Diana T Sanchez

Diana T Sanchez
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Department of Psychology (New Brunswick)

PhD, University of Michigan

About

110
Publications
67,391
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,864
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
2489 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
June 2005 - present
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
While past research documents essentialist beliefs’ (i.e., believing social groups have inherent, unchangeable traits) impact on prejudice, no research has explored if stigmatized groups perceive essentialism as indicative of bias. With a sample of participants diverse in race and sexual orientation, we document that endorsers of racial essentialis...
Article
Full-text available
Women who cope with sexism via social support tend to experience positive psychological outcomes. The present research examines sexism coping support and relationship satisfaction within mixed-gender romantic relationships. In Study 1, women (n = 208) reported desiring and receiving emotional support, distraction, and active planning coping support...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that having a sexual growth mindset (SGM), or believing that a person can become a better sexual partner over time, may improve sexual relationships. The present research investigated the impact of SGMs on a new sexual outcome: sexual rejection sensitivity. In Study 1, adults in romantic relationships completed measures of SGM and...
Article
Background: Students with marginalized identities can experience identity threats in higher education. Instructors can help improve student outcomes by using identity safety cues (ISCs), which signal to marginalized groups that their identities are valued. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether including ISCs in course syllabi...
Article
Supportive disclosure experiences benefit the well-being of those with concealable stigmatized identities (CSIs). The present research examines relationships between discloser’s disclosure directness, recipient’s response engagement, feelings of identity support, and disclosure response satisfaction. Across several correlational and experimental st...
Article
While research has demonstrated that confrontations of prejudice serve as effective prejudice reduction tools and as a coping mechanism for targets of prejudice, research has yet to identify a validated measurement of prejudice confrontation styles. The present research develops the Prejudice Confrontation Styles (PCS) Scale, which includes five st...
Article
The present work experimentally examines how identity cues that signal minority inclusion contribute to sexual minorities’ (SM) healthcare visit expectations. We find that minority representation cues reduced SM’s ( N = 188) expectations of a healthcare provider’s bias and increased perceived provider cultural competency which was, in turn, associa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Students with marginalized identities report a lack of cultural competence among faculty in higher education classrooms. Identity safety cues (ISCs) signal to minority group members that their identities are valued and respected. Objective The purpose of this study was to test for differences in students’ perceptions of their professor,...
Article
Twenty years ago, Multiracial Americans completed the U.S Census with the option to indicate more than one race for the first time. As we embark on the second anniversary of this shift in Multiracial recognition, this article reviews the research related to known sources and systems that perpetuate Multiracial-specific stigma. Policy recommendation...
Article
Full-text available
Research addressing the increasing multiracial population (i.e., identifying with two or more races) is rapidly expanding. This meta-analysis ( k = 55) examines categorization patterns consistent with hypodescent, or the tendency to categorize multiracial targets as their lower status racial group. Subgroup analyses suggest that operationalization...
Article
Integrating past research on women of color, stigma transfers, and generalized prejudice, the present research examined the extent to which threats and safety cues to one identity dimension (e.g., gender) results in threat or safety to women of color’s other stigmatized identity dimension (e.g., race). Across three experimental studies (Total N = 6...
Article
Despite legal classification as White, Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Americans experience high levels of discrimination , suggesting low social status precludes them from accessing the White racial category. After first demonstrating that the rated Whiteness of MENA Americans influences support for discriminatory policies (Study 1), the p...
Article
Despite legal classification as White, Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Americans experience high levels of discrimination, suggesting low social status precludes them from accessing the White racial category. After first demonstrating that the rated Whiteness of MENA Americans influences support for discriminatory policies (Study 1), the pr...
Article
Despite legal classification as White, Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Americans experience high levels of discrimination, suggesting low social status precludes them from accessing the White racial category. After first demonstrating that the rated Whiteness of MENA Americans influences support for discriminatory policies (Study 1), the pr...
Article
Past research on prejudice confrontations as a prejudice reduction tool has only examined bias that was implicated in the confrontation, such as the use of negative Black stereotypes after being confronted for using negative Black stereotypes. Examining the breadth of prejudice confrontations, we hypothesize that confronted individuals should subse...
Article
Research on stigma by prejudice transfer has demonstrated that White women anticipate sexism when interacting with a racist individual due to a belief that prejudices stem from an underlying ideology of group inequality. The present research proposes that individuals’ lay theory of generalized prejudice (LTGP) varies across individuals and examines...
Article
Bicultural and biracial individuals (those who identify either with two cultures or two races) are often denied membership in the groups with which they identify, an experience referred to as identity denial. The present studies used an experimental design to test the effects of identity denial on physiological and self‐reported stress, and natural...
Article
Bisexual individuals frequently experience identity denial from others due to perceptions that bisexuality is an illegitimate identity. Bisexual individuals have worse psychological health than gay, lesbian, and heterosexual people, but the reasons for these disparities are not well understood. Across a two-sample correlational study (Total N = 445...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the research on multiracial individuals has focused on the impact of a multiracial background on psychological well‐being. This work, often using clinical samples, identified a higher prevalence of negative psychological outcomes among multiracial individuals, such as low self‐esteem, poor grades, or self‐hatred, and has emphasized that the...
Article
Full-text available
A father’s involvement in prenatal care engenders health benefits for both mothers and children. While this information can help practitioners improve family health, low paternal involvement in prenatal care remains a challenge. The present study tested a simple, easily scalable intervention to promote father involvement by increasing men’s feeling...
Article
Many ethnic minorities in the United States hold both an ethnic minority and national American identity. Yet, they often encounter identity questioning when asked questions such as, “Where are you really from?,” which may operate as an ambiguous threat to their national identity. Because varied motivations (curiosity versus exclusion) create ambigu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Unmarried mothers have high rates of smoking, including during late pregnancy and after pregnancy, thus increasing their children's risk for negative health outcomes associated with maternal tobacco use. Few studies have examined whether partners' smoking exacerbates or attenuates maternal smoking risk. The current study examines how fa...
Article
Consumers with stigmatized identities may be especially attentive to organizational cues that signal to them whether or not they are welcomed and valued consumers. These stigmatized‐identity cues can become a part of a company's brand, influencing the attractiveness of the company and consumer loyalty, and allowing consumers to draw inferences abou...
Article
This article responds to thoughtful commentaries provided by Lamberton (2019 – this issue) and Wooten & Rank‐Christman (2019 – this issue) on Chaney, Sanchez, & Maimon (2019 – this issue), an article in which we discussed the implications of social psychological research on stigmatized‐identity safety cues for consumer behavior. In Chaney, et al. (...
Article
Many companies highlight their gender diversity, in part to signal positive attributes about the organization. We explored whether or not advertising gender diversity improves White men’s beliefs about an organization. In four studies, we found that White men expected a company to have a more broadminded and tolerant climate when the company noted...
Article
Full-text available
The growing multiracial population and the emergent body of research examining how we categorize this population highlights the complexity and malleability inherent in racial categorization. Few studies, however, have examined how categorization of multiracial targets as biracial (rather than a presumed monoracial category) differs across different...
Article
People belong to multiple social groups, and the meaning of these groups to others shifts as nonverbal, emotional, and other contextual cues in the environment also change. As such, social categories are both intersectional-in that the overlapping nature of categories affects how a person is perceived-and dynamic-in that perceivers continuously mon...
Article
Past research has demonstrated that ingroup experts buffer against the negative effects of identity threat on working memory as they are believed to be less likely to hold negative stereotypes about ingroup members. The present research examined, for the first time, whether the presence of a stigmatized outgroup expert whose stereotype content is s...
Article
Full-text available
Because bicultural and biracial people have two identities within one social domain (culture or race), their identification is often challenged by others. Although it is established that identity denial is associated with poor psychological health, the processes through which this occurs are less understood. Across two high-powered studies, we test...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of social perception research to date has focused on perceptually obvious and prototypical representations of social categories. However, not all people belong to social categories that are easily discernable. Within the past decade, there has been an upsurge of research demonstrating that multifaceted identities (both one's own and pe...
Article
Full-text available
Existing monoracial identity frameworks fail to capture the experiences of biracial people, for whom racial identification may depend on the social context. Though biracial people can vary their racial identity, the social consequences of context-dependent racial self-presentation remain underexplored. Five studies examined how contextual racial pr...
Article
Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats t...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has found that individuals who have been confronted for discrimination demonstrate a reduction in explicit prejudice and use fewer stereotypes immediately after the confrontation. Although confronting prejudice has been touted as a tool for prejudice reduction, it is not known how these effects translate over time and what processes m...
Article
Full-text available
While gender-inclusive bathrooms serve a practical function of providing a safe public restroom for transgender individuals, they may also signal identity safety for women and racial minorities who may experience identity threat in organizations. Across three studies, we demonstrated that women (Study 1) and racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos; Stud...
Article
Full-text available
Employee sick attendance at work — presenteeism—poses a significant threat to both employee health and organizational productivity. However, despite the wealth of literature examining organizational predictors of presenteeism, little research has investigated the impact of stigmatized status on employee work attendance when sick. We argue that gend...
Article
Full-text available
Despite multidisciplinary theorizing on the consequences of the changing racial demographics in the United States, few studies have systematically examined how exposure to racial diversity may impact White individuals’ lay beliefs about race. In a longitudinal study, we explored whether living in a racially diverse environment with a high multiraci...
Article
Previous research suggests that a person’s racial identity shapes the way others respond when that person speaks out against racial prejudice. In the present research, we consider instead how speaking out against racial prejudice shapes people’s impressions of a confronter’s racial identity, such as experiences with discrimination, stereotype enact...
Article
In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume th...
Article
Understanding racial categorization processes has implications for how affirmative action policies are implemented. Two studies examined how socioeconomic status (SES) functions to predict support for application of affirmative action and other perceptions of Latino targets. SES emerged as a powerful predictor, over and above the influence of ances...
Article
Traditionally, researchers have focused on identity-congruent safety cues such as the effect of gender diversity awards on women’s sense of inclusion in organizations. The present studies investigate, for the first time, whether identity safety cues (e.g., organizational diversity structures) aimed at one stigmatized group transfer via perceptions...
Article
Research suggests that women weigh the perceived costs and benefits when deciding whether to confront sexism on behalf of themselves or other women. Novel to the present research, we tested whether men similarly weigh the anticipated costs and benefits when deciding whether to confront sexism on behalf of women. Using path analysis across 2 correla...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Sexual pleasure is a central aspect of human sexuality; however, no validated measurements exist that assess sexual pleasure. We present a preliminary validation study of the psychometric properties of a Sexual Pleasure Scale (SPS), based on the three items developed by Sanchez, Crocker and Boike to measure sexual pleasure. The SPS i...
Article
Objectives: This study investigates how racial identity and phenotypicality (i.e., racial ambiguity) shape the perception of biracial individuals in both White and Black perceivers. We investigated complex racial categorization and its downstream consequences, such as perceptions of discrimination. Method: We manipulated racial phenotypicality (...
Article
Full-text available
In two national samples, we examined the influence of interracial exposure in one’s local environment on the dynamic process underlying race perception and its evaluative consequences. Using a mouse-tracking paradigm, we found in Study 1 that White individuals with low interracial exposure exhibited a unique effect of abrupt, unstable White-Black c...
Article
Full-text available
Negative physical and psychological health outcomes have been frequently associated with discrimination for stigmatized group members including racial minorities, women, and sexual minorities. The current review presents a framework for the dual functions of confronting discrimination as a health promotion behavior. The Confrontation's Health Outco...
Article
Objective: Mortality and morbidity data suggest that men have shorter life expectancies than women and outrank women on several leading causes of death. These gendered disparities may be influenced by psychosocial factors like masculinity. Methods: Three studies (Total N=546) examined the role of masculinity in men's doctor choices and doctor-pa...
Article
Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experience...
Article
Objective: Daily events of discrimination are important factors in understanding health disparities. Vigilant coping, or protecting against anticipated discrimination by monitoring and modifying behavior, is an understudied mechanism that may link discrimination and health outcomes. This study investigates how responding to everyday discrimination...
Article
Full-text available
Rigid thinking is associated with less creativity, suggesting that priming a flexible mindset should boost creative thought. In three studies, we investigate whether priming multiple social identities predicts more creativity in domains unrelated to social identity. Study 1 asked monoracial and multiracial participants to write about their racial i...
Article
Men and women are expected to exemplify the gendered traits of agency (masculinity) and communality (femininity). Research has yet to examine how the implicit adoption of these traits influences close relationships. To address these gaps, the current study used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a dyadic context to examine whether or not these...
Article
Full-text available
The present studies examined whether colorblind diversity messages, relative to multicultural diversity messages, serve as an identity threat that undermines performance-related outcomes for individuals at the intersections of race and gender. We exposed racial/ethnic majority and minority women and men to either a colorblind or multicultural diver...
Article
Women are less likely than men to engage in sexually agentic behavior (e.g., initiating sexual encounters), despite the benefits associated with sexual agency (Kiefer & Sanchez, 2007). Two studies examined possible explanations, related to person perception, for gender differences in sexually agentic behavior. In Study 1, participants viewed the da...
Article
The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic id...
Article
Gender beliefs contribute to men's healthcare avoidance, but little research examines these outcomes in women. This article models healthcare avoidance related to masculine contingencies of self-worth in men and women. Nested path modelling tested relationships between social role beliefs, masculine contingencies of self-worth, barriers to help see...
Article
Full-text available
Biological lay theories of race have proven to have pernicious consequences for interracial relations, yet few studies have examined how intergroup contact itself (particularly with those who naturalistically challenge these conceptions) affects beliefs about race. Three studies (a correlational study, an interaction study, and an experimental stud...
Article
Full-text available
Biracial individuals threaten the distinctiveness of racial groups because they have mixed-race ancestry, but recent findings suggest that exposure to biracial-labeled, racially ambiguous faces may positively influence intergroup perception by reducing essentialist thinking among Whites (Young, Sanchez, & Wilton, 2013). However, biracial exposure m...
Chapter
Multiracial Americans, people who belong to more than one racial group in the United States, also belong to more than one culture, yet multiracial and multicultural research and theory has not been adequately integrated. The present chapter will provide an overview of the multiracial and multicultural research on self and identity that addresses th...
Article
Prejudice and discrimination are unfortunate common realities for sexual minorities yet people rarely confront such behavior (Dickter 2012). This is especially problematic because confronting prejudice is one of the most effective weapons against it (e.g., Czopp and Monteith 2003). The present study explores whether men who perceive manhood to be a...
Article
Full-text available
Racial essentialism refers to the widely held belief that race is a biological, stable, and natural category. Although research finds very little evidence that race has biological underpinnings, racial essentialist beliefs persist and are linked to negative outgroup consequences. This study initially demonstrates that label and visual ambiguity con...
Article
Two studies investigated the combined effects of cultural practices, ancestry, and phenotype on ethnic categorization and the distribution of resources to minorities. Perceivers formed impressions of Latino internship candidates who varied in Spanish language fluency, White/European ancestry, and skin color. Spanish fluency influenced the distribut...
Article
The present studies examine how White ancestry influences perceivers' minority categorization of Black/White biracial individuals, as well as the implications of minority categorization for distribution of minority resources and stereotype use. Study 1 suggests that people are less likely to categorize those of Black/White biracial descent as minor...
Article
Full-text available
Do men base their self-worth on relationships less than do women? In an assessment of lay beliefs, men and women alike indicated that men are less reliant on relationships as a source of self-worth than are women (Study 1). Yet relationships may make a different important contribution to the self-esteem of men. Men reported basing their self-esteem...
Article
Full-text available
Racial identification is a complex and dynamic process for multiracial individuals, who as members of multiple racial groups have been shown to self-identify or be identified by others differently, depending on the social context. For biracial individuals who have white and minority ancestry, such identity shifting (e.g., from minority to white, or...
Article
Full-text available
The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines perceived acceptance from one’s ingroup (i.e., intragroup acceptance) and collective self-esteem among Latinos as a function of Spanish proficiency. Using a correlational design, Study 1 demonstrates that Latinos’ (n = 53) Spanish-speaking inability is associated with lower private regard, membership, and less felt simila...
Article
Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting be...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the research on traditional gender-role adherence and sexuality for heterosexual men and women. Specifically, the consequences and predictors of following traditional gender roles of female submissiveness and male dominance in sexual relationships is examined. Despite evidence that men and women's sexual roles are becoming more...
Article
Full-text available
Previous findings suggest that women are more likely than men to take on the submissive role during sexual activities (e.g., waiting for their partner to initiate and orchestrate sexual activities), often to the detriment of their sexual satisfaction. Extending previous research on gender role motivation, the authors recruited 181 heterosexual coup...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined responses to romantic breakup as a function of relationship contingency of self-worth (CSW)—the degree to which individuals base self-worth on being in a romantic relationship. Relationship CSW was hypothesized to be a vulnerability factor, exacerbating affective and behavioral responses to romantic relationship dissoluti...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the causal role of amount of Black ancestry in targets' perceived fit with Black prototypes and perceivers' categorization of biracial targets. Greater Black ancestry increased the likelihood that perceivers categorized biracial targets as Black and perceived targets as fitting Black prototypes (e.g., experiencing racial...
Article
Multiracial individuals are in the unique position of being able to categorize themselves as members of multiple racial groups. Drawing on self-categorization theory, we suggest that similarity to the minority ingroup depends on self-perceptions of physical appearance and connectedness to the minority ingroup. Moreover, we argue that similarity to...
Article
The present study reports on correlational data gathered from an Internet survey to explore why forced-choice dilemma situations relate to depressive symptoms among multiracial people (N = 317). Specifically, a model was tested that explored the role of identity autonomy (the extent to which multiracial people feel they can racially identify howeve...
Article
Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n = 226; men, n = 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity (private re...
Article
Full-text available
Existing studies indicate that multiracial adolescents face greater substance use rates than monoracial adolescents. However, it is unclear whether the risk identified in adolescence persists into adulthood. The current study uses data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey to analyze the alcohol and tobacco use of multiracial adolescents...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we focus on Spanish language ability as a predictor of the extent to which Latinos are viewed by both others and themselves as full-fledged minorities. Study 1 shows that perceivers viewed Latinos described as Spanish speakers as more appropriate for race-based affirmative action than Latinos who were unable to speak Spanish (...
Article
Full-text available
Deriving self-worth from romantic relationships (relationship contingency) may have implications for women's sexual motives in relationships. Because relationship contingency enhances motivation to sustain relationships to maintain positive self-worth, relationship contingent women may engage in sex to maintain and enhance their relationships (rela...
Article
Full-text available
Although heterosexual men typically hold positions of dominance in society, negative aspects of masculinity could lead some men to feel that their gender group is not valued by others (D. A. Prentice & E. Carranza, 2002). Previous research has largely overlooked the impact of men’s own perceptions of their gender group membership on their relations...
Article
Full-text available
Stigmatized group members experience greater well-being in the presence of similar others, which may be driven by the perception that similar others value their shared stigmatized identities (i.e., high public regard). Using experience sampling methodology, this hypothesis is tested with biracial people (29 Asian/White, 23 Black/ White, and 26 Lati...