Dieter Johannes Meyerhoff

Dieter Johannes Meyerhoff
University of California, San Francisco | UCSF · Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging

PhD (Dr.rer.nat.)

About

242
Publications
21,225
Reads
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10,580
Citations
Introduction
Neurobiological/cognitive injury and relapse prediction in substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, polysubstance use, opioids), using multi-modal in-vivo magnetic resonance methods
Additional affiliations
May 1987 - present
San Francisco VA Medical Center
Position
  • Senior Researcher
May 1987 - present
University of California, San Francisco
Position
  • Visiting Scholar, Research Associate, Professor
April 1985 - April 1987
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Researcher at the NMR facility

Publications

Publications (242)
Article
Alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AlUD) have neurobiological consequences. This meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies aimed to assess the differences in brain metabolite levels in alcohol misuse and AUD relative to controls (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020209890). Hedge’s g with random-effects modeling was use...
Article
Full-text available
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be associated with gray matter (GM) loss, particularly in the frontal cortex. However, unclear is to what degree these regional GM alterations are substance-specific or shared across different substances, and if these regional GM alterations are independent of each other or the result of system-level...
Article
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Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex disorder that affects nearly 264 million people worldwide. Structural brain abnormalities in multiple neuroanatomical networks have been implicated in the etiology of MDD, but the degree to which MDD affects brain structure during early to late adulthood is unclear. Methods: We examined mo...
Article
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Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with brain-wide gray matter (GM) reduction, but the frontocerebellar circuit seems specifically affected by chronic alcohol consumption. T1 weighted MRI data from 38 AUD patients at one month of sobriety and three months later and from 25 controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a graph...
Article
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Abstinence is a lifelong endeavor, and the risk of a relapse is always present for patients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). The aim of the study was to better understand specific characteristics of the intrinsic whole‐brain‐network architecture of 34 AUD patients that may support abstinence or relapse. We used Graph Theory Analysis (GTA) of restin...
Article
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A fine-tuned interplay of highly synchronized activity within and between the brain's communities is a crucial feature of the brain's functional organization. We wanted to investigate in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) the degree to which the interplay of the brain's community-architecture and the extended brain reward system (eBRS) is...
Article
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We previously reported that at 1-and-4 weeks of sobriety, those who relapsed after treatment demonstrated significantly smaller total frontal cortical volume than individuals who maintained abstinence for at least 12 months post treatment. The segmentation method employed did not permit examination of frontal subregions that serve as nodes of the e...
Article
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Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with regional metabolite abnormalities in choline‐containing compounds, creatine‐containing compounds, glutamate, and N‐acetylaspartate. The effects of cigarette smoking on anterior frontal cortical gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration are unknown. This study compared chronic smokers (n = 33) and nons...
Article
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Background Reductions in substance use are associated with positive long‐term treatment outcomes such as psychosocial functioning; substance use–related consequences; and mental, physical, and neurobiological health. Therefore, nonabstinent clinical trial endpoints have received growing attention from substance abuse treatment experts. Regional bra...
Article
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Aims: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies report widespread cortical thinning in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but did not consider potential effects of pro-atherogenic conditions such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C seropositivity and hyperlipidemia on cortical thickness. The conditions are associated wi...
Article
Cigarette smoking is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in various populations, including those seeking treatment for an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study compared the rate and extent of recovery on measures of processing speed, executive functions, general intelligence, visuospatial skills and working memory in treatment-seeking alcoh...
Article
Gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD) affects predominantly the frontal lobes. Less is known how frontal lobe GM loss affects GM loss in other regions and how it influences drinking behavior or relapse after treatment. The profile similarity index (PSI) combined with graph analysis allows to assess how GM loss in one...
Article
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Although there is general consensus that altered brain structure and function underpins addictive disorders, clinicians working in addiction treatment rarely incorporate neuroscience-informed approaches into their practice. We recently launched the Neuroscience Interest Group within the International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM-NIG) to prom...
Article
Background: Cerebellar atrophy (especially involving the superior-anterior cerebellar vermis) is among the most salient and clinically significant effects of chronic hazardous alcohol consumption on brain structure. Smaller cerebellar volumes are also associated with chronic cigarette smoking. The present study investigated effects of both chronic...
Article
Background: Studies testing the relationship between cortisol levels, depression, and antidepressant treatment response have yielded divergent results suggesting the possibility of moderators of a cortisol effect. Several studies indicate that age may moderate the relationship between cortisol and depression. In patients with Major Depressive Diso...
Article
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Proton MRS (1H MRS) provides noninvasive, quantitative metabolite profiles of tissue and has been shown to aid the clinical management of several brain diseases. Although most modern clinical MR scanners support MRS capabilities, routine use is largely restricted to specialized centers with good access to MR research support. Widespread adoption ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Studies testing the relationship between cortisol levels, depression, and antidepressant treatment response have yielded divergent results suggesting the possibility of moderators of a cortisol effect. Several studies indicate that age may moderate the relationship between cortisol and psychopathology. In patients with Major Depressive...
Article
Identification of neural correlates of relapse to alcohol after treatment is clinically important as it may inform better substance abuse treatment. Few studies have specifically analyzed the white matter microstructure in treatment seekers as it might relate to relapse risk versus long-term abstinence. Using 4 Tesla diffusion tensor imaging, we co...
Article
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Background: Magnetic resonance imaging studies of cigarette smoking-related effects on human brain structure primarily focused on cortical volumes. Much less is known about the effects of smoking on cortical thickness. Smokers and Non-smokers were compared on regional cortical thickness. We predicted smokers would demonstrate greater age-related t...
Article
Background: HIV penetrates the brain in early infection. We used neuroimaging to longitudinally examine the impact of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the brain in treated and untreated HIV-positive participants starting in primary HIV infection (PHI). Methods: Sixty-five participants, enrolled during PHI, underwent longitudina...
Article
Background: HIV penetrates the brain in early infection. We used neuroimaging to longitudinally examine the impact of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the brain in treated and untreated HIV-positive participants starting in primary HIV infection (PHI). Methods: Sixty-five participants, enrolled during PHI, underwent longitudi...
Article
Background Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol‐dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine vo...
Article
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Gabapentin (GBP), a GABA analog that may also affect glutamate (Glu) production, can normalize GABA and Glu tone during early abstinence from alcohol, effectively treating withdrawal symptoms and facilitating recovery. Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the degree to which daily GBP alters regional brain GABA and Glu levels in...
Chapter
Polysubstance use (PSU) refers to the simultaneous or concurrent use of more than one addictive substance. Polysubstance users comprise the largest subgroup of both substance users and treatment seekers in the developed world today. However, little is known about the neuroadaptations and cognitive deficits associated with chronic misuse of multiple...
Article
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Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated...
Article
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Background.: We explored the establishment of abnormal blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and its relationship to neuropathogenesis during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by evaluating the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum albumin quotient (QAlb) in patients with primary HIV infection. We also analyzed effects of initiati...
Article
Background: We previously reported widespread microstructural deficits of brain white matter in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) compared to light drinkers in a small 1.5T diffusion tensor imaging study employing tract-based spatial statistics. Using a larger dataset acquired at 4T, the present study is an extension that investigated the effect...
Article
The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each...
Chapter
Polysubstance users are the largest group of treatment seekers in the United States and Europe. Although polysubstance use disorders (PSUD) constitute an enormous individual and societal burden, little is known about the neuroadaptations and cognitive deficits associated with concurrent chronic misuse of illicit, psychoactive substances and alcohol...
Article
Background: Relapse in alcohol use disorders (AUD) is related to a complex interplay among multiple biological, psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial factors, which may change dynamically during and after treatment. At treatment entry for AUD, morphological abnormalities in anterior frontal regions and the insula have been observed in those...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Intact neurocognition and early cognitive recovery during abstinence are important for substance use treatment outcome. Yet, little is known about them in the largest group of treatment seekers today, individuals with polysubstance use disorders (PSU). This study primarily contrasted PSU and individuals with an alcohol use disorder (...
Article
Full-text available
The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each...
Article
Cross-sectional structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) report that those who relapse after treatment, relative to individuals who maintain a period of extended abstinence, show greater morphological abnormalities in multiple brain regions near the inception of treatment, particularly in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Reduction in brain volume, especially gray matter volume, has been shown to be one of the many deleterious effects of prolonged alcohol consumption. High variance in the degree of gray matter tissue shrinkage among alcohol-dependent individuals and a previous neuroimaging genetics report suggest the involvement of environmental and/or g...
Article
Objective: Little is known about the extent of cortical and subcortical volumetric alterations that may occur within the first year of HIV infection (primary HIV infection; PHI). Design: We used structural MRI in this prospective cross-sectional neuroimaging study to determine the extent of volumetric changes in early HIV infection. Methods: C...
Article
Obesity/overweight is reported to affect MR-measured brain tissue volume and white matter (WM) signal intensity. This study investigated possible effects of fat on these measures, using pig fat on three participants at a 4 T magnet. Grey matter volumes in the presence of fat were lower than baseline measures. Total WM volumes in the presence of fat...
Article
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Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal) on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow). Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age...
Article
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This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery...
Article
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Background Cigarette smoking is associated with metabolite abnormalities in anterior brain regions, but it is unclear if these abnormalities are apparent in other regions. Additionally, relationships between regional brain metabolite levels and measures of decision-making, risk-taking, and impulsivity in smokers and non-smokers have not been invest...
Article
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Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysu...
Article
Background Brain perfusion is altered in both alcohol dependence and stimulant dependence. Although most substance users also abuse/depend on alcohol concurrently (polysubstance users; PSU), rigorous perfusion research in PSU is limited. Also, the relationships of perfusion abnormalities with cognition, impulsivity or decision making are not well k...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation and infection within the central nervous system is initiated during primary HIV infection (PHI), but the association of these processes with the integrity of brain white matter during PHI is unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in this prospective cross-sectional neuroimaging study to determine the extent of white matter inv...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study compared the rate and extent of recovery on measures of learning and memory, processing speed, and working memory in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) who were never smokers (nvsALC), former smokers (fsALC), and active smokers (asALC) over the first 8 months of sustained abstinence from alcohol. Assessment...
Article
This chapter critically reviews brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies performed since 1994 in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). We describe the neurochemicals that can be measured in vivo at the most common magnetic field strengths, summarize our knowledge about their general brain functions, and briefly explai...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study compared the rate and extent of recovery on measures of learning and memory, processing speed, and working memory in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) who were never smokers (nvsALC), former smokers (fsALC), and active smokers (asALC) over the first 8 months of sustained abstinence from alcohol. Assessments...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We examined the longitudinal effects of primary HIV infection (PHI) and responses to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the brain using high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Cerebral metabolites were measured longitudinally with 4T proton MRS and assessed for ART effects in participants with PHI. Levels of glut...
Article
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Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) have smaller hippocampi and poorer neurocognition than healthy controls. Results from studies on the association between alcohol consumption and hippocampal volume have been mixed, suggesting that comorbid or premorbid factors (i.e., those present prior to the initiation of alcohol dependence) determine hippocamp...
Article
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The trajectory of regional volume changes during the first year of sustained abstinence in those recovering from an alcohol use disorder is unclear because previous research typically employed only two assessment points. To better understand the trajectory of regional brain volume recovery in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), r...
Article
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To test if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with low brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and if reduced GABA is mediated by poor sleep quality. Laboratory study using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and behavioral testing. VA Medical Center Research Service, Psychiatry and Radiology. Twenty-seven pa...
Article
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Background Static postural instability is common in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC). Chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on the neural and perceptual systems subserving postural stability. However, little is known about the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on postural stability and its changes during abstinence from alcohol....
Article
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A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [(1)H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data...
Article
A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individ...
Article
Recent MRS studies have indicated that a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal areas, which m...
Article
Recent MRS studies have indicated that a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single‐voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR‐measured metabolite signal areas, which m...
Article
Previous cross-sectional MRI studies with healthy, young-to-middle-aged adults reported no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers on total hippocampal volume. However, these studies did not specifically test for greater age-related volume loss in the total hippocampus or hippocampal subregions in smokers, and did they did not exami...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of a simple mathematical formula for prediction of individual child linear growth. The formula describes a square root dependence of height on age with only two constants, k and C. Retrospective serial height measurements of 137 healthy children (61 female), who attended clinic in the Pediat...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups:...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increasing age and chronic cigarette smoking are independently associated with adverse effects on multiple aspects of neurocognition in those seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders. However, the potential interactive effects of age and cigarette smoking on neurocognition in early abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) have...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. Methods: We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta...
Article
Alcohol use disorders are related to neurocognitive abnormalities during early abstinence in those seeking treatment for alcohol dependence (ALC). Considerable evidence indicates that chronic cigarette smoking is associated with multiple neurocognitive deficiencies. However, very little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on neurocognitiv...