Diana Panke

Diana Panke
University of Freiburg | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg · Department of Political Science

Doctor of Political Science

About

189
Publications
50,046
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Introduction
Hello! I am a professor of political science at University of Freiburg and hold the chair for multilevel governance. My reserach and teaching activities cover comparative regionalism, international relations, IO institutional design, international norms, small states in international relations, EU politics, the UNGA, compliance and legalization as well as foreign policy analysis. For a CV and information on research projects c.f. http://portal.uni-freiburg.de/politik/professuren-en/governance
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - present
University of Freiburg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2007 - July 2012
University College Dublin
Position
  • Lecturer
March 2004 - July 2007
Freie Universität Berlin
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Full-text available
The institutional design of international organizations usually expresses state sovereignty, as each state has the same formal rights and obligations. This includes equal speaking rights in international negotiations. Becoming vocal is a means for states to signal national interests and influence international norms as well as to express their sove...
Book
This book provides hands-on advice for graduate students, PhD candidates, postdoctoral researches and scholars of the social sciences who are about to decide on the research design of their MA theses, PhD dissertations, postdoctoral projects, or grant applications. It helps to put research ideas into sound research projects. The book provides step...
Article
Full-text available
International organizations (IOs) constitute key arenas in which states discuss common issues. Such debates are central prerequisites for taking qualitatively good decisions. Yet researchers have not examined how IOs foster discussion through their institutional provisions. We conduct a factor analysis of institutional rules of 114 IOs which reveal...
Article
Cooperation in regional international organizations (RIOs) can help member states to work toward and perhaps achieve policy goals that would not be feasible unilaterally. Thus, RIOs might be used as a means of states to compensate for domestic shortcomings in output performance. Do states equip RIOs with policy competencies in order to compensate c...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution and particularities of regional organizations across Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe since 1945. The authors analyze the membership dynamics and policy scopes of 76 organizations, and compare their opportunities and challenges in regional governance. They consider organizations’ co...
Article
Multilateral cooperation in international organisations is characterised by regime complexity. The literature usually adopts a policy-focused perspective studying the properties, effects, and dynamics within given regime complexes for different policy areas. Yet few accounts of why states drive regime complexity have been provided in the literature...
Article
Analyzing the performance of international organizations (IOs) in a comparative manner is of high importance. Yet IOs differ remarkably, which renders comparisons difficult. This article examines IO output productivity as an important precondition for IOs to have effects on their members (outcome) and on the ground (impact). We distinguish between...
Chapter
The chapter first explains what Europeanization means and outlines the main approaches to studying this phenomenon. The second section describes why this concept has become so prominent in research on the European Union (EU) and its member states. In the third section, the chapter reviews the state of the art with particular reference to how the EU...
Article
The performance of individual international organizations (IOs) has received considerable scholarly attention, not in the least because their importance for global governance. This paper adds to this body of work by adopting genuine comparative lenses. Based on a novel survey, it assesses the attributed performance of 49 IOs over two important dime...
Article
Regional cooperation in Asia takes place in formal Regional Organizations (ROs) as well as in less formal Regional Fora (RF). In addition, unlike in other parts of the world, Asian regionalism mainly developed in one instead of two waves. Especially after the end of the Cold War, Asian countries created numerous ROs and RF. Over time, Asian states...
Article
Around the world, states cooperate in Regional International Organizations (RIOs). Although most RIOs were created to foster cooperation between their members, most of today’s RIOs are also equipped with external policy competencies, allowing them to become active beyond their borders. This paper sheds light on the evolution of external policy comp...
Article
Full-text available
International norms and rules are created in international negotiations. A comprehensive survey shows that the satisfaction with negotiation outcomes varies between delegates, states and International Organizations (IOs), which is important as it has potential ramifications for state compliance and the effectiveness of the international rules and n...
Article
Regional Organizations (ROs) have become a central pillar of governance beyond the nation-state. This paper investigates why European states turned into architects of regional regime complexity: they have created and joined numerous different ROs and equipped them with a broad range of different policy competencies. Thereby, European states – some...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperation between states takes place in International Organizations (IOs) and Regional Organizations (ROs). Since we know more about the evolution of cooperation in IOs than ROs, this paper examines trajectories of regional cooperation. Based on a novel dataset, it provides a descriptive analysis of how all 76 ROs developed over time. This reveal...
Article
While media images can ease political information perception and processing, the impact of images on behavioral intentions to engage in protest is relatively unexplored. We ask: Under what conditions can news images of protest “move” people and affect the willingness to participate? Aiming to answer this question from an information-processing pers...
Article
States address many of today’s global problems in international organizations (IOs). At the same time, regional international organizations (RIOs) play important roles in IOs, as a series of case studies suggests. RIO member states can speak on behalf of an RIO in IO negotiations. This paper explores under what conditions states voice RIO positions...
Book
This book provides a valuable overview of the evolution and particularities of regional organizations across Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe since 1945. The authors analyze the membership dynamics and policy scopes of 76 organizations, and compare their opportunities and challenges in regional governance. They consider organizations’ competen...
Chapter
Chapter 4 focuses on regionalism in Africa. It discusses the particularities of the development of African ROs with respect to creation, membership dynamics and RO policy scope. This reveals that while some of the oldest ROs in the ROCO dataset are located on the African continent, such as the League of Arab States (AL), the general pattern shows t...
Chapter
Chapter 7 discusses the trajectories of RO development in Europe. Although regional cooperation started early in Europe, it is the region with the lowest absolute number of ROs and with the highest share of ROs that have lost member states over time. Nevertheless, European ROs tend to be large in size and many of them have broad policy scopes. Euro...
Chapter
Chapter 6 focuses on regionalism in Asia. Asian ROs have been created with a delay, as regionalism in Asia only took off at the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s and developed incrementally over time with respect to membership size and policy scopes. Asia lacks an RO with continental reach and in some sub- regions there are no ROs at...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution and particularities of regional organizations across Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe since 1945. The authors analyze the membership dynamics and policy scopes of 76 organizations, and compare their opportunities and challenges in regional governance. They consider organizations’ com...
Chapter
Chapter 5 sheds light on regional cooperation in the Americas. Two of the 18 American ROs in the dataset were dissolved but provided the grounds for future regional cooperation in new ROs. The chapter points out that many ROs have been created and cooperation has pushed forward while excluding the United States (US) not the least because the contin...
Chapter
Der Ausschuss der Regionen und der Europäische Wirtschafts- und Sozialausschuss sind zwei beratende Institutionen der Europäischen Union, die 1992 bzw. 1957 eingerichtet wurden. Sie setzen sich aus je 350 Vertretern der subnationalen Ebene bzw. Verbänden nach einem mitgliedstaatenbezogenen Kontingent zusammen. Sie sind obligatorisch an den wesentli...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1959, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) can issue judgments against member states of the Council of Europe that violate the European Convention on Human Rights. The number of non-compliance judgments of the Court varies considerably. Some states have been found to violate rules more than 2000 times, while the number of non-compliance...
Article
Full-text available
Regional organizations (ROs) have been created across the globe. In the period between 1945 and 2015, there is a total of 76 ROs, which on average are equipped with competencies in around 11 different policy areas. There are two trends. First, both the number of ROs states have joined increases sharply over time as do the number of policy competenc...
Article
Full-text available
en Research in communication and political science has underlined the relevance of participation offline and online for the performance and stability of democratic societies, and shown that media has a substantial impact on people's willingness to participate in political discourses. However, the impact of visual message features, prevalent in cont...
Book
The globalized era is characterized by a high degree of interconnectedness across borders and continents and this includes human migration. Migration flows have led to new governance challenges and, at times, populist political backlashes. A key driver of migration is environmental conflict and this is only likely to increase with the effects of cl...
Chapter
This introductory chapter provides the outline of the book and the analytical framework to explore the interlinkages and dynamics between environmental and resource-related conflicts, migration, and the role of governance in this context. It introduces how and under what conditions environmental and resource-related problems lead to conflicts and h...
Article
The number of regional organisations (ROs) has increased over time. While initially most of the 76 ROs were created to foster economic integration, most have broadened their policy competencies considerably over time. Yet there are distinct geographical patterns in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. This paper explores whether and under what c...
Article
The political regulation of the economy takes place on domestic, regional and international levels. Often, states are members of regional and international organizations (ROs and IOs) with competencies in the economic realm. This study explores the effects of such overlaps in membership and policy focus, and examines negotiations in economic Ios. I...
Article
From the late 1960s and early 1970s onwards, environmental politics were not only put increasingly on domestic agendas, but also dealt with in international regimes and organizations (IOs). The rise of environmental IOs has led to the expectation of a greening of international politics and a corresponding contribution to improved environmental stan...
Article
Full-text available
Whether we look at constitutions of states or founding treaties of International Organisations (IO), it is striking that many rules on interaction between delegates create room for deliberation, whilst simultaneously limiting the time for discussion. While the latter speeds up decision making, it risks reducing its quality and legitimacy by hamperi...
Chapter
Cambridge Core - International Trade Law - How Negotiations End - edited by I. William Zartman
Chapter
The first section of the chapter explains what Europeanization means and outlines the main approaches to studying this phenomenon. The second section describes why this concept has become so prominent in research on the European Union (EU) and its member states. In the third section, the chapter reviews the state of the art with particular referenc...
Article
The active participation in international organisations (IOs) is an important condition for the ability of states to exert influence over the content of international norms and rules. Thus, this paper adopts a comparative perspective and examines how active African states are in more than 500 international negotiations and under what conditions the...
Article
The General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) is a large negotiation arena. While much research focuses on the behaviour of its member states, the role of different regional organisations (ROs) has attracted little comparative scholarship. Although ROs have no formal votes, they are active in UNGA negotiations, most often through their member s...
Article
Overlapping regionalism results from the fact that states are members in multiple regional organization (RO) at the same time. This explorative paper provides the first comprehensive mapping of overlapping regionalism today and illustrates that it is not confined to Africa or Asia, but also prevalent in the Americas and Europe. Furthermore, all 62...
Chapter
Mehrebenenpolitik wird im Fachjargon oftmals als Multi Level Governance (MLG) bezeichnet, und zeichnet sich durch Regieren in Mehrebenensystemen aus. Mehrebenensysteme sind politische Systeme, in denen auf mehr als nur einer Ebene politische Entscheidungen ausgehandelt und verabschiedet werden. I. d. R. ist in einem Primärrechtsdokument (z. B. eine...
Chapter
Full-text available
The interplay between States and International Organizations (IO) has received a lot of scholarly attention, largely due to the fact that the number of IOs has increased considerably within the last century. Today, states cooperate with one another in IOs, across a broad array of policy fields, and they do so to collectively tackle problems and for...
Book
Since the end of the Second World War, not only the number of international regimes and organisations, but also the number of regional organisations and groups increased considerably. Today, states are often members of regional and international organisations at the same time and cover similar policies in both. This contributes to a regionalisatio...
Article
European states have not only joined several regional organizations (ROs) over time, but ROs’ policy competencies have also broadened in scope. As a result, states are exposed to overlapping regionalism, defined as the extent to which ROs share member states and policy competencies at the same time. First, this article identifies patterns of overla...
Article
Todays’ international security architecture composed of international security treaties and international security norms has been established and formalized by negotiations. Owing to the great importance of international security negotiations for international security practices, this paper sheds light on negotiation activities. A study of 100 diff...
Article
Full-text available
Since his inauguration, US President Donald Trump has made news by violating international and domestic norms, such as norms of diplomatic communication or the non-discrimination norm. This paper uses theoretical approaches to norm eradication in order to examine whether President Trump has turned into an effective agent of norm death leading to th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proceeds from the observation that states at times change their foreign policy preferences vis-à-vis an international norm on reoccurring resolutions in the United Nations General Assembly. In order to explain this phenomenon, we utilize a push–pull approach capturing the impact of domestic (push) and international dynamics (pull) on for...
Article
Full-text available
Foreign policy change (FPC) is an important topic and has therefore attracted much scholarly attention. Yet, the literature has largely overlooked how FPC is related to international norms. This special issue seeks to add value to the field of foreign policy analysis by strengthening the empirical literature linking FPC and international norms. The...
Article
In many international institutions, contested norms pass via voting. Although votes express national positions, dynamic vote shifts are a widespread phenomenon. Why do states sometimes change their voting stances concerning re-occurring international rules and norms? To explain observed variation, this analysis theorises the role of domestic and ex...
Chapter
Today, cooperation beyond the nation-state takes place in numerous regional organisations (RO) and international organisations (IO). Even if ROs themselves have no formal competencies within IO negotiations, they can de facto turn into actors within IOs if their respective member states coordinate common positions on the basis of which the RO can s...
Chapter
Der Beitrag klärt zunächst die zentralen Begrifflichkeiten ‚Region‘ und damit verbunden ‚Regionalismus‘. Darauf aufbauend werden verschiedene Konzeptualisierungen der Wellen der Regionalisierung betrachtet, um sich dem „Neuen Regionalismus“ zu nähern. Dies zeigt, dass der Neue Regionalismus kein zeithistorisches Phänomen beschreibt, sondern eine Fo...
Article
Full-text available
Since the end of WWII, states have formed several international organizations dealing with international peace and security issues. Among them are the Security Council, the Conference on Disarmament, the Arms Trade Treaty regime, and the First Committee of the United Nations General Assembly. Although regional actors, such as Economic Community of...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, the number of international organizations (IOs) and regional groups (RGs) increased tremendously, and states are now simultaneously members of several RGs and IOs. This article inquiries how states act in settings of complexly nested and overlapping institutions on the regional and international levels. How frequently do stat...
Article
Full-text available
Most international organisations are based on the principle of equality of states. Their institutional design grants all member-states the same formal rights. Although formally equal, states differ immensely concerning their power capacities and size. Can institutional designs of international organizations mitigate real world power- and size-relat...
Article
Many international organizations deal with repeated items on their agendas. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is no exception as many of its resolutions are reoccurring over time. A novel dataset on UNGA voting on repeated resolutions reveals considerable, but variable, amounts of change on resolutions by states over time. To shed light on...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The founding fathers of International Organizations are responsible for the basic set-up of the respecting institutions, including aims and policy scope, membership rules, institutional actors and their respective roles in the policy-cycle. Such primary rules can be changed through new treaties, treaty revisions, protocols or annexes. Th...
Article
The Committee of the Regions (CoR) and the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) are two consultative bodies in the European legislative arena. While they have privileged access to the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Ministers through submitting opinions on draft European Union (EU) legislation, EU legislators do not always read...
Article
Full-text available
The subject of a formerly strong norm’s death is not often in the limelight of political science research. This paper investigates successful norm challenges and analyses the conditions that lead to the abolition of norms rather than to limitations of the norms. It presents a theoretical account of norm challenges and develops hypotheses on mechani...
Chapter
This chapter examines the concept of Europeanization and why it has become prominent in research on the European Union and its member states. It first explains what Europeanization means before discussing the main approaches used in studying Europeanization. It then reviews the state of the art with particular reference to ‘top-down’ Europeanizatio...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, international organizations (IOs) are arenas for state-state cooperation, but more often than not regional organizations and groups (ROs) can acquire formal status within IOs (e.g. observer). Studying the behavior of 62 ROs in 19 UN umbrella organizations over more than 350 individual negotiations, this paper provides comparative ins...
Data
Full-text available
Book
Full-text available
The book “Europe’s Crisis: The Conflict-Theoretical Perspective“ provides a timely account of the cur-rent crisis in the European Union. Based on an economic, a political science/sociology as well as a legal perspective the book adda interdisciplinary value to the understanding of the emergence of the crisis, its dynamics on EU and member state lev...
Data
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Data
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Chapter
Full-text available
Vor allem seit den 1990er Jahren hat sich in der Forschung zur europäischen Integration die Europäisierung als theoretischer Ansatz etabliert, mit welchem die Wechselwirkungen zwischen der nationalstaatlichen und der supranationalen Ebene des Mehrebenensystems der Europäischen Union (EU) erfasst werden können. Wechselwirkungen umfassen neben Politi...
Article
Full-text available
The paper argues that there are hardly any international negotiations in which states do not engage at all in bargaining. While the type of bargaining threats that can be employed is contingent upon the nature of the context (e.g. voting in IOs, economic leverage in trade negotiations), this paper argues that bargaining power is ultimately a social...
Book
How and under which conditions can consultative committees that have access to legislators (voice) but no formal veto power (vote) exert influence? In drawing on the Committee of the Regions and the European Economic and Social Committee of the European Union, the book shows that consultative committees face several challenges when it comes to infl...

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Projects

Projects (8)
Archived project
There are hardly any political systems in and beyond the nation-state that do not incorporate committees. While decision-taking committees are often in the limelight of research, we do not know much about consultative committees, although they are as wide-spread as decision-taking committees. Consultative committees have access to decision-making arenas and can givenonbinding advice to political decision-makers, but do not possess formal voting power. This project sheds light on the influence of consultative committees and addresses the following research question: How and under which conditions can consultative committees exert influence although they have a voice, but no vote? In the current stage of the project, we developed a sender-receiver model that is based on the notion that consultative committees as senders offer information in exchange for influence to legislative actors as receivers. From the model, we derived a set of hypotheses specifying demand and supply sides of the information-influence nexus. In using the European Union with its two consultative committees (the Committee of the Regions (CoR), the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) as an empirical example, we comprehensively test the hypotheses with a mixed methods approach. This reveals that information supply of the CoR and the EESC has to match an information demand on the side of the European legislative actors (the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament) for the former to be influential. This is most likely if senders produce recommendations quickly that reflect a high level of expertise, whilst receivers have flexible preferences and lack administrative capacities to gather policy-specific expertise themselves.
Archived project
Sovereignty is an important building block of the modern international state system and the number of sovereign states increased to about 200 during the last two centuries. Today, sovereign states cooperate in a broad range of policy areas and cooperation is institutionalized in more than 5.000 International Organizations (IOs) and regimes. Although formally equal at the international level, states differ in multiple respects, most notably in their financial resources (economic size). The research group seeks to shed light on the behavior of small states in multilateral negotiations. More precisely, it examines the rationales underlying the voting behavior of small states. Can bigger states, especially developmental aid donors, ‘buy’ the support of smaller aid recipient states and if so under which conditions? What additional considerations guide the voting behavior of small states and changes thereof? To answer these questions, the research group develops a theoretical push-pull model on voting rationales of states and tests it comprehensively with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.
Archived project
Most international organisations (IOs) are based on the principle of sovereign equality, according to which all member states have equal rights and equal weights in the policy-initiation, negotiation and decision-taking stages of an IO’s policy cycle. However, while the states are formally equal, they differ immensely with regards to the financial and staff capacities that they can utilise when participating in the policy-cycle, and the resources that they can draw on when trying to be influential in negotiations and successful when it comes to passing hard or soft law. For example, in the United Nations in New York, states with small delegations of less than five diplomats, such as Somalia, Sao Tome and Principe, Papua New Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Solomon Islands, Marshall Islands, Timor-Leste, Palau or Dominica, face diplomatic missions more than ten times their size, such as the US, Russia, China, Germany or Japan, that can additionally draw on over a thousand times more financial resources than the smaller states. This project analyses the role played by size-related capacity differences in the active and effective participation of states in multilateral negotiations whose decision-making rules are based on the equality-of-states principle. Empirically, it draws on the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The UNGA is the ideal testing ground for the effect of capacities on the conduct of states, as is not only the IO with the highest number of member states, but also of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the one that most strongly expresses the sovereign equality of states. The institutional rules guiding the UNGA’s policy cycle strongly reflect the equality principle, most notably in the procedures governing policy-initiation, negotiation participation, and as the one-state, one-vote rule in the decision-taking stage. At the same time, the member states are very heterogeneous concerning financial, staff, administrative and political and ideational capacities, as microstates face very big states. Thus, the project sheds light on the antagonistic relationship between formal rules and factual capacity differences and answers the following research questions: Is the institutionalised equality-of-states principle an effective equaliser in IOs or are bigger and better equipped states in a more superior position than smaller and poorer states when it comes to actively participating and effectively making their voices heard in multilateral negotiations? What type of capacities influence a state’s ability to actively participate in the policy-initiation, the negotiation and the decision-taking stages of a policy cycle in an IO? Are smaller states less active than bigger ones? To what extent do size-related capacity differences translate into differences in influence over the content of policies and into differences in the prospects of successfully passing resolutions? Are smaller states as influential in the negotiation stage and as successful in the decision-taking stage as their bigger counterparts in IOs that are based on the principle of sovereign equality of states?