Diego G Peroni

Diego G Peroni
Università di Pisa | UNIPI · Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine

MD

About

313
Publications
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6,671
Citations
Citations since 2016
126 Research Items
3381 Citations
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Publications

Publications (313)
Article
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Currently, there are a few detailed guidelines on the overall management of children and adolescents with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis. AD is a complex disease presenting with different clinical phenotypes, which require an individualized and multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, appropriate interaction between primary care pediatricians, ped...
Article
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Sydenham’s chorea (SC) is a post-streptococcal autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, and it is a major criterium for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). SC typically improves in 12–15 weeks, but patients can be affected for years by persistence and recurrencies of both neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We enrolled 4...
Article
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Aim: Undue concerns about the consequences of fever and an inappropriate management have been worldwide documented among physicians. However, no data exist on medical students. We investigated the perception, knowledge and attitude towards childhood fever among final-year medical students. Methods: Between June and September 2021, final-year med...
Article
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Background: Previous studies assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae in adults and children were performed in the absence of an agreed definition. We investigated prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) (WHO definition), at 6- and 12-months follow-up, amongst previously hospitalised adults and children and assessed risk factors. Methods...
Article
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Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are susceptible to developing a severe infection-related clinical phenotype, but the clinical consequences of immune dysregulation, expressed with autoimmunity, atopy, and lymphoproliferation could represent the first sign in a significant percentage of patients. Therefore, during the diagnostic work-up...
Article
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Introduction Stroke-like syndrome (SLS) is a rare subacute neurological complication of intrathecal or high-dose (≥500 mg) Methotrexate (MTX) administration. Its clinical features, evoking acute cerebral ischaemia with fluctuating course symptoms and a possible spontaneous resolution, have elicited interest among the scientific community. However,...
Article
Background: We hypothesized that differences in nasal and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (nNO and FeNO respectively) relate to prognosis in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Research question: What is the relationship between baseline values and longitudinal evolution of nNO and FeNO and ultrastructure, genotype and respiratory infections in PC...
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Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a pathologic condition that has emerged during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although the epidemiological evidence of association between MIS-C and SARS-CoV-2 infection has been demonstrated, its pathogenic mechanism is still undefined. We describe the case of a 17-year ol...
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The present Editorial derives from the Special Issue “New Insights into Cow’s Milk and Allergy” recently published in Nutrients [...]
Article
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Long Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) refers to the persistence of symptoms related to the infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This condition is described as persistent and can manifest in various combinations of signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, headache, dyspnea, depression, cognitive impairment, and a...
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Background: Onset of wheeze is the endpoint often used in the determination of a positive bronchial challenge test (BCT) in young children who cannot perform spirometry. We sought to assess several clinical endpoints at the time of a positive BCT in young children with recurrent wheeze compared to findings in school-aged children with asthma. Metho...
Article
Sydenham's Chorea (SC) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations. It is believed to be caused by the autoimmune response following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis, and it is one of the major diagnostic criteria for Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) diagnosis. Despite having been known a...
Article
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is characterized by acute neurological symptoms with typical imaging features, primarily in the territories of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation, probably due to vasogenic edema. Both clinical and imaging features are generally reversible. We report a 13-year-old girl affected by Nod...
Article
ABSTRACT Leading causes of death in industrialized countries are traumatic injuries and acquired disability, and entry to the emergency department in childhood. TBI (traumatic brain injury) may involve the onset of both primary lesions and a complex immune response (sterile immune reaction to brain injury), which, in addition to neuro-protective ef...
Article
Background: The association between Migraine with Aura (MA) and vascular disease has been previously reported. We investigated whether pre-clinical vascular alterations, such as Endothelial Dysfunction, are already present in children and adolescents with Migraine with Aura. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 27 patients having Migraine with A...
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Few data are currently available on the effects of aeroallergens in triggering respiratory symptoms in children. To evaluate the potential effects of daily outdoor aeroallergens loads on childhood admissions, in this case-crossover study, we analyzed data from 85 children hospitalized at the University Hospital of Pisa, Italy, for asthma or asthma-...
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Introduction Recent studies prompted the identification of neuroinflammation as a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy, particularly drug-resistant epilepsy, and refractory status epilepticus. This work provides a systematic review of the clinical experience with anti-cytokine agents and agents targeting lymphocytes and aims to evaluate t...
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Asthma is the most common chronic non-communicable disease in children, the pathogenesis of which involves several factors. The increasing burden of asthma worldwide has emphasized the need to identify the modifiable factors associated with the development of the disease. Recent research has focused on the relationship between dietary factors durin...
Article
Background Previous reports suggested that food proteins present in human milk (HM) may trigger symptoms in allergic children during breastfeeding, but existing evidence has never been reviewed systematically. Objective To assess the probability of food proteins in HM to trigger allergic reactions in infants with IgE-mediated food allergy. Method...
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Background: Poirier-Bienvenu Neurodevelopmental Syndrome (POBINDS) is a rare disease linked to mutations of the CSNK2B gene, which encodes for a subunit of caseinkinase CK2 involved in neuronal growth and synaptic transmission. Its main features include early-onset epilepsy and intellectual disability. Despite the lack of cases described, it appea...
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Introduction of complementary feeding, or weaning, is the period where infants are gradually introduced to solid foods, with a progressive reduction of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding. Weaning represents a crucial nutritional moment in the growth and development of infants, and it can also affect future health. Throughout the years, various weaning...
Article
Purpose of review: Electronic nicotine delivery systems such as e-cigarettes are commonly felt to be harmless devices when compared to traditional cigarettes. However, an increasing number of studies support the biological plausibility for the potential detrimental effects of vaping on the respiratory mucosa. To date, few human studies have been c...
Technical Report
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La rinite allergica è un problema sanitario globale che colpisce dal 5 al 35 % della popolazione. •La sua prevalenza è tendenzialmente in aumento. •Pur non essendo sempre una malattia grave, la rinite influisce sulla vita sociale ed altera le prestazioni scolastiche e lavorative. •I costi socio sanitari sono rilevanti. •La rinite si associa spesso...
Article
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Climate change (CC) is expected to negatively impact respiratory health due to air pollution and increased aeroallergen exposure. Children are among the most vulnerable populations due to high ventilation rates, small peripheral airways and developing respiratory and immunological systems. To assess the current knowledge among Italian pediatric pul...
Article
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Allergic and immunologic skin diseases negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of affected patients with detrimental consequences. Nonetheless, in everyday clinical practice the evaluation of QoL is often overlooked. Considering the increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, hereditary angioedema, cutaneous mastocy...
Article
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Background: To estimate the incidence of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) in Tuscany, a region of Central Italy, evaluating the epidemiological impact of the new diagnostic guidelines, and to analyse our outcomes in the context of the Italian overview. Methods: A multicenter and retrospective study was conducted involving children <18 years old living i...
Preprint
Background. 46,XX disorders of sex development are rare. Approximately, 90% of XX males are SRY-positive, while testicular development in the absence of SRY takes place in a minority. Methods: A boy with 46,XX karyotype (SRY-negative; absence of SOX9 duplications) was investigated by targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Multiplex ligation-dep...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory...
Article
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Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign inflammatory masses causing chronic nasal obstruction, usually associated with underlying chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), which are rarely reported in childhood. The interest in NPs has recently increased due to new therapeutic options, namely biological agents, such as dupilumab, and an update of the European position p...
Article
Objectives Sydenham's Chorea (SC) is a neuropsychiatric disorder and a major manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. The erroneous assumption that SC is a benign and self-limiting disease, has led to a lack of high-quality scientific evidence of the therapeutical and prognostic features of SC. Study design We retrospectively analyzed the medical r...
Article
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In the recent years, it was recognized that type-2 inflammation links many forms of nasal polyposis with severe asthma. Thus, some biological drugs developed for severe asthma appeared to exert an effect on nasal polyposis. So far, there are several trials supporting this concept; therefore, some monoclonal antibodies for severe asthma were assesse...
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Please cite this article as: Osmanov IM, Spiridonova E, Bobkova P, et al. Risk factors for long covid in previously hospitalised children using the ISARIC Global follow-up protocol: A prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J 2021; in press (https://doi.
Article
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Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response agai...
Article
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Background The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted with confirmed Covid-19. Child...
Article
Asthma is a chronic disease for which control is considered the management goal. However, the different methods to measure asthma control, including the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria and Asthma Control Test (ACT), can produce conflicting results. This nationwide pediatric study compared both methods in 465 enrolled children (322 male...
Article
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In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively “harmless” nature. Apar...
Article
Introduction Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, depending on maternal nutrition and metabolic state, can influence fetal, neonatal and long-term offspring health, regarding cardio-metabolic, respiratory, immunological and cognitive outcomes. Thus, maternal weight can act, through mechanisms that are not full understood, on the physiology and met...
Preprint
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Background The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of children (18 years old and younger) admitted with confirmed Covid...
Article
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Differences/disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions, resulting in discordance between an individual's sex chromosomes, gonads, and/or anatomic sex. The management of a newborn with suspected 46,XY DSD remains challenging. Newborns with 46,XY DSD may present with several phenotypes ranging from babies wi...
Article
From an evolutionary and nutritional standpoint, exclusive human milk feeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding for 1 to 2 years of life, is recognized as the gold standard nourishment for the infant: it is a species-specific food, with a composition designed by nature to better respond to the biological and psychological...
Article
The current systematic review presented and discussed the most recent studies on acute cough in pediatric age. After that, the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology elaborated a comprehensive algorithm to guide the primary care approach to pediatric patients, such as infants, children, and adolescents, with acute cough. An acute cough...
Article
The current systematic review presented and discussed the most recent studies on pediatric chronic cough. In addition, the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology elaborated a comprehensive algorithm to guide the primary care approach to a pediatric patient with chronic cough.Several algorithms on chronic cough management have been adop...
Article
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In recent years, the role of human microbiota as a short- and long-term health promoter and modulator has been affirmed and progressively strengthened. In the course of one’s life, each subject is colonized by a great number of bacteria, which constitute its specific and individual microbiota. Human bacterial colonization starts during fetal life,...
Article
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Background: The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immune system are used for the management of COVID-19. The involvement of the immune system also opens the opportunity for the use of...
Article
Background The recent COVID-19 pandemic pointed out new burdens for researchers on mental health and that evidence-based (EB) studies on vulnerable populations are timely needed. The present paper aims at analysing the impact of suspicious of SARS-COV-2 infection in a cohort of parents presented at 3 major hospitals (spread between north and center...
Article
Acute rheumatic fever, Rheumatic carditis, Sydenham’s chorea, Erythema marginatum, Arthritis, Differential diagnosis The revision of the Jones criteria by the American Heart Association allowed the identification and diagnosis of a greater number of cases of Rheumatic Disease (RD); however, the higher incidence of RD is associated with "pathomorphi...
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Background: We report a case of a 4-year-old girl with acute dacryocystitis complicated with giant lacrimal abscess who underwent open dacryocystectomy as resolutive surgery. Case presentation: A 4-year-old previously healthy girl presented to the emergency department with a voluminous and erythematous, fluctuant warm mass localized inferiorly t...
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Soybean (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia and used in childhood diet for over 2,000 years in the East. Soy protein formulas have been available for almost a century. Nowadays, the increase in cow's milk allergy and vegetarian dietary preferences are driving consumers toward cow's milk alternatives. In this paper, we reviewed...
Article
The use of probiotic supplements might change the composition of the intestinal flora of children, subsequently modulating the immune system's reactivity. The effects of probiotic administration for the prevention/treatment of allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis, in particular, are still so controversial that no definitive recommendation can be...
Article
The Italian Society of Paediatric Allergy and Immunology has developed the project “ControL’Asma," a nationwide study involved ten third‐level pediatric allergy clinics across Italy. The first findings of the “ControL’Asma” project showed that asthma was more frequent in males, had an early onset and allergic phenotype with very frequent rhinitis c...
Article
A healthy 5-year-old boy was brought to the Emergency Department with a 24-hour-history of fever, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and vomiting. Blood tests and ultrasound of the abdomen suggested an acute gastroenteritis. The boy was admitted and intravenous fluids were started. Twenty-four hours later macrohaematuria, oliguria, anaemia, thrombocy...
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The control of asthma is the objective of asthma management. However, it is difficult to obtain in clinical practice. The Italian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology promoted the nationwide project "ControL'Asma" to investigate the real situation in a group of children and adolescents with asthma. The preliminary outcomes demonstrated that m...
Article
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Nutrients in foods are not eaten in isolation and food intake interacts in a complex manner, affecting health and disease outcomes. For this reason, focusing on the whole “pattern” of dietary intake instead of the single nutrients or groups of nutrients when studying diseases outcomes is increasingly appealing and growing. Diet diversity refers to...
Article
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Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children, and its pathogenesis involves genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The rapid rise in the prevalence of asthma registered over the last few decades has stressed the need to identify the environmental and modifiable factors associated with the development of the disease. In particula...
Article
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Introduction: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and exposure to tobacco smoke has been long recognized as a risk factor for its onset as well as for exacerbations and poor disease control. Since the early 2000s, electronic cigarettes have been marketed worldwide as a non-harmful electronic alternative to combustible cigarettes...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has surprised the entire population. The world has had to face an unprecedented pandemic. Only, Spanish flu had similar disastrous consequences. As a result, drastic measures (lockdown) have been adopted worldwide. Healthcare service has been overwhelmed by the extraordinary influx of patients, often requiring high intensity o...
Article
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Novel methods in immunological research and microbiome evaluation have dramatically changed several paradigms associated with the pathogenesis of allergic asthma (AAS). Ovalbumin and house dust mite-induced AAS in germ-free or specific pathogen-free mice are the two leading experimental platforms that significantly contribute to elucidate the relat...
Article
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Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a major relevance factor, since maternal overweight and obesity can impair the pregnancy outcome and represent risk factors for several neonatal, childhood, and adult conditions, including excessive weight gain, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and even behavioral disorders. Currently, breast milk (B...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic raises issues about breastfeeding when mothers have tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). We don’t know whether the virus can be passed to a foetus or baby during pregnancy or delivery and it has not been found in amniotic fluid or breastmilk (1). Separating babies from virus pos...
Article
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting up to 25% of children. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are currently used as first-line antiinflammatory treatment for AD, due to their overall therapeutic efficacy, and the availability of different potency classes and a wide array of formulations. Therapeu...