Diane Gromala

Diane Gromala
Simon Fraser University · School of Interactive Arts and Technology

PhD

About

117
Publications
35,373
Reads
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1,505
Citations
Citations since 2016
48 Research Items
1148 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Introduction
• Canada Research Chair in Computational Technologies for Transforming Pain • One of the Founding Directors of Simon Fraser University's Chronic Pain Research Institute, with Dr. Pamela Squire, Dr. Brenda Lau and Dr. Owen Williamson. • If immersive virtual reality (VR) is an effective non-pharmacological adjuvant, how well may it work for long-term, chronic pain? What other therapeutic benefits do computational technologies offer patients who live w/ chronic conditions? www.painstudieslab.com
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - present
Simon Fraser University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1999 - August 2005
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) therapy has been explored as an adjunct therapy for the management of acute pain among children and adults for several conditions. Therapeutic approaches have traditionally involved medication and physiotherapy but such approaches are limited over time by their cost and/or side effects. This review seeks to criticall...
Article
Full-text available
Chapter to appear in Fishwick, P. (ed. ) Aesthetic computing, MIT Press, 2004 In the introduction to this volume, Paul Fishwick has defined aesthetic computing as: "the application of the theory and practice of art to computing" (Introduction, xxx). Fishwick contrasts aesthetic computing as a critical practice with computer or digital art, whose go...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For older adults with chronic pain, maintaining social ties can be difficult. Both chronic pain and social isolation compound each other and are associated with poor health outcomes. Our research explores how technology can be used to facilitate communication and support for older adults with chronic pain. We report on preliminary results of field...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chronic pain is an illness that affects nearly a third of senior citizens. Uncontrolled chronic pain can manifest constantly and/or intermittently, and can disrupt seniors' ability to plan or to maintain synchronous and scheduled contact with others. Such disruptions can expose seniors to stigma from others who do not understand this illness, socia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Body image/body schema (BIBS) is within the larger realm of embodied cognition. Its interdisciplinary literature can inspire Virtual Reality (VR) researchers and designers to develop novel ideas and provide them with approaches to human perception and experience. In this paper, we introduced six fundamental ideas in designing interactions in VR, de...
Chapter
Whether acute or chronic, pain can significantly impact a person’s biopsychosocial quality of life. To better understand the effects of pain on day-to-day life, i.e., the ‘burdens of pain’, our team of researchers and patient-partners developed an online portal using a ‘Citizen Science’ approach that collects information about living with pain from...
Preprint
Full-text available
The boundaries of existing explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) algorithms are confined to problems grounded in technical users' demand for explainability. This research paradigm disproportionately ignores the larger group of non-technical end users of XAI, who do not have technical knowledge but need explanations in their AI-assisted critical...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic Pain (CP) is prevalent in industrialized countries and stands among the top 10 causes of disability. Given the widespread problems of pharmacological treatments such as opioids, a need to find alternative therapeutic approaches has emerged. Virtual Reality (VR) has shown potential as a non-pharmacological alternative for controlling pain ov...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to explain decisions to its end-users is a necessity to deploy AI as critical decision support. Yet making AI explainable to end-users is a relatively ignored and challenging problem. To bridge the gap, we first identified twelve end-user-friendly explanatory forms that do not require technical knowledge to comprehend, including feature...
Article
Background Current guidelines emphasize an active lifestyle in the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA), but up to 90% of patients with OA are inactive. In a previous study, we demonstrated that an 8-week physiotherapist (PT)-led counseling intervention, with the use of a Fitbit, improved step count and quality of life in patients with knee OA, c...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Current guidelines emphasize an active lifestyle in the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA), but up to 90% of patients with OA are inactive. In a previous study, we demonstrated that an 8-week physiotherapist (PT)-led counseling intervention, with the use of a Fitbit, improved step count and quality of life in patients with knee OA, c...
Article
Objectives To assess the efficacy of a multi‐faceted counselling intervention at improving physical activity participation and patient outcomes. Methods We recruited people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In Weeks 1‐8, the Immediate Group received education and counselling by a physiotherapist (PT), used a Fit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many researchers have been evaluating how digital media may impact the emotional and perspective taking aspects of empathy in both clinical and nonclinical settings. Despite the growing interest in using virtual reality (VR) and VR games to motivate empathy, few studies have focused on empathy for people who live with chronic pain. Obje...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Many researchers have been evaluating how digital media may impact the emotional and perspective taking aspects of empathy in both clinical and nonclinical settings. Despite the growing interest in using virtual reality (VR) and VR games to motivate empathy, few studies have focused on empathy for people who live with chronic pain. OBJE...
Chapter
Full-text available
Arthritis occurs typically in the senior populations which involves stiff and painful joints. The prevalence of arthritis in the U.S. is 20% and in Canada is 15.8% for 4.3 million, and it decreases the patients’ joint movement and physical activity to a severe degree. Even worse, more than half of the patients do not receive any treatment at all. S...
Preprint
Music plays a crucial role in young children's development. Current research lacks the design of an interactive system for younger children that could generate dynamic music change in response to the children's body movement. In this paper, we present the design of bike as an embodied musical instrument for young children 2-5 years old to improve t...
Article
Background: Virtual reality (VR) therapy has been explored as a novel therapeutic approach for numerous health applications, in which three-dimensional virtual environments can be explored in real time. Studies have found positive outcomes for patients using VR for clinical conditions such as anxiety disorders, addictions, phobias, posttraumatic s...
Article
Objective To compare and contrast perspectives of patients with arthritis and rehabilitation professionals on starting and sustaining use of physical activity trackers (PATs). Methods We conducted focus groups with patients, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists, in Ontario, Alberta or British Columbia, Canada. To be eligible, patients rep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cybersickness, which is also called Virtual Reality (VR) sickness, poses a significant challenge to the VR user experience. Previous work demonstrated the viability of predicting cybersickness for VR 360 ° videos. Is it possible to automatically predict the level of cybersickness for interactive VR games? In this paper, we present a machine learnin...
Chapter
Full-text available
We plan to conduct a longitudinal mixed-methods study to evaluate the impact of home-use Virtual Reality (VR) for chronic pain (CP) management with cancer survivors over a six-week period. The participants will play VR games for a minimum of 30 min per day for at least three days per week. Each week, the participants are required to use randomly as...
Chapter
In the 1990s, when immersive Virtual Reality (VR) was first popular, researchers found it to be an effective intervention in reducing acute pain. Since that time, VR technologies have been used for treating acute pain. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, VR is thought to be an especially effective form of pain distraction. While pain-related v...
Article
Full-text available
Background Being physically active is an essential component of successful self-management for people with inflammatory arthritis; however, the vast majority of patients are inactive. This study aims to determine whether a technology-enabled counselling intervention can improve physical activity participation and patient outcomes. Methods The Effe...
Conference Paper
Sisu is a gamified learning application designed to assist school-aged children who are struggling to read. Sisu utilizes readily-available technology to support the child’s self-directed learning at home, with unique elements tied to the learning experience: (1) a spelling game with (2) an empathic agent, and (3) a mini-game. The empathic agent ut...
Article
Full-text available
Persuasive health systems such as wearable trackers and mobile applications can facilitate self-reflection on one’s physical activity. The gamification approach incorporates game design elements with persuasive systems to encourage more physical activity. However, some investigations have shown that using gamification to promote physical activity c...
Conference Paper
We provide an integrated view of patients' and clinicians' perspectives on the communication challenges faced when patients present their medical issues to the clinicians. By combining the results of a literature review from both the HCI and medical literature with the results of clinician interviews explicitly about in-clinic communication issues,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chronic Pain (CP) has been identified as a complex medical condition, one that is difficult for sufferers to articulate and for others to discern. This may interfere with the ability of a patient's family, friends and healthcare practitioners to understand what it is like to live with CP, or to even believe it exists. A reluctance by or ability of...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, healthcare facilities have been designed from a practical standpoint providing efficient spaces for laboratories and increased numbers of rooms to accommodate beds for patients. Such an approach has often led to facilities that "function effectively" but can indirectly create an atmosphere that is stressful, undermining the psycholog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pokémon Go is a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) game that blends gameplay with real-life outdoor physical activity. In this game, players locate, catch and interact with virtual creatures called Pokémon. Initial reports and online players’ statistics suggest that Pokémon Go motivates players to go outside and become more active. This paper describes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this extended abstract, we discuss the interaction design of AS IF, a serious game that employs embodied interaction in order to facilitate perspective taking. The goal of this game is to offer non-patients an insight into what it may feel like to function with a body that is, at times, disabled or limited because of Chronic Pain. The interactor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has been shown to work as a non-pharmacological analgesia by distracting patients from their acute pain for short periods of time. However, few researchers have investigated the effectiveness of mobile “Cardboard VR” for chronic pain patients. In this research, the viability of the Cardboard VR was examined by compari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has been shown to work as a non-pharmacological analgesia by distracting patients from their acute pain for short periods of time. However, few researchers have investigated the effectiveness of mobile “Cardboard VR” for chronic pain patients. In this research, the viability of the Cardboard VR was examined by compari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pokémon Go™ allows players to catch and train Pokémon in the wild through a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) game. Numbers of people are willing to be physically active for long periods of time to catch the Pokémons. Further, the medical and public health communities are also curious if this game has triggered more active levels of sustainable Physica...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The inappropriate prescription of antibiotics may cause severe medical outcomes such as antibiotic resistance. To prevent such situations and facilitate appropriate antibiotic prescribing, we designed and developed an asynchronous collaborative visual analytics tool. It visualizes the antibiotics' coverage spectrum that allows users choose the most...
Article
This paper is an account of research collaborations and an interdisciplinary community that is being forged among experts who have few traditions in common, but who bring diverse expertise to the seemingly unreachable ‘moonshot’¹1 The author's work was named one of Google's Solve for-X “moonshot” efforts. Drawing on the massive effort that lead to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has been shown to work as a non-pharmacological analgesic by enabling cognitive distraction in acute pain patients, including burn patients, dental patients and chemotherapy patients. However, little research literature exists on the effectiveness of VR for chronic pain patients who suffer from longer-term pain. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a study that aims at finding the difference in levels of immersion between a Cardboard VR and a traditional Head-mounted Display (HMD)––the Oculus Rift DK2.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a study that aims at finding the difference in levels of immersion between a Cardboard VR and a traditional Head-mounted Display (HMD)—the Oculus Rift DK2. Three groups of participants—the experimental group for Cardboard VR, and two control groups for Oculus Rift and a Desktop display—played Cryoblast in the same experimental...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wearable trackers and mobile applications can facilitate self-reflection of doing physical activity. The gamification process incorporates game design elements with persuasive systems in order to encourage more physical activity. However, few gamification strategies have been rigorously evaluated; these investigations showed that using the same gam...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the 1990s, when immersive Virtual Reality (VR) was first popular, researchers found it to be an effective intervention in reducing acute pain. Since that time, VR technologies have been used for treating acute pain. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, VR is thought to be an especially effective form of pain distraction. While pain-related v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Persuasive health systems such as wearable trackers and mobile applications can facilitate self-reflection on one's physical activity. The gamification approach incorporates game design elements with persuasive systems in order to encourage more physical activity. However, some investigations have shown that using gamification to promote physical a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers have shown that immersive Virtual Reality (VR) can serve as an unusually powerful pain control technique. However, research assessing the reported symptoms and negative effects of VR systems indicate that it is important to ascertain if these symptoms arise from the use of particular VR display devices, particularly for users who are de...
Poster
Full-text available
This study aims at finding the difference in levels of immersion between a Cardboard VR and a traditional Head-mounted Display (HMD)––the Oculus Rift DK2. Three groups of participants using Cardboard VR, Oculus Rift and a Desktop computer––played Cryoblast, a 3D game, in the same experimental setups. Jennett’s Immersive Experience Questionnaire was...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) as a research tool provides numerous opportunities of what one can do and see in a virtual world which is not possible in real world. Being able to fly is an experience that humans have long dreamed of achieving. In this paper, we introduce a VR game where participants can use their body gestures as a Natural User Int...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has been shown to work as a non-pharmacological analgesic by inducing [sic] cognitive distraction in acute pain patients. Researchers have shown that VR games have the potential to distract patients cognitively and function as a type of pain management therapy. In this paper, we introduce the gameplay and design metap...
Article
Motionscapes-the compositions of visual forms in motion- have often been used for the evocation of affects in recent interactive artifacts and environments. While the motionscape aesthetic can be informed by art theory and history, previous empirical work investigating the affective affordances of motionscapes brings new perspectives to the design...
Article
Researchers have shown that immersive Virtual Reality (VR) can serve as an unusually powerful pain control technique. However, research assessing the reported symptoms and negative effects of VR systems indicate that it is important to ascertain if these symptoms arise from the use of particular VR display devices, particularly for users who are de...
Article
Full-text available
Although Virtual Reality (VR) applications have been shown to reduce many forms of acute pain, such research of VR applications and their effects on chronic pain is still at its infancy. In this study, we designed a VR game Cryoslide, and examined its analgesic effect on chronic pain patients, its end users, in a clinical setting. In this randomize...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, two different types of personal physical activity data visualizations – a Circular Ringmap and a Virtual Pet visualization – are proposed and compared to a widely used commercial approach, the FitBit bar chart. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the three visualizations based on participants' task performance and...
Poster
Full-text available
Stigma is a common and serious problem for patients who suffer from depression and other mental illnesses. We designed a serious game to address this problem. The game enables player to experience and strive to overcome the disempowering aspects of depression during the journey to recovery. Through the game’s interaction, player may gain a better u...
Poster
Full-text available
Wearable trackers and mobile applications can facilitate self-reflection of doing physical activity. The gamification process incorporates game design elements with persuasive systems in order to encourage more physical activities. In this paper, the design of a mobile game, FitPet, is introduced. FitPet is a mobile application that combines ubiqui...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers have proved immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to be an effective method and non-pharmacological analgesic for distracting acute pain and chronic pain, and for reducing anxiety levels. VR has been developed and deployed in pain management contexts in medical settings for dental and medical procedures, as well to manage cancer and burn pain....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unpredictable spikes in pain intensity can easily interrupt the lives of chronic pain patients. The uncertainty of when these painful experiences will occur inhibits positive communications and collaborations with friends, families or co-workers in daily life. In this paper, the authors explore an affective design space for developing a wearable te...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One in five people in North America experience chronic pain. The primary non-pharmacological approach to treat chronic pain is to ‘manage’ pain by practices like Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Meditation. Previous research shows the potential of mindfulness meditation to help foster patients’ emotional wellbeing and pain self-modulation....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Because the nature of chronic pain is complex, pharmacological analgesics are often not enough to achieve an ideal treatment plan. Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have emerged within medical research in recent years for treating acute pain, and proved to be an effective strategy based on pain distraction. This paper describes a VR system designed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines the intentions and current design behind the production of Mobius Floe, an immersive virtual reality game catered to acute and chronic pain patients. Researchers have shown that immersive virtual reality (VR) can serve as a non-pharmacological analgesic by inducing cognitive distraction in acute pain patients [Hoffman 2000]. Mob...