Diane L. Damos

Diane L. Damos
Damos Aviation Services, Inc.

PhD

About

76
Publications
13,916
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775
Citations

Publications

Publications (76)
Preprint
Full-text available
This study determined the predictive validity for the number correct (COR) and the number wrong (WR) of a complex perceptual speed test at three milestones in a collegiate flight training program. Test-retest data were obtained at different intervals. COR predicted time to solo (N = 119, r = À.15, p < .05) and time to the private pilot certificate...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Multiple-task tests have been known to improve the predictive validity of pilot selection batteries since at least the 1930’s. Despite their longstanding and widespread use for pilot selection, it is unclear what these test measure. The first goal of this report is to review the literature on individual differences in multiple-task performance. Thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Perceptual speed is an important attribute for success as a pilot and has been assessed in many pilot selection batteries. The Tabular Speed Test (TST), a paper-and-pencil test of perceptual speed, was administered to 227 ab initio pilots and 152 licensed pilots who applied for employment at a large European airline. The airline had a multi-stage s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a review of the 19-volume Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Research Reports. This series of reports documents the aircrew selection and training efforts of the US Army Air Forces in World War II. The report evaluates the research that was conducted on aircrew selection and identifies concepts that were not pursued but have the potential...
Article
Full-text available
Pilot selection systems traditionally use one of three statistical approaches to model candidate performance: multiple linear regression, linear discriminant analysis, and logistic regression. This article reviews the literature comparing selection decisions using these three approaches and compares the classification accuracy of linear discriminan...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment was designed to examine some of the characteristics of the estimated fold point in a mental rotation task. Thirty males performed a mental rotation task for approximately 1 h on each of 5 consecutive days. Each day was divided into an early and late session. Fold points were estimated for each session for both standard and mirror re...
Article
Full-text available
After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and secu...
Article
Full-text available
Nine studies were reviewed concerned with identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other traits (KSAOs) that are required for success as a military pilot. The report begins with a review of taxonomies used to identify the required KSAOs and notes issues associated with their use. Definitional problems of three attributes commonly associate...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the development of the U.S. Army pilot selection system beginning in World War I. It starts with a review of aviation in the United States up to 1917. The phases of flight training then are described with the associated failure and fatality rates. Some cost estimates for each phase also are provided. Finally, the pilot selecti...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Army's aviator candidate pool, unlike the pools for the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN), includes military enlisted personnel and civilians, many of whom do not have a 4-year college degree. Existing tests, such as the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT), may be too difficult for a substantial subset of Army aviator candida...
Article
Full-text available
As part of a project by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Rotary Wing Aviation Research Unit (AR RWARU) to produce a selection instrument for Army flight training, several viable, existing predictor measures were identified and several new predictors were developed. The resulting prototype battery was pilot tes...
Article
Full-text available
In June 2004, the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) awarded the Selection Instrument for Army Flight Training (SIFT) contract to Personnel Decisions Research Institutes (PDRI). The Army's stated objectives were as follows: (1) Develop a computer-based and web-administered selection instrument for Army flight...
Article
We examined how the frequency of 23 activities varied as a function of the level of cockpit automation. The pilots' activities were recorded in actual revenue-generating line operations at 7.5-sec intervals during climbs and descents during 193 flights in 2 models of the B737-200 and in 2 models of the B737-300. Eight of the 23 activities were assu...
Article
This study examines the effect of level of automation in the cockpit on the proportion of time commercial airline pilots looked out of the cockpit during takeoffs and landings. Data were obtained from 1 model of the B737-200 and 2 models of the B737-300. The B737-200 had an advanced autopilot and traditional instruments. The 2 B737-300 models had f...
Article
The effect of anti-retroviral medications on the cognitive functions important in flying has not been determined. Anti-retroviral medications have no effect on the cognitive performance of individuals at the CDC 4C2 (symptomatic HIV disease with no illness indicative of full-blown AIDS) stage of infection. A two-group study using a cross-sectional...
Article
To determine the nature and extent of cognitive deficits in early stage (asymptomatic) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive homosexual and bisexual men. A cross-sectional design was used to compare 27 HIV-positive, asymptomatic (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stages 2 and 3) homosexual and bisexual men, who were designated as the...
Article
In 1992, Park and Lee published a paper in Human Factors on the use of a computerized battery to select pilots for the Korean Air Force. In the present article we describe problems associated with the selection, implementation, and administration of the tasks constituting the computerized battery in Park and Lee. Problems associated with the data a...
Article
Because of advances in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), increased numbers of individuals infected with HIV are remaining in the work force longer. Ergonomists will be called upon soon to modify the work environment or job to allow these individuals to remain productive. Few data, however, exist that can help an ergonomist ma...
Article
This article presents a critical examination of pilot selection batteries. The first part of the article focuses on two problems. First, the vast majority of pilot selection batteries predict training performance rather than operational performance; second, the batteries have low correlations between the predictors and the criterion. The second par...
Article
Several recently published articles imply that slope and difference scores may be unreliable. We present data from a mental rotation experiment that demonstrate high test-retest reliabilities for slope scores. We develop a formula that may be used to estimate intersession reliabilities for slope scores and discuss practical steps to ensure that hig...
Article
Neuropsychologists need more sensitive methods to detect and measure recreational drug use in both research and clinical settings. In a study comparing the sensitivity of information processing tasks and neuropsychological instruments to detect early HIV-related cognitive decrements, 18 of 129 subjects tested positive for recreational drugs. Sixtee...
Article
Full-text available
This study had two purposes. The first was to determine the disease stage at which cognitive decrements caused by HIV become detectable. The second was to compare the sensitivity of information processing tests to neuropsychological instruments for detecting cognitive deficits caused by HIV. The study design initially had five groups: an asymptomat...
Article
The predictive validity of multiple-task measures (performance measures obtained when an individual performs two or more tasks concurrently) to flight performance has been frequently questioned because it is usually low and often appears to be no better than the validity of the corresponding single-task measures. Misanalyses conducted on the result...
Article
Curve riving is a powerful method for examining transfer of training that has been essentially ignored by the aviation community. This article first describes some of the advantages of curve fitting compared to traditional transfer-of-training formulas. Some of the practical problems associated with curve fitting and methods for circumventing them...
Article
Familiarity with motorcycles may be related to their conspicuity. A survey was constructed that approached the idea of conspicuity through the recall of various traffic scenarios. Respondents were classified as either motorcycle owners or non owners. Motorcycle owners were more familiar with the characteristics of motorcycles than nonowners and bel...
Article
Full-text available
This monograph examines the magnitude of circadian effects on selected information processing tasks. The monograph begins with a brief discussion of the statistical and methodological problems associated with assessing circadian effects. The remainder of the monograph reviews the pertinent literature. Each study is described briefly first and criti...
Article
Full-text available
Data from human information processing tasks frequently cannot satisfy the assumptions of many common periodicity techniques. This memorandum identifies appropriate techniques for data that cannot meet all of the assumptions of the more familiar ones. Keywords: Circadian effects; Statistical tests; Information processing tasks; Performance(Human)....
Chapter
This paper reviews six studies that examined the relation between established individual differences constructs and the subjective experience of workload. Because of the lack of data, few conclusions are drawn. Suggestions for future investigations are given.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the measurement of learning and transfer using a curve-fitting technique discussed in a 1985 Human Factors article by Spears. The data were collected during an experiment that determined if rotation skills could become automated with practice and if the skills could transfer between stimuli. The dependent...
Article
Two experiments are presented that examine automaticity and transfer of mental rotation skills. The data from these experiments were analyzed using a curve-fitting technique that represents a departure from traditional methods used to analyze transfer. The first experiment demonstrated significant positive transfer from one letter stimulus to anoth...
Article
Full-text available
A battery is nothing more than a set of tests that, as a whole, measure certain skills, abilities, and processes. This report discusses general issues and problems associated with the development of computerized human information processing test batteries. It is concerned primarily with batteries that will be administered in a repeated-measures par...
Article
This experiment had two primary purposes. First, it compared the relative efficiency of the fractionation method of part-task training to whole-task training for a combination consisting of two difficult tracking tasks. Second, it determined how the amount of single-task practice affected subsequent dual-task performance. The experiment required tw...
Article
The results of five experiments examining the effect of voice generation and recognition systems on dual task performance are presented. The extent to which asymmetric transfer biased the data in three of these experiments is determined by using statistical techniques and by comparing the data to the results of between subjects experiments. General...
Article
This paper presents the results of two experiments examining the effect of voice generation and recognition systems on dual-task performance. In the first experiment subjects performed a task combination consisting of a spatial short-term memory task and a verbal short-term memory task. In the second experiment the subjects performed a combination...
Article
Full-text available
Since World War II, efforts to improve tests used to select aircrew have continued. Due to the escalating costs of training aircrew, particularly pilots, improvements in the predictive validity of aircrew selection batteries have become increasingly important. At present, the general consensus of the selection community is that existing paper-and-p...
Article
A verbal short-term memory task and a spatial short-term memory task were performed alone and concurrently. Stimuli for the verbal task were presented either visually or auditorily; responses were made either manually or vocally. The effect of the four different stimulus and response mode combinations on single- and dual-task performance was examin...
Article
Twenty Type A and 20 Type B subjects performed two discrete tasks alone and together. Half of the subjects performed paced versions of both tasks; half, unpaced versions. Workload ratings were obtained for all subjects under single-and dual-task conditions using eight bipolar adjective scales. Under single-task conditions there was a significant in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Describes an objective statistical method for isolating the timesharing components of performance. Partial correlation analysis is used to remove the variance attributable to single-task measures. The resulting dual-task partial correlations the are subjected to factor analysis. Data from Sverko (1977) and Wickens, Mountford, and Schreiner (1981) a...
Article
Sixteen male subjects performed a visual short-term memory task and a verbal short-term memory task alone and together. Half of the subjects responded manually to the verbal short-term memory task using a keypad; the other half responded vocally using a speech recognition system. Stimuli for the verbal memory task were presented either auditorily b...
Article
Full-text available
16 18–35 yr old females completed the Jenkins Activity Survey and performed a variety of information processing tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. After each task, Ss rated the workload they had experienced on 8 bipolar adjective scales. The slope of the memory-search task was the only single-task performance measure that showed a signif...
Article
This experiment had two purposes. First, it attempted to replicate the easy-to-hard prediction for residual capacity described by Lansman and Hunt (1982) for two complex task combinations. Second, it examined the relation between individual differences in resource capacity, as indicated by the easy-to-hard prediction, and the subjective experience...
Article
Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing...
Article
This experiment examines tne effect of asymmetric transfer on multiple-task performance in a voice technology study. Male subjects performed a mental arithmetic and a visual memory task alone and together. Stimuli for the mental arithmetic task were presented either visually or auditorily; responses were made either vocally or manually. Stimuli for...
Article
A critical tracking test was considered for inclusion in the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Battery which was designed for use in unusual environments. Baseline measures were obtained by testing 18 subjects for 14 consecutive days. Mean performances increased but standard deviations were constant over the 14 days. T...
Article
This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in infor...
Article
Full-text available
The human factors issues associated with the use of voice technology in the cockpit are summarized. The formulation of the LHX avionics suite is described and the allocation of tasks to voice in the cockpit is discussed. State-of-the-art speech recognition technology is reviewed. Finally, a questionnaire designed to tap pilot opinions concerning th...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment demonstrates that the response strategies used to perform a discrete task combination reflect individual differences in multiple- but not single-task information processing. Subjects performed a discrete task combination on two consecutive days. On Day 1, the strategy was identified as a simultaneous, an alternating, or a massed res...
Article
This paper presents the results of two experiments examining individual differences in multiple-task performance. In the first experiment, the subjects were classified according to the response strategy they used to perform two discrete tasks. The subjects then performed three different task combinations on four successive days. A multivariate anal...
Article
Full-text available
A critical tracking task combination was examined for inclusion in an exotic environment test battery. Performance increased throughout 15 testing sessions despite the subjects' extensive prior tracking experience. However, consistent individual differences occurred only after Session 10. The implications of these results for research on exotic env...
Article
An experiment comparing the predictive validity of single- versus dual-task measures is reported. Two identical one-dimensional tracking tasks were used in the experiment. One task was controlled by the subject's left hand and the other by his right. Fifty-seven men first received two trials on each of the tasks alone followed by 25 dual-task trial...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes three studies examining response strategies. The first study was published later in Human Factors in 1983. It demonstrates that response strategies are not chosen at random and are difficult to change. The second study attempted to determine why a person chose a specific response strategy. Several personality traits, cerebral...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The first in a series of studies examining explanations for three types of multiple-task response strategies. These three response strategies are simultaneous responding, alternating, and massed (responding repeatedly to one task before responding to the other). Some evidence for differences in cerebral lateralization was found between the response...
Article
Performance on two different task combinations was examined for evidence that timesharing skills are learned with practice and can transfer between task combinations. One combination consisted of two discrete informaion processing tasks, a short-term memory task and a classification task; the other consisted of two identical one-dimensional compens...
Article
An experiment comparing the predictive validity of single-versus dual-task measures is reported. Fifty-seven males received two trials on each of two identical one-dimensional compensatory tracking tasks followed by 25 dual-task trials. Finally, they performed each task alone for one trial. The subjects then were given a short basic flight course c...
Article
Individuals involved in training operators of complex systems have observed that trainees differ widely in the time they require to learn a multiple-task job and their terminal level of performance. Individual differences in performance under multiple-task conditions also have been noted to be larger than corresponding differences in single-task pe...
Article
Residual attention is important in flying because it allows the pilot to perform the cognitive activities of flying, such as navigation, concurrently with the motor acts of flying. Because residual attention appears to contribute to operational success, a reliable measure of residual attention may be a valuable selection device for flight training....
Article
This experiment identifies the contribution of timesharing skills to performance on two qualitatively different task combinations. To examine this contribution, a measurement technique was developed which partitioned improvement in multiple-task performance into a component due to improved single-task skills and a component due to improved timeshar...
Article
The slope, intercept, and linearity of the function relating RT and stimulus information reflect different aspects of information processing. This experiment determined which aspects of information processing are affected by the presence of a secondary task. Subjects (n = 12) performed a one-dimensional tracking task concurrently with a choice RTta...
Article
Performance with practice on two dual-task combinations, dual-axis tracking and two discrete information processing tasks, is examined in an effort to identify the presence and development of specific time sharing skills, such as parallel information processing or rapid intertask switching. The generality of time sharing skills also is investigated...
Article
To investigate the effectiveness of various types and numbers of adaptive variables, 48 subjects performed a two-dimensional pursuit tracking task for five 3-min training sessions. In the factorial design resulting in eight experimental conditions, three variables (frequency of the forcing function, ratio of acceleration to rate control, and contro...
Article
To investigate the effectiveness of various types and numbers of adaptive variables, 48 subjects performed a two-dimensional pursuit tracking task for five three-minute training sessions. In the factorial design resulting in eight experimental conditions, three variables (frequency of the forcing function, ratio of acceleration to rate control, and...
Article
Full-text available
This report documents the development of and accumulation of a set of reference materials covering the history of U.S. aviator selection from the inception of military applied flight to the present day. It presents the materials so that they may be applied as a reference database or as a complete digital library for use by researchers in the field....

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Projects (4)
Project
To describe and to review psychometric methods for selection of ab-initio and for licensed pilots