Dillon J. Amaya

Dillon J. Amaya
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA · Physical Science Division

BSc, MS, PhD

About

35
Publications
16,715
Reads
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377
Citations
Introduction
Hi! I’m a climate scientist currently working as a Research Scientist at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. My research is aimed at understanding internal and forced climate variability and change using observations and model simulations.
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
University of Colorado Boulder
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2014 - September 2019
University of California, San Diego
Field of study
  • Climate Science
September 2014 - June 2015
University of California, San Diego
Field of study
  • Climate Science
August 2010 - May 2014
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Meteorology

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review This paper reviews recent progress in understanding of the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM) and its influence on the timing, magnitude, flavor, and intensity of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent Findings The NPMM is a seasonally evolving mode of coupled climate variability and features several distinct opportuni...
Article
Full-text available
Summer 2019 observations show a rapid resurgence of the Blob-like warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that produced devastating marine impacts in the Northeast Pacific during winter 2013/2014. Unlike the original Blob, Blob 2.0 peaked in the summer, a season when little is known about the physical drivers of such events. We show that Blob...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 Northwest Pacific marine heatwave was amplified by natural, multi-decadal shoaling of the ocean mixed layer; anthropogenic mixed layer shoaling will amplify marine heatwaves in the future.
Article
The Western U.S. is vulnerable to hydrological stress, and insights from past climate periods are helpful for providing historical benchmarks for future climate projections. Myriad evidence from coupled models and paleoclimatic proxies suggests a major reorganization of west coast hydroclimate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼17–25 ka), such...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate dynamical forecasts of ocean variables in the California Current System (CCS) are essential decision support tools for advancing ecosystem-based marine resource management. However, model and dynamical uncertainties present a significant challenge when attempting to incorporate these forecasts into a formal decision making process. To prov...
Article
Full-text available
The tropical Pacific exhibits decadal El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like variability, characterized by meridionally broad sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern Pacific. In this study, we focus on the variability in the equatorial Pacific band (5°S–5°N), termed equatorial Pacific decadal variability (EPDV). While it is known that oc...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean memory, the persistence of ocean conditions, is a major source of predictability in the climate system beyond weather time scales. We show that ocean memory, as measured by the year-to-year persistence of sea surface temperature anomalies, is projected to steadily decline in the coming decades over much of the globe. This global decline in oc...
Article
Full-text available
Marine heatwaves (MHWs)—periods of exceptionally warm ocean temperature lasting weeks to years—are now widely recognized for their capacity to disrupt marine ecosystems1–3. The substantial ecological and socioeconomic impacts of these extreme events present significant challenges to marine resource managers4–7, who would benefit from forewarning of...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary The Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) is a prominent pattern of climate variability situated in the subtropical northeastern Pacific. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the PMM can propagate into the deep tropics via a feedback process involving the coupling between wind, evaporation, and SST. In the tropics,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Equatorial Pacific decadal variability (EPDV) modulates global climate. Although EPDV is suggested to be generated by both air-sea thermodynamically coupled slab ocean models (SOM) and fully coupled dynamic ocean models (DOM), the reason of EPDV simulated by the two distinct hierarchies of models remains unclear. This ambiguity arises from a gap in...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter details 2020 global patterns in select observed oceanic physical, chemical, and biological variables relative to long-term climatologies, their differences between 2020 and 2019, and puts 2020 observations in the context of the historical record.
Preprint
Full-text available
The subtropical northeastern Pacific (SNEP) acts as a bridge conveying information between the North and tropical Pacific. While most studies have investigated the SNEP sea surface temperature (SST) interannual variability, less attention has been paid to the pronounced decadal variability in this region. Here, by analyzing observational data and a...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating Pacific Meridional Modes (PMM) without the influence of tropical Pacific variability is technically difficult if based on observations or fully coupled model simulations due to their overlapping spatial structures. To confront this issue, the present study investigates both North (NPMM) and South PMM (SPMM) in terms of their associate...
Article
Full-text available
Sea surface temperature (SST) observations in the North Atlantic since 1870 reveal a region of enhanced warming off the northeastern coast of North America, and a region of cooling to the south of Greenland. It has been hypothesized that these adjacent SST trends are a result of long‐term changes in the buoyancy‐driven ocean circulation—a slowdown...
Article
Full-text available
Upwelling in eastern boundary current regions is crucial to bringing nutrient-rich water to the photic zone and supporting the associated ecosystems. This upwelling is a result of the wind-driven ocean circulation and is therefore susceptible to changes in the atmospheric circulation. We use the Community Earth System Model and observational data t...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread public and scientific interest in the recent global warming hiatus and related multidecadal climate variability stimulated a surge in our understanding of key metrics of global climate change. While seeking explanations for the nearly steady global mean temperature from late 1990s through the early 2010s, the scientific community also gr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Summer 2019 observations show a rapid resurgence of the "Blob"-like warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that produced devastating marine impacts in the Northeast Pacific during winter 2013/2014. Unlike the original Blob, Blob 2.0 occurred in the summer, a season when relatively little is known about the physical drivers of such events. We...
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific Meridional Mode, a coupled ocean–atmospheric interaction responsible for propagating subtropical anomalies to the tropics via thermodynamic mechanisms, features prominently in discussions of the response of climate variability to climate change. However, it is presently unclear how and why the variance in PMM might change, or even if gr...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have indicated that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability can significantly modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but there has been little effort to put extratropical-tropical interactions into the context of historical events. To quantify the role of the North Pacific in pacing the timing and magnitude of obs...
Article
Full-text available
The poleward branches of the Hadley Cells and the edge of the tropics show a robust poleward shift during the satellite era, leading to concerns over the possible encroachment of the globe’s subtropical dry zones into currently temperate climates. The extent to which this trend is caused by anthropogenic forcing versus internal variability remains...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the primary drivers of tropical widening has been a major focus of recent literature, with studies showing the importance of anthropogenic factors, including greenhouse gases (Lu et al. 2007, 2009; Tao et al. 2016), stratospheric ozone depletion (Son et al. 2009; Polvani et al. 2011; Waugh et al. 2015), and anthropogenic aerosols (All...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) is the dominant mode of tropical SST/wind coupled variability. Modeling studies have implicated wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback as the primary driver of the AMM’s evolution across the Atlantic basin; however, a robust coupling of the SST and winds has not been shown in observations. This study examines observe...
Article
Full-text available
Year-to-year variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices generate significant interest throughout the general public and the scientific community due to the sometimes destructive nature of this climate mode. For example, so-called “Godzilla” ENSOs can generate billions of dollars in damages from the US agricultural industry alone...
Article
Full-text available
Equatorial Pacific changes during the transition from a non-hiatus period (pre-1999) to the present global warming hiatus period (post-1999) are identified using a combination of reanalysis and observed data sets. Results show increased surface wind forcing has excited significant changes in wind-driven circulation. Over the last two decades, the c...
Article
Full-text available
impacts of canonical and Modoki El Niño on tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) are quantified using composite analysis. Results show that El Niño Modoki fails to produce significant warming in the tropical Atlantic, in contrast to the well known warming following canonical El Niño events. El Niño Modoki instead induces significant cooli...
Data
Full-text available
Fifty years ago, Hans A. Panofsky published a paper entitled Determination of stress from wind and temperature meas-urements. In his famous paper, he presented a new profile function for the mean horizontal wind speed under the condi-tion of diabatic stratification that includes his integral similarity function. With his integral similarity functio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
he accumulation of dust in remote, pelagic sediments is controlled by aridity in the source regions as well as the gustiness of the transporting winds. Models and theory predict lower zonal wind intensities and gustiness in climates characterized by diminished meridional gradients such as the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene. The few published l...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
To understand the mechanism of Pacific decadal variability.
Project
To investigate the physical mechanisms that govern the interaction of the North and South Pacific Meridional Modes with the deep tropics, especially with ENSO.