Diane Halpern

Diane Halpern
The Claremont Colleges · Department of Psychology

About

155
Publications
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Publications

Publications (155)
Chapter
The ways in which women and men differ in intelligence and specific cognitive abilities are among psychology’s most heated controversies. Massive amounts of data show that although there are some on average differences in specific cognitive abilities, there is considerable overlap in the male and female distributions. There are no sex differences i...
Chapter
Critical Thinking in Psychology - edited by Robert J. Sternberg January 2020
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The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky February 2019
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Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky
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The open science or credibility revolution has divided psychologists on whether and how the “policy” change of preregistration and similar requirements will affect the quality and creativity of future research. We provide a brief history of how norms have rapidly changed and how news and social media are beginning to “disrupt” academic science. We...
Article
Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Nature of Human Intelligence - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates “explain” or “cause” the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet...
Chapter
Demand for higher education has created a need for learning technologies that can accommodate the individualized needs of an increasing number of students. Thinking, learning, and memory have been studied extensively in their own right, but additional research on these topics in conjunction with advanced learning technologies is needed. Developers...
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Theoretical models of working memory suggest that the simultaneous processing and storage of information is carried out either as separate or binded mechanisms. We explored working memory capacity and strategy in two elite groups of experts to test the separate versus binded hypotheses. Visuospatial and verbal abilities were measured in elite natio...
Article
It is important to understand the many controversies about cognitive sex differences because beliefs about these differences are often used to justify pubic policies and individual actions. As teachers of psychology, we need to provide a safe environment where students can think and argue about why, how, and how much females and males are similar a...
Article
Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on tas...
Article
This is a personalized review of programs designed to assess student learning outcomes (SLOs) in higher education. In the last 30+ years, there have been few changes in the basic principles and premises. We assess SLOs for the purpose of improving teaching and learning. Although content area knowledge is important, other goals such as enhancing cri...
Article
Recent studies (e.g., and ) have provided evidence that scores on tests of fluid intelligence can be improved by having participants complete a four week training program using the dual n-back task. The dual n-back task is a working memory task that presents auditory and visual stimuli simultaneously. The primary goal of our study was to determine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Operation ARA is a serious game that teaches scientific inquiry using natural language conversations. Within the context of the game, students completed up to two distinct training modules that teach either didactic or applied conceptual information about research methodology (e.g., validity of dependent variables, need for control groups). An expe...
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Full-text available
Operation ARIES! is an Intelligent Tutoring System that is designed to teach scientific methodology in a game-like atmosphere. A fundamental goal of this serious game is to engage students during learning through natural language tutorial conversations. A tight integration of cognition, discourse, motivation, and affect is desired to meet this goal...
Article
The fourth edition of Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found - and where they are not.
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Responds to the comments by J. P. Rushton (see record 2012-24333-012); M. A. Woodley and G. Meisenberg (see record 2012-24333-013); and J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, A. T. Panter, and P. Salovey (see record 2012-24333-014) on the present authors' original article, "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments" (see record 2011-30298-001). H...
Article
Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They ar...
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Full-text available
We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the...
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Full-text available
Reports an error in "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments" by Richard E. Nisbett, Joshua Aronson, Clancy Blair, William Dickens, James Flynn, Diane F. Halpern and Eric Turkheimer (American Psychologist, Advanced Online Publication, Jan 2, 2012, np). In the article, two correlational values are incorrect in the 10th line on p. 134...
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As members of the Steering Committee for the 2008 National Conference on Undergraduate Education in Psychology, we realize that the future of our discipline depends on quality undergraduate programs that prepare students for advanced study in psychology. Our concern with quality education in psychology extends far beyond the future of the disciplin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Operation ARIES! is a serious game that teaches critical thinking about scientific inquiry. The player must help to identify aliens on Earth who are intentionally publishing bad research. The game combines aspects of video games and intelligent tutors in which the player holds conversations with animated agents using natural language. The player fi...
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Single-sex schooling lacks scientific support and may exaggerate sexism and gender stereotyping.
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Although the development and transfer of critical thinking skills are recognized as primary goals for education, there is little empirical evidence to help educators decide how to teach in ways that enhance critical thinking. In two studies, we compared explicit and imbedded instructional modes and assessed critical thinking with the Halpern Critic...
Article
What is Critical Thinking?Principles of Learning that Promote TransferVary Learning ActivitiesConclusion and Future DirectionsReferences
Article
Although stereotype accuracy is a large, and often controversial, area of psychological research, surprisingly little research has examined the beliefs people have about gender differences in cognitive abilities. This study investigates the accuracy of these beliefs in a sample of 106 highly educated U.S. adults. Participants provided estimates of...
Conference Paper
Operation ARIES! is an Intelligent Tutoring System that teaches research methodology in a game-like atmosphere. There is a dramatic storyline that engages and motivates students as they acquire both declarative knowledge and critical reasoning skills. ARIES has three modules in which students maintain mixed-initiative dialogue with multiple artific...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
OperationARIES! (or ARIES for short) is an intelligent tutoring system that teaches critical thinking and helps learners acquire scientific inquiry skills. One of the core components of ARIES is "trialogs" which are three-party conversations in natural language among a human student and two artificial pedagogical agents (tutor and fellow student)....
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Targeting conclusions that are closer to fiction than science, both Fine and Jordan-Young highlight exaggerations, unreplicated claims, and other silliness from research on neurological differences between the human sexes.
Conference Paper
Operation Aries! is a computer environment that helps students learn about scientific methods and inquiry. The system has several components designed to optimize learning and motivation, such as game features, animated agents, natural language communication, trialogues among agents, an eBook, multimedia, and formative assessment. The present focus...
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How do women rise to the top of their professions when they also have significant family care responsibilities? This critical question has not been addressed by existing models of leadership. In a review of recent research, we explore an alternative model to the usual notion of a Western male as the prototypical leader. The model includes (a) relat...
Conference Paper
Diane Halpern is the author of a popular text on critical thinking and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment; her coauthors Keith Millis and Arthur Graesser are the Project Director of Operation ARIES! and the Editor of the Journal of Educational Psychology, respectively. ARIES is an educational program that teaches scientific reasoning/critical...
Article
Students interacted with an Intelligent Tutoring System called Operation ARIES!,which involves two agents interacting with the human in natural language trialogs. We investigated the conditions in which the length of the students' contributions is correlated with learning. Word count and the proportional learning gains scores were correlated, espec...
Article
Theories about the origin of cognitive sex differences must address differences in three portions of ability distributions: low-tail variability, high-tail variability, and mean values. In addition, genetic theories must provide evidence that these three types of differences are (at least in large part) caused by alleles that are located on the X c...
Chapter
Evidence for Caregiver BurdenPotential Benefits of California Paid Family LeaveOur StudyUse of California Paid Family LeaveConclusions and ImplicationsReferences
Chapter
The Biology of StressHow Work Stress Affects HealthReferences
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Using case studies of top-level women and research in the field, Women at the Top breaks new ground and offers new insight into how women can create dually-successful lives. explores the work histories, motivation, leadership styles, mentors, and family backgrounds of a diverse assortment of top-level women includes the case studies of the Presiden...
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How We Think About TimeTime ManagementHow Women Leaders Find the TimeSolving the Time Crunch
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Is There a Women's Style of Leadership?Getting There: Leaders in the MakingStyles of LeadershipStyles of LeadershipDisadvantages for Women LeadersLeading Like a Woman is Good for People and Business
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Historical ContoursCultural HeritageThe Culture of Gender
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The Origins of Working-Mother-HateRedefining the Good MotherStereotypical MotheringIs Being a Working Mother Bad for Your Kids?Planning for Children: Timing and Age
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New Home EconomicsHusbands and Intimate OthersIt is Not a Fairytale Marriage; They Work Hard at It
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Mommy Track versus Career TrackWork and Family DomainsDiscrimination and DissingEarning a Living and Psychic DollarsWhy the Scarcity of Women at the Top Matters
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Beyond Work-Family BalanceRedefining RolesLife Management StrategiesArranging Water Molecules
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Motivation and Self-EfficacyThe Motherhood Mandate: To Be or Not To BeFind the Right Husband/PartnerFind Mentors and CoachesRedefine Normative Roles for Good Mothers and Good LeadersClimbing One Rung at a TimeA Checklist of Ideas for Making it Easier to Combine Work and Family, and Making it to the TopClosing Thoughts
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ARIES (Acquiring Research Investigative and Evaluative Skills) is a computerized educational game in which players attempt to stop extraterrestrials from implicitly stunting scientific progress on Earth by publishing bad research in a variety of fields. Players progress through three modules: 1) read and be tested on an on-line science text, 2) eva...
Conference Paper
The 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2009) is being held July 6--10 2009 in Brighton, UK. AIED2009 is part of an ongoing series of biennial international conferences for top quality research in intelligent systems ...
Article
In response to a stimulating article by David C. Geary on the value of understanding the evolutionary basis of learning as a guide to instruction, I raise several objections. When evolutionary theory is used to explain everything from sex differences in math and reading to why children are bored in school, it loses its explanatory power. There is a...
Article
The academic workplace, with its requirements for achieving tenure within the first 6years of employment, is designed in ways that discriminate against young faculty with family care responsibilities, most notably mothers. Mason and Goulden (Academe, http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/2002/02nd/02ndmas.htm, 2002, Academe, http://www.aaup.org/...
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Nous avons étudié la mémorisation et les attitudes concernant des sujets complexes en utilisant des promesses électorates comme stimulus. Pour apprécier l'impact de la présentation de l'information, nous avons fait varier la forme de la promesse (présentation littéraire ou schématique) et l'information sur le coût (d'une part dépense pour l'état, d...
Chapter
The Power of EmotionsThe Power of Unconscious ThoughtThe Power of Social InfluenceThe Power of EvidenceThe Power of BehaviorConclusion Notes
Article
—Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differ-ences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with...
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Competitive Scrabble players spend a mean of 4.5 hr a week memorizing words from the official Scrabble dictionary. When asked if they learn word meanings when studying word lists, only 6.4% replied "always," with the rest split between "sometimes" and "rarely or never." Number of years of play correlated positively with expertise ratings, suggestin...
Article
The Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire (KCAQ) is a newly developed screening instrument completed by the caregiver and appropriate for use with children younger than 6 years. The KCAQ is different from other attachment instruments because it is a time-efficient, quantitative measure of child attachment that is capable of tracking change in att...
Chapter
There are many different types of thinking skills and frameworks for categorizing them. Good or clear thinking is called ‘critical thinking’. Critical thinking skills are those skills that increase the probability of a desirable outcome, and are essential to problem-solving and decision-making.
Article
Group differences in educational outcomes, and by inference in learning abilities and intelligence, are hot-button topics, and they should be, as long as the heat they are generating is also shedding light on the complex array of variables that contribute to our understanding of how people learn and helping us find ways to enhance learning. The que...
Article
It was during a presentation on ways to enhance critical thinking in college classes that a jaded faculty member shot back at me, “What kind of thinking do you think I teach – noncritical thinking?” I assured this faculty member that no offense had been intended, although certainly it had been taken. In fact, often there is noncritical, or more app...
Book
Good scientific research depends on critical thinking at least as much as factual knowledge; psychology is no exception to this rule. And yet, despite the importance of critical thinking, psychology students are rarely taught how to think critically about the theories, methods, and concepts they must use. This book shows students and researchers ho...
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C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's proposed model (this issue, pp. 1033-1054) represents a good effort toward reexamining the premises of clinical psychology education. However, there are several concepts left underdeveloped and inadequately defined. Furthermore, their ideas for improving clinical training seem largely divorced from the model proposed....
Article
Data from the US National Study of the Changing Workforce (a nationally representative sample of working adults) were used to test the hypothesis that employees with time-flexible work policies reported less stress, higher levels of commitment to their employer, and reduced costs to the organization because of fewer absences, fewer days late, and f...
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Demographic data show that major changes have been occurring in the everyday lives of families over the last generation, with the majority of mothers of young children in the workforce and an increasing number of men and women assuming caregiving responsibilities for older relatives. Thus, the 2 primary identities of most adults, defined by their m...
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Education is applied social psychology. Whenever we bring groups of people together for the purpose of learning, we have a great opportunity to apply social psychological principles that will further our educational goals. We discuss ways to increase student commitment to learning, reduce feelings of anonymity, change how attributions for academic...
Article
Sex differences are found in a variety of tests of visuospatial abilities ranging from standardized paper-and-pencil or computerized tasks to tests of way-finding ability and geographical knowledge. The size of those differences and their direction vary (although most tasks favor males) depending on the type of skill being tested and the age and ba...
Article
Females and males show different average patterns of academic achievement and scores on cognitive ability tests. Females obtain higher grades in school, score much higher on tests of writing and content-area tests on which the questions are similar to material that was learned in school, attain a majority of college degrees, and are closing the gap...
Article
We have some numbers that may surprise you, but first you need to supply some of your own. Make your best estimate in answering the following questions: What percentage of all accountants and auditors in the United States in 1983 were female? Now answer the same question for the year 2000. What about other math-intensive professions, say economists...
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Full-text available
Incl. bibl. Halpern and Hakel discuss the basic principles of teaching so as to promote long-term retention and transfer among college students. These include practice at retrieval, varying the conditions under which learning takes place, and fostering prior knowledge and experience.[ProQuest]
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If academic leaders are serious about enhancing student learning, then what we are learning about how people learn from research in cognitive science must guide the redesign of higher education.
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College faculty entrusted with the task of educating the next generation need to think far beyond the end of the semester and teach for a time in the distant future and for a test that they will not be giving.
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Sternberg advocates that children be taught wisdom, which he defines as a value system that balances concern for oneself with concern for others and extrapersonal concerns such as concern for the environment. Although I object to the way he has operationalized similar constructs like critical thinking, I agree with the main idea that children can b...
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To further our understanding of cognitive sex differences, we studied the relationship between menstrual phase (via serum estradiol and progesterone levels) and cognitive abilities and cognitive performance in a sample of medical students in eastern Turkey. As expected, we found no sex differences on the Cattell “Culture Fair Intelligence Test” (a...
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The Journal of General Education 50.4 (2001) 270-286 (National Council on Education Standards and Testing, 1992, 7-8) There has been a growing trend among colleges in the United States and Canada to require all students to fulfill a requirement in "critical thinking" as part of their general education program. Critical thinking is a widely used ter...
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Although there are no sex differences in general intelligence, reliable differences are found on some tests of cognitive abilities. Many of the tasks that assess the ability to manipulate visual images in working memory show an advantage for males, whereas many of the tasks that require retrieval from long-term memory and the acquisition and use of...
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Selection tests, such as those used for college admissions, present multiple dilemmas for psychometricians, who grapple with intractable problems in measurement, and the lay public, whose lives are affected by test scores they often do not understand or trust. Criterion studies utilize convenient criteria that have little meaningful significance, s...
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A perennial goal of college instruction is critical thinking, but until recently the actual research on these skills was limited. This chapter offers a discussion of where we have been and a four-part model showing where we should be.
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Full-text available
Numerous studies have shown that sex differences in visuospatial tasks vary in size and direction depending on the nature of the task, with large differences favoring males on tasks that require transformations in visuospatial working memory. The cognitive processes underlying these differences were investigated using laboratory tasks developed by...
Article
Mounting pressures on higher education led the Task Force of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology to propose changes in the way the work of faculty is defined and in the criteria used to identify scholarship (D. F. Halpern et al., 1998). Prominent psychologists representing undergraduate universities, research institutions, and professional s...
Article
Mounting pressures on higher education led the Task Force of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology to propose changes in the way the work of faculty is defined and in the criteria used to identify scholarship (D. F. Halpern et al., 1998). Prominent psychologists representing undergraduate universities, research institutions, and professional s...
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Full-text available
Numerous changes in higher education (e.g., the demand for accountability, threats to tenure, new modes of instruction) and discontent with narrow definitions of scholarship have created the need for a broader and more precise definition of the nature of scholarship psychology. The 5-part definition that we propose includes (a) original research (c...
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Our analysis of Medical College Admission Test subtest scores by writing hand preference and sex suggests that (a) right hemispheric dominance is associated with intellectual giftedness in verbal reasoning (left-handers obtained higher scores on the verbal reasoning test and were overrepresented in the upper tail of the distribution), (b) different...
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New knowledge about the sexual differentiation of the brain profoundly changes our understanding of basic topics in brain development such as the false dichotomy between long-lasting and transient effects of hormones on neural activity, the importance of ovarian hormones in brain development, the plasticity of neural structures throughout the...
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Advances in technology and changes in necessary workplace skills have made the ability to think critically more important than ever before, yet there is ample evidence that many adults consistently engage in flawed thinking. Numerous studies have shown that critical thinking, defined as the deliberate use of skills and strategies that increase the...
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Advances in technology and changes in necessary workplace skills have made the ability to think critically more important than ever before, yet there is ample evidence that many adults consistently engage in flawed thinking. Numerous studies have shown that critical thinking, defined as the deliberate use of skills and strategies that increase the...

Projects

Projects (2)