Diane Follingstad

Diane Follingstad
University of Kentucky | UKY · Department of Psychiatry

Ph.D.

About

103
Publications
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4,123
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Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Assessing change in campus interpersonal violence over time is an important step to understand the nature and prevalence of students’ victimization experiences. Using a repeated cross-sectional campus survey of interpersonal violence from a large southern university, this article tracks the change of students’ victimization experiences over a three...
Article
Bystander interventions are recognized as “promising” programming to reduce sexual violence. Gaps in current evaluations include limited follow-up post-training (beyond 24 months) and knowledge of additional bystander training during follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), three cohorts of...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing attention to adjudication of campus sexual assault cases, little is known how students perceive “justice” for such cases. The present study examined whether victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics influenced students’ perceptions of: whether a sanctionable violation occurred; the type of sanction to be applied; perceived se...
Article
Engaged bystander interventions are recognized as "promising" programming to reduce sexual violence (SV), yet little is known of the long-term (>12-month) impact of programming on SV and related forms of gender-based violence. Funded by NIH as a prospective cohort study, Life's Snapshot recruited and followed three waves of high school seniors who...
Article
Full-text available
Data from a campus climate/violence survey (CCS) include psychometric information for survey items/scales plus findings from a large state university to promote its usefulness for assessment of interpersonal violence/harassment. This CCS can thus be evaluated for its measurement and documented findings, allowing for benchmarking purposes. An innova...
Article
With growing attention to adjudication of campus sexual assault cases, more is known regarding students’ views of sexual assault, but little the literature focuses on how students perceive “justice” in terms of assigning sanctions or guilt/responsibility for such cases. The present study focused on understanding whether college students’ preformed...
Article
Personality traits, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school seniors prior to attending or not attending institutions of higher education were explored. Because of this age-group’s risk level, variables assessed included historical social/cultural factors, internal/contextual factors, and lifestyle factors potentially associated with vio...
Article
Many bystander programs to prevent violence have been developed and evaluated in college populations. An exception is the randomized controlled trial of Green Dot, found effective in reducing violence rates and violence acceptance in 26 high-schools (2010–2014). In ‘Life’s Snapshot’, 10,727 seniors were recruited from these same schools with the go...
Article
Self-report surveys that are online, lengthy, and contain sensitive material greatly increase the probability of invalid responding (IR) on the instrument. Most research to inform our identification of invalid responders have not been able to test their methodologies where all these conditions are present. This study systematically adopted 10 IR in...
Chapter
This chapter discusses several economic empowerment programs that were specifically designed for women who have experienced various forms of trauma and abuse, or that have been adapted for use with this population. The chapter offers examples of especially innovative program and highlights a therapeutic horticulture program located at a battered wo...
Book
How can we prevent intimate partner violence (IPV)? And how do we define and measure "success" in preventing it? This book brings together researchers and practitioners from a wide range of fields to examine innovative strategies and programs for preventing IPV. The authors discuss evaluations of current prevention efforts, paying particular attent...
Chapter
This chapter defines prevention in the context of intimate partner violence and discusses popular models of prevention science along with the major limitations of these models. The chapter also presents the spectrum of prevention model, which informs the development of subsequent chapters, and provides an overview of the topics the chapter authors...
Chapter
This book brings together researchers and practitioners from a range of fields to examine strategies and programs for preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). It provides paths to more efficacious prevention strategies and highlights ways that all stakeholders can work more effectively toward reducing violence.
Chapter
This book brings together researchers and practitioners from a range of fields to examine strategies and programs for preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). It provides paths to more efficacious prevention strategies and highlights ways that all stakeholders can work more effectively toward reducing violence.
Article
Full-text available
Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeBecause intimate partner violence (IPV) may disproportionately impact women’s quality of life (QOL) when undergoing cancer treatment, women experiencing IPV were hypothesized to have (a) more symptoms of depression or stress and (b) lower QOL as measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-B) and Functional Assessment of C...
Article
This study explores the potential relationship of guns in students’ homes with attitudes indicative of tolerance of violence, negative attitudes toward women and their roles, and attitudes suggestive of myths regarding sexual assault. Seniors in Kentucky high schools whose families possessed guns (n = 1,749) produced higher scores on scales measuri...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual assault, dating/domestic violence, sexual harassment, and stalking are complex crimes and have been a major focus of national attention at institutions of higher education (IHEs). To grasp the extent and nature of these crimes on campuses, institutionally specific climate surveys are being developed and endorsed by the federal government and...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Because partners are an important and unpaid resource in cancer care, understanding how destructive, controlling or interfering partner behaviors influence women's cancer care may be particularly relevant for health care providers seeking to provide cancer care and enhance recovery. Using a new measure of partner interfering behaviors i...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of complementary and novel measures of partner interfering and partner supportive behaviors in cancer care (PIB-C and PSB-C). Methods: Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 378 women (aged 18-79) in partnered relationships and recruited from the Kentucky Can...
Article
The delivery of therapeutic services to clients is influenced by service providers' understanding of the "fit" of a specific program with their service mandate as well as their perceptions of the potential benefits of the program. This article discusses the development and implementation of a therapeutic horticulture (TH) program at a battered wome...
Article
Discretionary decisions to prosecute cases in which a battered woman kills her partner were investigated using several research strategies and targeting a range of case elements. Law students presented with case elements reported they would consider legal elements over nonlegal (or “supplemental”) elements when making a decision to prosecute. In co...
Article
Full-text available
The Measure of Psychologically Abusive Behaviors (MPAB) was developed recently to improve on prior scales. Two nationally solicited samples of women were utilized to further validate the MPAB through the use of a criterion group, factor analysis, and designation of a threshold for accurate classification. MPAB scores were twice as high in the crite...
Article
Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and sever...
Article
Objectives: To present the rationale and arguments behind the proposition that the field of intimate partner violence (IPV) would greatly benefit from developing gold standard instrumentation that would be expected to advance this field of scientific inquiry and to propose a phased model for accomplishing the development of such instrumentation. Me...
Article
Full-text available
Women's experience with psychological abuse was examined as a predictor of symptoms and clinical levels of depression, anxiety, and somatization, as well as suicidal ideation and life functioning. A national sample of 361 women reporting themselves to be in a problematic or conflictual relationship completed an online survey assessing psychological...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed analysis of the occurrence of serious psychological abuse (PSYAB) in one's “worst relationship” was solicited from a nationwide sample of adults in the United States. To designate that they experienced any of the psychologically abusive behaviors, respondents had to have perceived malignant intent by the perpetrator. Respondents reported...
Article
The measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) has proven to be more complex than originally anticipated and content and construct validity need to be greatly improved for IPV assessment. For measurement of IPV in the United States, these validity issues range from providing the most accurate wording for the content domain to controversies as t...
Article
Full-text available
The construction of this special issue, focusing on measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV), was designed to raise questions and to point out potential limitations by which social scientists have approached measuring IPV. Research on IPV, consisting mostly of United States’ samples, is critiqued with the goal of expanding our conceptions of...
Article
Dichotomizing women as “abused” versus “not abused” assumes that any psychological maltreatment results in similar outcomes. A national sample of women in conflictual relationships completed an online survey. Women with no incidence (N = 33), the lowest quartile (N = 86), and the top quartile (N = 81) of psychological maltreatment demonstrated sign...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Limited evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) may be associated with poorer cancer outcomes. We hypothesized that timing and type of IPV as well as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may negatively affect depression, perceived stress, and cancer-related well-being. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of women diagnos...
Article
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Relationship satisfaction, investment, and commitment in women experiencing extensive psychological abuse were examined to determine predictive factors. Participants were the top quartile of a national sample of women in conflictual relationships (N = 81) experiencing psychological maltreatment. Relationship satisfaction, investment, and commitment...
Article
Understanding the nature and impact of psychological abuse for males and females is crucial because it might be the precursor of other forms of violence. This study examines reported gender differences in psychologically abusive acts using a national sample of U.S. citizens. The data were collected anonymously from an online administration of the M...
Article
A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were d...
Article
Full-text available
A national sample of adults in the United States reported on presence, frequency, emotional impact, and behavioral impact of psychologically abusive behaviors in their “worst” cohabiting relationship by their partner as well as by themselves. In addition, they completed instrumentation measuring potential outcomes from much psychological maltreatme...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored contextual influences in determining whether psychologically aggressive actions constitute abuse. One hundred and thirty-one undergraduates completed measures of key experiences, attitudes, and traits, and rated abusiveness of behaviors in a series of vignettes. Vignettes varied contexts in which behaviors occurred, including wh...
Article
Full-text available
The reach of violence against women (VAW) has been profoundly felt by women across the United States and around the globe. VAW has been documented for decades as a legal and social justice problem, but as illuminated in this review, it is also a substantial mental health concern. A full understanding of the phenomenon must include discussion of how...
Article
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Potential effects of psychological aggression have been investigated in terms of mental health disorders/symptoms, physical manifestations, personality traits, increases in physical and psychological aggression, and relationship changes and cessation. Probably because of methodological difficulties inherent in assessing this complex phenomenon, eve...
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Experimental conditions utilizing three types of third-party information (TPI) that supported or countered a psychologist's opinion regarding insanity were compared for differential effects in a mock jury decision-making case. Collapsed conditions of TPI that provided evidence appearing to support a psychologist's opinion that a defendant met crite...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous ways in which we currently approach conceptualizing and measuring “psychological abuse” are highly problematic and likely inaccurate for understanding this complex phenomenon. While a major goal of this type of research often appears to be the identification of individuals considered to have been “psychologically abused”, this may be both...
Article
Surveys of psychological aggression have been plagued by a variety of conceptual and measurement problems. A new measure was devised to more systematically cover a full range of psychologically aggressive actions; to include items for each dimension/category at a milder, moderate, and severe level; to be applicable to dating as well as marital rela...
Article
Surveys of psychological aggression have been plagued by a variety of conceptual and measurement problems. A new measure was devised to more systematically cover a full range of psychologically aggressive actions; to include items for each dimension/category at a milder, moderate, and severe level; to be applicable to dating as well as marital rela...
Article
Full-text available
Research literature suggests that clinical judgments of men's versus women's behavior and symptoms typically rate the men as more pathological and dangerous. To determine whether this view would extend to assessments of psychologically aggressive actions, two separate versions of a survey listing potentially psychologically abusive behaviors perpet...
Article
Literature assessing knowledge of and attitudes toward social issues has demonstrated that mental health professionals and lay persons often differ greatly. To add to the normative information in the field of psychological abuse and to determine whether the differences previously found between mental health professionals and lay persons extend to t...
Article
This study evaluated effectiveness of group therapy for incarcerated women with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. The intervention was based on a two-stage model of trauma treatment and included Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills and writing assignments. We randomly assigned 24 participants to group treatment (13 completed) and...
Chapter
The definition, validity, and applicability of the Battered Woman Syndrome to legal cases were reviewed to determine the current status and meaningfulness of this concept for battered women's cases. In light of definitional problems and research investigating factors considered markers of this syndrome, the Battered Woman Syndrome appears unsupport...
Article
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a model incorporating anxious attachment, angry temperament, and attempts to control one's partner as predictors of the severity and frequency of dating violence. To date, these concepts have not been clearly established as having direct or indirect effects on dating violence. It was hypothesized...
Article
Reasons why battered women remain in abusive relationships were rated by college students as to the degree of sympathy the reasons engendered, the degree to which the reasons seemed to justify the woman remaining, and whether the reasons appeared more within the woman's control (internal) or imposed upon her (external). Four clusters of reasons eme...
Article
Although disclosure is a component of many therapeutic approaches to treating the long-term symptoms associated with child sexual abuse (CSA), the ameliorative mechanisms of this approach are still unclear. This review investigates the expected benefits of disclosure in therapy by looking at the theoretical and empirical support for its effectivene...
Article
Full-text available
Little consensus exists regarding which particular behaviors constitute psychological abuse. In this study, a national sample of psychologists rated behaviors by a husband toward his wife as to whether each behavior constituted psychological abuse. For behaviors viewed as “possibly abusive,” psychologists indicated whether their judgments would dep...
Article
This article reviews and critiques the existing empirical literature examining interpersonal violence in lesbian and gay relationships. Studies assessing psychological, physical, and nonconsenting sexual forms of violence in intimate, same-sex relationships are reviewed, and their findings are integrated with what is known about partner abuse in he...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines factors associated with the high attrition rate in treatment programs for men who batter. In accord with past research, we expected demographic variables of age, race, employment status, relationship status, and socioeconomic status to predict attrition. We also hypothesized that attitudinal and personality variables, as well as...
Article
To determine whether categorizing levels of violence along dimensions of frequency and severity would result in informative distinctions among individuals using dating violence, reported use of physical violence, along with variables theorized to be related to use of force in intimate relationships, was assessed in a sample of 617 college students...
Article
Full-text available
Battered woman defendants' claims of self-defense have often been viewed as not fitting the classic definition of self-defense. Vignettes of a legal case varied the explicitness of the threat made to the woman by her partner before she killed him, whether she had the opportunity to retreat, and objective versus subjective instructions by the judge....
Article
Vignettes describing a case in which a battered woman killed her husband were presented to college students. Independent variables were the presence or absence of verbal aggression by the woman toward her husband before the final beating, the woman's reputation and social desirability as a wife and mother, and whether or not a weapon was present wh...
Article
There has been no model of the relevant information that forensic experts should collect from battered women defendants for testifying in court in support of self-defense claims. This article proposes such a model, addressing the mental state of battered women at the time they killed their partners. Many killings of partners by battered women shoul...
Article
A classic aggression paradigm was used to assess the relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive college males (n = 74). Subjects were exposed to no-, low-, or high-frustration conditions where a female confederate thwarted their attainment of a goal. Subjects then had the opportunity to electrically shock the confederate. Intensity and durat...
Article
Abused women (N = 234) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to determine whether violence increases during the course of an abusive relationship. Comparisons were made between women with short-term violence and long-term abusive relationships to assess whether strategies used by victims during early incidents affected the duration of t...
Article
Typologies of 234 battered women were identified through cluster analysis to determine if a broader sample would appear similar to Snyder and Fruchtman's (1981) cluster analysis of battered women at a shelter. In addition, other variables related to wife abuse were included and new clusters were identified. Data was collected via a structured inter...
Article
Physical and psychological symptoms of battered women were investigated based on the theory that their ongoing victimization would produce stress-related symptoms. It was hypothesized that moderating variables (e.g., frequency and severity of abuse, predictability and controllability of abuse, social support networks) would influence the effects of...
Article
Sex differences in motivations for and effects of dating violence are investigated using perceptions of both victims and perpetrators. A total of 495 college students (207 males and 288 females) completed a measure assessing motivation for and effects of dating violence, along with a social desirability measure, a state-trait anger expression inven...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between responsibility attribution and tendency to report child sexual abuse among practicing psychologists. Two hundred ninety-five licensed psychologists from two states completed vignettes in which the sex of the child and the father's admission or denial of alleged sexual abuse were systematically manipu...
Article
Full-text available
Two hundred thirty four women were interviewed to assess the relationship of emotional abuse to physical abuse. Six major types of emotional abuse were identified. Analyses determined if the types of emotional abuse were related to the frequency and severity of physical abuse. Women in long-term abusive relationships were contrasted with women expe...
Article
Coercive sexual behavior exists at alarming rates on college campuses. Researchers attempting to identify factors related to sexual coercion have primarily investigated either the coercing college male or the coerced college female, independent of relationship factors. The present study investigated the prevalence of verbal sexual coercion, the bel...
Article
This study tested factors influencing verdicts in legal cases involving battered women who kill their husbands. A total of 388 college students (213 females and 175 males) read a fictitious but prototypical legal case. Subjects received one of three stories varying the level of force used by the husband against the wife before she killed him. Half...
Article
Several studies have indicated that high proportions of practicing psychologists fail to report cases of suspected child sexual abuse despite their knowledge of mandatory reporting laws. We surveyed 279 practicing psychologists from two states, using a set of controlled vignettes. Results indicate that clinicians' decisions to report suspected sexu...
Article
Several studies have indicated that high proportions of practicing psychologists fail to report cases of suspected child sexual abuse despite their knowledge of mandatory reporting laws. We surveyed 279 practicing psychologists from two states, using a set of controlled vignettes. Results indicate that clinicians' decisions to report suspected sexu...
Article
As a way for practitioners to integrate various models of marital therapy into their treatment,a flow chart of the process of psychotherapy with couples is presented. Basic steps and questions to be addressed are sequentially discussed. Resolution of each stage is considered important for movement to following stages. The flow chart, as a device fo...
Article
The prevalence and effects of child abuse have been reported in numerous studies. Although mandatory reporting laws require professionals to report suspected cases of child abuse, studies have indicated that large percentages of mental health professionals report selectively. The present study investigates professionals' tendency to report and attr...
Article
This study hypothesized that female victims of force in dating relationships are erroneously considered a homogeneous group. Various patterns of dating violence, along the lines of frequency and severity, were hypothesized to be related to attitudinal and behavioral factors of the women in the dating relationship. Analyses of 48 female victims at a...
Article
This paper constitutes a review of articles which have as their scope the reactions of battered women to the victimization they experience and the coping strategies they employ ta handle the abusive relationship. The reactions and coping strategies are explored in light of their paradoxical effects which actually serve to make it more difficult for...
Article
This paper provides a comprehensive methodological review of the literature assessing the relationship between marital satisfaction and communication. The investigations vary greatly in the adequacy of their assessment measures and soundness of their research design. Although it is generally concluded that both content and process communication are...
Article
Findings of prior research which indicated both external factors (experimental response cues) and internal factors (sex guilt) influencing subjects' writing of their sexual fantasies were expanded. University males (N = 88) and females (N = 122) were studied. They read sex fantasy examples varying in conventionality of the sexual activity and the r...
Article
This study investigated the differential effectiveness of various treatment formats for 55 couples in which the woman reported secondary orgasmic dysfunction (defined as the inability of the woman to reach orgasm during intercourse, with or without clitoral stimulation, more than 50% of the time for the last 5 months). Couples received two 2-hr ses...
Article
To develop and validate a sex-role inventory of traditional versus nontraditional behaviors for women, 574 single and 265 married females as well as 407 males completed the Robinson Behavioral Inventory (RBI). Thirty-four-item final versions of the two forms were established through criteria requiring items to be both reliable and reported at diffe...
Article
The effects of demand characteristics and relevant personality variables on the use of touching were explored. Half of the 32 male and 32 female subjects received instructions discussing touching as one method of expressing emotions. All subjects pretended that an assistant was a friend with whom they roleplayed six emotional feelings. Subjects com...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to gather preliminary naturalistic observations on the effects of behavioral marital therapy. A second purpose was to gather preliminary data on the importance of the sequence of components of a behavioral marital treatment involving communication training and training in negotiation and contracting. Marital sat...
Article
Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to positive or negative reactions to legal abortions performed during the first trimester of pregnancy in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were...
Article
Full-text available
The personality profile of abused women needs to be reconceptualized as a result of living in an abusive situation rather than as the antecedent that provokes abuse from the spouse. The personality traits exhibited by abused women closely parallel symptoms of learned helplessness, a concept that can be used to explain the perception of no alternat...
Article
Assessed the discriminant and criterion-related validity of 2 questionnaire measures of marital satisfaction (the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale and Stuart's Marital Precounseling Inventory), as well as the discriminant and criterion-related validity and stability and perceived reactivity of a system for observation of marital interaction i...
Article
An aggression paradigm, disguised as a competitive reaction time task, was designed to investigate aggression by males toward a female who deviated from traditionally expected properties of a female target. 33 male subjects, exposed to a female varying in traditional vs non-traditional appearance and attitudes, did not set differential shock levels...
Article
This study assessed the differential effects of sex of pressuring confederates and perception of ability on conforming behavior of males and females. Varying male and female sources of the communication to influence subjects' views of their ability was expected to produce less conformity in females receiving the information from a male rather than...
Article
Investigated the effects of response cues (erotic, romantic, or neutral) and level of sex guilt on the self-reported sexual fantasies of 90 undergraduate females. Ss completed a sex guilt inventory (Masher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory—Female Form), the Nowlis Mood Adjective Check List, the Fantasy Theme Checklist, and ratings of their affective re...
Article
34 female undergraduates in 2 consciousness-raising groups were objectively assessed to determine whether changes relating to self-reported profeminist attitudes and behaviors and relating to self-esteem and social desirability would occur. 22 Ss were randomly assigned to either a 16-hr marathon group format or a 2-hr, 8-wk time-spaced group format...
Article
This study investigated whether six women who previously had received 15 sessions of group systematic desensitization (SD) for their sexual anxiety would report additional treatment gains from participation in a sexual-enhancement workshop with their partners. After group SD six couples participated in six, 1 1/2 hour weekly group sessions. The wom...
Article
• 34 female undergraduates in 2 consciousness-raising groups were objectively assessed to determine whether changes relating to self-reported profeminist attitudes and behaviors and relating to self-esteem and social desirability would occur. 22 Ss were randomly assigned to either a 16-hr marathon group format or a 2-hr, 8-wk time-spaced group form...