the p-value barely significa...
Article
This article highlights four common pitfalls in the use of statistics in the area of traffic psychology. Through computer simulations of scenarios that are typical in the field, it is first shown that a statistically significant P-value does not prove that the effect is true, especially when the effect is surprising and the P-value barely significa...
Article
Full-text available
Various external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired by inten...
Preprint
Full-text available
Various visual external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...
Article
Full-text available
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMIs). Currently, little is known about the effect of the perspective of the eHMI message on crossing decisions of pedestrians. We performed an experiment to examine the effects of images depicting eHMI messages of different perspectives (egocentric from the pedestri...
Article
Full-text available
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...
Article
Full-text available
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...
Article
Positioning and stabilizing a catheter at the required location inside a vessel or the heart is a complicated task in interventional cardiology. In this review we provide a structured classification of catheter stabilization mechanisms to systematically assess their challenges during cardiac interventions. Commercially available, patented, and expe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...
Article
Full-text available
We examined what pedestrians look at when walking through a parking garage. Thirty-six participants walked a short route in a floor of a parking garage while their eye movements and head rotations were recorded with a Tobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracker. The participants’ fixations were then classified into 14 areas of interest. The results showed that...
Preprint
Full-text available
We examined what pedestrians look at when walking through a parking garage. Thirty-six participants walked a short route in a floor of a parking garage while their eye movements and head rotations were recorded with a Tobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracker. The participants’ fixations were then classified into 14 areas of interest. The results showed that...
Article
Full-text available
Current surgical grippers rely on friction grip, where normal loads (i.e. pinch forces) are translated into friction forces. Operating errors with surgical grippers are often force-related, including tissue slipping out of the gripper because of too low pinch forces and tissue damaging due to too high pinch forces. Here, we prototyped a modular sur...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In previous studies we developed two mechanical prototypes of steerable catheters: the Sigma , which uses joysticks to actuate two steerable tip segments, and the Epsilon , which has a handle that is an enlarged version of the tip. In this study, we present a first performance evaluation of the prototypes in the cardiac environment. The eva...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) capable of signaling to pedestrians whether or not they can cross the road. There is currently no consensus on the correct colors for eHMIs. Industry and academia have already proposed a variety of eHMI colors, including red and green, as well as colors that ar...
Article
Full-text available
Reversible attachment on soft substrates is useful in a range of applications, including soft robotics and soft‐tissue surgical instrumentation. On rigid substrates, the use of micropatterned adhesives has been extensively explored. It has been shown that surface micropatterns provide conformability, thereby enabling the formation and preservation...
Article
Full-text available
The adhesive toe pads of tree frogs have inspired the design of various so-called ‘smooth’ synthetic adhesives for wet environments. However, these adhesives do not reach the attachment performance of their biological model in terms of contact formation, maintenance of attachment, and detachment. In tree frogs, attachment is facilitated by an inter...
Article
Full-text available
Micropillar adhesives have gained increasing attention because they generate high pull-off forces. The generation of high friction, however, has been proven difficult with such geometries, because micropillars tend to buckle under shear loading. Here, we fabricated orthogonal arrays of composite poly-dimethoxysiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with a sti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Driving simulators are regarded as valuable tools for human factors research on automated driving and traffic safety. However, simulators that enable the study of human-human interactions are rare. In this study, we present an open-source coupled simulator developed in Unity. The simulator supports input from head-mounted displays, motion suits, an...
Poster
Full-text available
Driving simulators are regarded as valuable tools for human factors research on automated driving and traffic safety. However, simulators that enable the study of human-human interactions are rare. In this study, we present an open-source coupled simulator developed in Unity. The simulator supports input from head-mounted displays, motion suits, an...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Research has shown that perceived risk is a vital variable in the understanding of road traffic safety. Having experience in a particular traffic environment can be expected to affect perceived risk. More specifically, drivers may readily recognize traffic hazards when driving in their own world region, resulting in high perceived risk (...
Poster
Full-text available
A naturalistic pilot study of cyclists’ eye- and head movement using head-mounted eye-tracking
Preprint
Full-text available
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON’T WALK, W...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Research has shown that perceived risk is a vital variable in the understanding of road traffic safety. Having experience in a particular traffic environment can be expected to affect perceived risk. More specifically, drivers may readily recognise traffic hazards when driving in their own world region, resulting in high perceived risk (...