Diego Garate

Diego Garate
Universidad de Cantabria | UNICAN · Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantabria (IIIPC)

PhD Prehistory

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219
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Publications

Publications (219)
Article
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Multiple factors have been proposed to explain the disappearance of Neandertals between ca. 50 and 40 kyr BP. Central to these discussions has been the identification of new techno-cultural complexes that overlap with the period of Neandertal demise in Europe. One such complex is the Châtelperronian, which extends from the Paris Basin to the Northe...
Article
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This paper presents rock art as a collective action in which different strata of society took part, including children and subadults. Until recent decades archaeology of childhood has not been in the main focus of the archaeological research, much less the participation of those children in the artistic activity. The present study approaches the pa...
Article
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The endokarst landscape is the result of long erosion and sedimentation processes that have modelled an environment in which capricious forms abound. Despite being a hostile environment for human life, these caves must have attracted the attention of human groups from as early as the Palaeolithic. It is striking that many examples of rock art appea...
Article
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The nw of Las Merindades, Burgos, was an area with little presence of post-palaeolithic rock art, unlike other areas in the southern part of the Cordillera Cantábrica, such as the neighbouring region of Campoo-Los Valles, Cantabria, and the Karst Complex of Ojo Guareña, in Merindad de Sotoscueva, Burgos, despite sharing similar geographical charact...
Article
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The characterization of the first portable artistic depictions in Cantabrian Spain is crucial for comprehension of the symbolic development of Neandertals and Homo sapiens in the context of the passage from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic. However, despite the importance of these first graphic representations, their study has tended to lack the...
Article
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Actes de la séance commune de la Société préhistorique française et la Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft à Strasbourg (16-17 mai 2019) Textes publiés sous la direction de Ludovic Mevel, Mara-Julia Weber et Andreas Maier Paris, Société préhistorique française, 2021 (Séances de la Société préhistorique française, 17), p. 173-194 www.prehistoire.org Abstrac...
Article
El Niño cave, located on the south-eastern border of the Spanish Meseta, hosts a discontinuous sequence including Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic levels, along with Upper Palaeolithic and Levantine style paintings. It is a key site for understanding human occupations of inland Iberia during the Palaeolithic and early prehistory. This paper summar...
Article
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Artificial lighting was a crucial physical resource for expanding complex social and economic behavior in Paleolithic groups. Furthermore, the control of fire allowed the development of the first symbolic behavior in deep caves, around 176 ky BP. These activities would increase during the Upper Paleolithic, when lighting residues proliferated at th...
Chapter
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La paleodemografía es una disciplina cuya implantación se ha visto beneficiada durante los últimos años por la adaptación de las nuevas tecnologías al estudio de las sociedades del pasado. De esta manera, estudios como el análisis de la secuencia genómica o la modelización del registro arqueológico son en la actualidad, fuentes indispensables de in...
Article
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En el marco del proyecto de «Caracterización del macizo y sistema kárstico de Alkerdi, de la cueva de Alkerdi y de su entorno de protección», se procede a la exploración de la cavidad de Alkerdi 2. Las labores coordinadas han permitido identificar un conjunto de arte parietal asociado a evidencias arqueológicas en superficie. El estilo de las grafí...
Article
The systematic evaluation of accessibility to different sectors in caves with Palaeolithic rock art is crucial to interpret the contexts of prehistoric human activity that took place inside them, especially if focused on the areas that are harder to reach. 3D models have been employed in a GIS to process spatial information, calculate numerical cos...
Article
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El arte parietal paleolítico de la cueva de Aitzbitarte V se descubre en 2015, en el marco de las labores de prospección desarrolladas en la última década en el oriente cantábrico. Hemos documentado una decena de grabados situados en tres sectores profundos de la cavidad y compuestos por representaciones de bisontes y líneas. Las características fo...
Chapter
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En este trabajo se hace una presentación de las investigaciones arqueológicas desarrolladas en el yacimiento de Aranbaltza (Barrika, Bizkaia), uno de los escasos yacimientos paleolíticos al aire libre conservados en la región cantábrica. Su registro es especialmente rico en ocupaciones realizadas por grupos de neandertales, desde finales del Pleist...
Article
Since the discovery of Altamira Cave in 1879, the archaeological record of Palaeolithic parietal art has expanded steadily across Western Europe but with an unequal distribution. Discoveries have often been made by chance, but at other times as the result of painstaking searches by archaeologists and/or speleologists, eventually reaching some 500 s...
Article
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Paleolithic art offers unique perspectives on prehistoric societies and cultures. It is also considered a key component of modern human behavior. Until recently, Paleolithic artworks were thought to be geographically restricted to a very few areas, especially southwestern Europe. Discoveries of art in other parts of Europe and other parts of the gl...
Article
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The renewal of the archaeological record, mainly through the discovery of unpublished sites, provides information that sometimes qualifies or even reformulates previous approaches. One of the latter cases is represented by the three new decorated caves found in 2015 in Aitzbitarte Hill. Their exhaustive study shows the presence of engraved animals,...
Article
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El yacimiento de la cueva de Abittaga, excavado por J.M. Barandiarán entre 1964 y 1965, contiene una secuencia arqueológica con ocupaciones del Magdaleniense Superior y de la Prehistoria Reciente. Este yacimiento apenas ha participado en los debates de la prehistoria vasca de los últimos 40 años, fundamentalmente porque el yacimiento había sido est...
Article
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The development of artistic abilities in Upper Palaeolithic societies has been analysed in recent years from the perspective of learning and transmission of artistic know-how, from both technical and formal points of view. Recent analyses, based on the study of the operational chains involved in engraving, have shown different levels of acquisition...
Article
The cave of Hornos de la Peña contained one of the most relevant stratigraphic sequences for the study of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the Cantabrian Region, northern Iberia, as well as an important group of Paleolithic rock art. The site was discovered in 1903 and excavated during 1909–1910. Those excavations did not take place in the main...
Article
A detailed geomorphological study was performed in the Atxurra‐Armiña cave system (northern Iberian Peninsula) to decode landscape evolution, palaeoenvironmental changes and human use of a cave within an Inner Archaeological Context. The results show an average incision rate of the river of <0.083 mm a–1 for at least the last 419 ka, with interrupt...
Article
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An international group of archaeologists specializing in cave art explain the difficulties they faced to publish their response to another paper, previously published in Science (Hoffmann et al. 2018), reporting a Neanderthal origin of some Spanish cave paintings according to Uranium-thorium method. In their reply, they underlined the different sou...
Article
Aitzbitarte hill is a classic archaeological site for the Upper Palaeolithic in the Cantabrian Region. Excavations in caves III and IV were started at the end of the 19th century and continued during the next, revealing broad sequences of human occupations. The first very modest evidence of parietal art was located in 2012 in Aitzbitarte IV, and sh...
Article
Visibility has been the subject of study in Palaeolithic rock art research ever since the discovery of Altamira Cave in 1879. Nevertheless, until now, the different approaches have been based on subjective assessments, due to computational limitations for a more objective methodology. Nowadays, cutting-edge technologies such as GIS allow us to addr...
Article
An international group of archaeologists specializing in cave art explain the diffi- culties they faced to publish their response to another paper, previously published in Science (Hoffmann et al. 2018), reporting a Neanderthal origin of some Spanish cave pain- tings according to Uranium-thorium method. In their reply, they underlined the diffe- re...
Article
The discovery of Palaeolithic parietal art in the cave of Atxurra took place within an archaeological surveying project that has been carried out over the last decade in the eastern Cantabrian region. As a consequence of this project, the number of caves with parietal art known in this region has tripled. The case of Atxurra Cave is a remarkable co...
Article
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RESUMEN El yacimiento de la cueva de Atxurra fue excavado entre 1934 y 1935 por J.M. Barandiarán Ayerbe. Las condiciones de la excavación, la tardía publicación de los resultados y los avatares sufridos por los materiales arqueológicos recuperados han condicionado el análisis y la interpretación del yacimiento y de su secuencia estratigráfica. Reci...
Article
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This work presents the discovery and subsequent study of red marks of Paleolithic style in the cave of Baltzola (Dima, Bizkaia). The authors identify a small set of decorations that include an ideomorph that is difficult to characterize. It may be either "Cantabrian claviform" (present in caves such as Altamira, Tebellín or La Pasiega B and C) or a...
Conference Paper
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Our project for the cave of La Mouthe incorporates a current dynamic of rereading rock art sites, and developing new problems of analysis. The knowledge acquired since the 1990s on archaeological data, with the discovery of major sites for prehistoric art, as well as methodological, with advances in radiocarbon dating, microanalyses of materials an...
Article
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Isturitz cave (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France) is one of the reference sites for the study of the European Upper Palaeolithic, due to the richness of its archaeological record and its chronological amplitude. On this occasion, we focus on an aspect that is not often discussed in research that of the deposition of objects (preferably bone, flint or oc...
Conference Paper
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La cueva de El Salitre es uno de los yacimientos clásicos con arte parietal de la Región Cantábrica ya que su descubrimiento se remonta a las primeras fases de la investigación de este fenómeno en la Península Ibérica.En 1903 Lorenzo Sierra localizó el yacimiento arqueológico y la existencia de pinturas rojas (Sierra, 1908: 100). Años más tarde, ju...
Article
The geographical distribution of Upper Palaeolithic cave art in Western Europe has changed throughout the history of research. In addition to the initial nuclei that gave rise to “Franco-Cantabrian” art (Cantabria, Périgord and Pyrenees), new regions with remarkable concentrations, such as the Rhône in France or Andalusia and the Iberian Plateau in...
Article
El Salitre Cave is a classic rock art site in Cantabrian Spain, discovered by L. Sierra in 1903. Except for specific studies focused on particular graphic evidence recording, no research has undertaken an integral study of its rock art ensemble. This paper reports the results of the cave re-study in which 3D digital recording methodologies were app...
Article
Rock-art recording has been significantly improved in recent years by new technologies. Nonetheless, accurate documentation of certain engravings is a challenge for these cutting-edge technologies, specially the extremely thin incised lines used in many Palaeolithic engraved motifs. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for recording these en...
Article
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Resumen: La inserción o depósito de objetos en las grietas, repisas y orificios de las cuevas decoradas durante el Paleolítico Superior es un fenómeno que solo ha sido objeto de investigación en los últimos años, especialmente en yacimientos situados en la vertiente norte de los Pirineos. Una prospección exhaustiva en la cueva de La Pasiega b, Puen...
Article
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The interest for documenting the insertion or deposit of objects in the crevices, shelves and orifices of the decorated caves throughout the Upper Palaeolithic is quite recent and this phenomenon has almost only been documented in the Northern Pyrenean sites. During an exhaustive survey, we have identified similar evidence in the cave of La Pasiega...
Article
Rock art is key for understanding European Palaeolithic societies. Long thought to have been restricted to South-west Europe, recent discoveries on the Balkan Peninsula have expanded significantly the geographic distribution of Upper Palaeolithic figurative rock art, calling into question the idea of its limited distribution. This article presents...
Article
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From the graphic point of view, the theme of the “striated hind” is a true fossil director of the Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian. Represented for the most part on scapulae in the case of portable art, it also possesses its correlation in parietal art. The C14 dates currently available do not allow any doubts about its chrono-cultural attribution. How...
Chapter
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Uribe Kosta is one of the regions of Biscay with the highest density of prehistoric archaeological sites, due in large part to the first-order abiotic resources provided by the flint from the flysch. However, the intensity of research and degree of knowledge of the archaeological heritage have not been commensurate with its importance. Only in rece...
Presentation
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The spread of the Neolithic to the west of Europe implies, among other features, a modification in the settlement patterns. Open-air villages became the most representative evidence of daily life activities. However, this archaeological record is scarce in some areas of the continent, especially in the south of the Atlantic coast. The Prehistory in...
Article
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Newly discovered archaeological sites in the Uribe Kosta region of northern Spain are illuminating the establishment of late prehistoric coastal farming settlements and specialised tool-production activities.
Conference Paper
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The site of Hornos de la Peña (San Felices de Buelna, Cantabria, Spain) was first discov- ered by Alcalde del Rio in 1903, and was excavated by H. Obermaier in 1909-10. The results from this excavation were succinctly published in Breuil and Obermaier’s book (1912). In the last decades the site has remained almost forgotten, and only few attempts t...
Conference Paper
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The eastern part of the Cantabrian region is characterized by the presence of several Middle Paleolithic sites, most of them located in caves and rock-shelters (Axlor, Amalda, Arlanpe, Arrillor, Lezetxiki, El Cuco, Ventalapera). The chronology of these sites ranges from ca. MIS6 to MIS3. The ongonig research on some of these sites reveals a high de...
Conference Paper
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The cave of Armiña is part of the same karstic system than Atxurra cave, which has an occupation site in the entrance, covering from Gravettian to Late Magdalenian, and numerous evidences of Paleolithic rock-art in the inner part of the cave. The current entrance of Armiña was discovered at the end of XIX century when the road between Markina and L...
Conference Paper
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L' ensemble pariétal de la grotte du Salitre, découvert en 1903 par Lorenzo Sierra (Sierra, 1908), constitue un des exemples de la tradition de peintures rouges "pointillés" del Gravettien cantabrique (Gárate, 2006 ; González Sainz et al. 2009). Les manifestations qu'il loge maintiennent un lien étroit avec le reste de grottes cantabriques décorées...
Article
The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic rel...