Diego De Leo

Diego De Leo
Griffith University · Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention

AO, DSc, MD, PhD, FRANZCP

About

856
Publications
360,412
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101,712
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - December 2015
Griffith University
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (856)
Article
Full-text available
Background Predicted increases in suicide were not generally observed in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the picture may be changing and patterns might vary across demographic groups. We aimed to provide a timely, granular picture of the pandemic's impact on suicides globally. Methods We identified suicide data from official pu...
Article
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Human-computer interaction (HCI) has contributed to the design and development of some efficient, user-friendly, cost-effective, and adaptable digital mental health solutions. But HCI has not been well-combined into technological developments resulting in quality and safety concerns. Digital platforms and artificial intelligence (AI) have a good po...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction, especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. Addiction to the Internet is often linked with an increase in the f...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Self-injury mortality (SIM) combines suicides and the preponderance of drug misuse-related overdose fatalities. Identifying social and environmental factors associated with SIM and suicide may inform etiologic understanding and intervention design. Objective: To identify factors associated with interstate SIM and suicide rate variati...
Article
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Background and Aims Systematic Tailored Assessment for Responding to Suicidality (STARS) protocol and associated training were developed with the key objectives of supporting clinicians to conduct a suicide enquiry, obtaining a comprehensive account of psycho-social factors contributing to suicidality, and collaboratively developing a safety plan w...
Article
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The aim of the present validation study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of the Mental Health Literacy Scale. For this purpose, the factorial structure, internal consistency, cross-cultural, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. The measure was translated and adapted to Slovenian context through a b...
Article
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Loneliness and suicidal ideation (SI) are relevant issues. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of death ideation (DI) and SI in the general population across four age groups and to determine the extent to which emotional and social loneliness are associated with SI. Data were collected via an online panel in Slovenia in February 2019 on a re...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted on healthcare services’ organization and healthcare workers’ mental health, increasing the risk of psychological symptoms and burnout. Italy has been one of the most affected countries, especially the northern regions, even with exceptions in some rural provinces. Aim: We chose to investigate...
Article
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Suicidal men feel the need to be self-reliant and that they cannot find another way out of relationship or socioeconomic issues. Suicide prevention is of crucial importance worldwide. The much higher rate of suicide in men engenders action. The prelude is a subjective experience that can be very isolating and severely distressing. Men may not reali...
Article
Background . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. Methods . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/regi...
Article
Suicide is an important problem among older adults and in particular older men. Risk factors for suicide in older adults include the loss of a loved one, loneliness and physical illness. Suicide in older adults is often attributed to the development of depression due to bereavement or loss of physical health and independence. However, suicide preve...
Article
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This qualitative study was conducted in critical care units and emergency services and was aimed at considering the death notification (DN) phenomenology among physicians (notifiers), patient relatives (receivers) and those who work between them (nurses). Through the qualitative method, a systemic perspective was adopted to recognise three differen...
Article
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Background The Pacific Islands have some of the highest rates of suicide in the Western Pacific region. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on suicidal behaviour in the Pacific Islands. Methods A comprehensive search of Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, CINAHL and Embase databases was conducted for all a...
Article
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This paper provides a broad discussion about voluntary assisted dying (VAD) in Australia. The discussion examines the history of the VAD debate in Australia and whether public support for VAD and the arguments that have provided the framework for the VAD debate have evolved over time. This seems a prudent time to have such a discussion, given the v...
Article
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Suicide in old age represents a sad public health concern. Despite the global decline in rates of suicide and the general amelioration of quality of life and access to health care for older adults, their rates of suicide remain the highest virtually in every part of the world. With the aging of the world population and the growing number of mononuc...
Article
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Aim: An online survey was proposed to the health workers of a public hospital of an Italian northern city. This was done with the aim of assessing the unmet needs of a special population under strain (the health carers) due to the fight against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Results: By answering the survey, five hundred and nine people pro...
Article
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Digital Mental Health is information and communication technology used in mental health services delivered or boosted through the Internet and related technologies, smartphone and wearable technologies as well as immersive solutions (e.g., Virtual Reality and video games). It is predominantly used as self-help services or with the assistance of a (...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial. Methods: The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (C...
Article
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Background Documentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex an...
Article
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Background: There has been limited attention to the development and delivery of tertiary suicide prevention curricula. The aim of this work was to describe the status of postgraduate suicide prevention education, with specific attention on examining the needs of the suicide prevention sector in Australia. Method: An online survey was completed b...
Article
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Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential traject...
Article
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Objective To analyse the epidemiological data on suicide in French Polynesia (FP). Methods Data on suicides were collected from the Public Health Direction, Judicial Police Investigations Court of Justice records, the Centre d’Opérations et de Renseignements de la Gendarmerie, patient records for those hospitalized in psychiatry and from psycholog...
Article
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Social isolation and loneliness are increasing in our contemporary western society and seem to correlate with suicide in adolescents and young adults. Social Workers are a potential resource to create such initiatives and projects that promote inclusion and cohesion within communities, a protective factor against suicide. Sixty-two Social Work BA s...
Article
Background: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID�19 pandemic are needed. Methods: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/r...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolesce...
Article
Gatekeeper training (GKT) is one of the most widely used suicide prevention strategies. It involves training people who are not necessarily clinicians to be able to identify people experiencing suicidality and refer them to appropriate services. While there is a dearth of research that supports the causal link between GKT and reduced suicide rates,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Systematic Tailored Assessment for Responding to Suicidality (STARS) is a client-centered, psychosocial needs-based assessment protocol. This semistructured interview obtains client prioritized indicators that contribute to suicidality and informs commensurate care responses for preventing suicide. Aim: To pilot the feasibility, cli...
Article
Background Research over how suicide survivors approach services is limited. Aims: This cross-sectional study explores the psychological state and perceived social support of Italian survivors, including those who have not sought for help, and investigates differences for gender or kinship with the departed. Methods: Rule-based system (RBS) analyse...
Article
Background Suicide among older adults is a multifactorial problem with several interrelated factors involved that vary with age, gender and culture. The number of suicides is highest in those aged 70 years or older in almost all regions of the world. With the increase in life expectancy, and the decrease in mortality due to other causes of death, w...
Article
Background: Alcohol consumption is related to both suicidal ideation and behaviour, but evidence regarding the effect of psychological interventions to reduce alcohol use on self-harm, suicidal behaviour and ideation is limited. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the effect of...
Chapter
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The current pandemic’s effect on mental health is uncertain with reports of it being largely negative related to loneliness and unemployment. There are different responses to pandemic stress with regards to cultural differences and social environment. Athletes are special in their experience of psychological resilience – there is a trend of positiv...
Article
Background: People bereaved by suicide often face isolation, complicated grief, and increased suicide risk. Aims: We aimed to explore how live-chat can support survivors in their bereavement process. Method: A thematic analysis was carried out on 30 live-chat conversations through the software ATLAS.ti8. Transcripts were retrieved from a major Ital...
Article
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Objectives Explore international consensus on nomenclatures of suicidal behaviours and analyse differences in terminology between high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Design An online survey of members of the International Organisation for Suicide Prevention (IASP) used multiple-choice questions and vignettes to as...
Book
This is a one-stop book for anyone who wants an overview of the research approaches and issues concerning suicide. Leading researchers provide a comprehensive toolbox of the current best practices in suicide research, showing you how to conduct high-quality research using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods in suicide-prevention from a pub...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Wesley Mission LifeForce training is an Australian suicide prevention gatekeeper program which has not been formally evaluated. The aims of this evaluation were to (1) determine the short- and medium- term impacts of the training on worker capabilities (perceived and declarative knowledge), attitudes, and reluctance to int...
Article
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Limited research exists on the experiences of parents bereaved by suicide. Our earlier qualitative analysis examined the experiences of parents’ suicide bereavement at 6 and 12 months after their loss. The current study aimed to extend the analysis over 24 months, outlining the key themes of parents’ suicide bereavement experience. In the frames of...
Chapter
Despite the general decline in the number of suicides in the world, suicide rates among older adults remain the highest in most countries. Unfortunately, suicide in late life also remains a somewhat neglected topic, and ageistic visions of age-related problems often make suicidal behaviour a justifiable choice. This chapter examines the most import...
Article
Prisoners are an extremely vulnerable group regarding suicidal behaviour, with a consistently higher prevalence of suicide when compared to the general population. However, the characteristics of suicidal behaviour for this group are understudied in Slovenia. We wanted to investigate the characteristics of suicidal behaviour and suicide-related fac...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED The overwhelming demand and inadequate supply of mental health resources during the COVID-19 pandemic presents opportunities for digital and data-oriented tools to fill this gap and, in the process, demonstrate capabilities to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Mental health service providers are grappling with the challenges of in...
Article
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The demand outstripping supply of mental health resources during the COVID-19 pandemic presents opportunities for digital technology tools to fill this new gap and, in the process, demonstrate capabilities to increase their effectiveness and efficiency. However, technology-enabled services have faced challenges in being sustainably implemented desp...
Article
Loneliness is a common phenomenon associated with several negative health outcomes. Current knowledge regarding interventions for reducing loneliness in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of interventions to reduce loneliness, using an umbrella review of previously published sys...
Article
Background: Despite the promising evidence for the effectiveness of school-based awareness programs in decreasing the rates of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people, no guidelines on the targets and methods of safe and effective awareness programs exist. Aims: This study intends to distill recommendations for school-based suicide a...
Article
Background Deaths by suicide can increase during infectious disease outbreaks. This study analysed suspected suicide rates in 2020 relative to 2015–19 to assess any early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Queensland, Australia. Methods We analysed data from the interim Queensland Suicide Register (iQSR), a state-wide real-time suicide surveillan...
Article
Full-text available
Background Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Background Rigorous analysis of levels and trends in exposure to leading risk factors and quantification of their effect on human health are important to identify where public health is making progress and in which cases current efforts are inadequate. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a sta...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Rigorous analysis of levels and trends in exposure to leading risk factors and quantification of their effect on human health are important to identify where public health is making progress and in which cases current efforts are inadequate. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a standardise...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol consumption has been found to be related to suicidal behavior at the individual and population level, but there is lack of literature reviews on the effect of alcohol policies on suicidal behavior. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to conduct a systematic literature review of the impact of alcohol policies at the population level o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The way the death of a person is communicated can have a profound impact on the bereavement process. The words and expressions that are used to give the tragic news, the characteristics of who communicates it, the physical setting in which the notification is given, the means used (e.g., in person, via phone call, etc.) are just some of...
Article
Full-text available
Background While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 20...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
BACKGROUND There is a persistent need for mental ill-health prevention and intervention among at-risk and vulnerable subpopulations. Major disruptions to life, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, present an opportunity for a better understanding of the experience of stressors and vulnerability. Faster and better ways of psychological screening and track...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is a persistent need for mental ill-health prevention and intervention among at-risk and vulnerable subpopulations. Major disruptions to life, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, present an opportunity for a better understanding of the experience of stressors and vulnerability. Faster and better ways of psychological screening and track...
Article
Background While loneliness is recognized as a risk to mental and physical health, there is a lack of data covering a broad age range. This study used a Slovenian adult sample to investigate loneliness. Aims To examine levels of social, emotional and general loneliness within the general population. Method A survey on a sample representative of t...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED In-person traditional approaches to mental health care services are facing difficulties amidst the COVID-19 crisis. Recent social distancing has revamped the attention on non-traditional mental health care delivery to overcome the difficult access to services and fill the void. Tele-health has been established for several decades but h...
Article
Unstructured: In-person traditional approaches to mental health care services are facing difficulties amidst the COVID-19 crisis. Recent social distancing has revamped the attention on non-traditional mental health care delivery to overcome the difficult access to services and fill the void. Tele-health has been established for several decades but...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Drug addiction and alcoholism characterize the existential condition of most homeless people, while the risk of suicide runs in parallel. Objectives Following the Provisional Model (PM), this study aimed to explore the relationships between addiction, suicidal ideation, and religiosity among 13 homeless people, and the roles of bondin...
Article
Working with suicidal clients is frequently referred to as one of the most demanding and anxiety‐provoking aspects of therapeutic work. The aim of this study was to obtain an in‐depth understanding of therapists’ experience in treating suicidal individuals and develop a theoretical model of it. Eleven psychotherapists (4 men and 7 women) participat...
Article
Full-text available
Italy has been hit very hard by the severe acute respiratory syndrome—coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This brief report highlights some of the peculiarities manifested by its older adult population, with particular reference to those living in nursing institutions and at home. Mortality data (as of 26 April) are reported, together with reactio...