Diana Kornbrot

Diana Kornbrot
University of Hertfordshire | UH · Department of PsychologysportScience

PH.D.

About

85
Publications
14,549
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,341
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - present
University of Hertfordshire
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
The psychological impact of public health restrictions may play a role in the increased depression levels reported since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Data further suggest that people’s sense of personal control has been reduced during the pandemic also producing psychological distress. This study aimed to test whether perceptions of public health r...
Preprint
Open Science advocates recommend deposit of stimuli, data and code sufficient to support all assertions in a scientific Ms. Most ‘respectable’ journals and funding bodies have endorsed Open Science. i.e. they ‘talk the talk’. Nevertheless, most published Mss. do not ‘walk the walk’ by following the Open Science guidelines. Professional statistician...
Preprint
Full-text available
A detailed guide to deposit of scientific investigations, to be replicable and FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup/fairprinciples, https://osf.io/ Includes 3 stages: record keeping and planning, Ms./Report production, Supplement
Preprint
A 1 page guide to depositing a report of a scientific investigation so that reults are lpen and repliccable. Following this guide will ensure that Report is FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup/fairprinciples, https://osf.io/
Data
Detailed guide to depositing Mss and associated Supplement to support Open Science
Data
Guide to Open Science Ms and Supplement deposit 1 page with link to more detailed guide
Method
Full-text available
Guides to depositing results of investigations that are repliccable and FAIR. https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup/fairprinciples, https://osf.io/ Single page Guide. This will ENSURE Open Science Expanded Guide. Details for each step of deposit, Ms. and Supplement
Article
A guide to depositing Opens Science Reports and Mss. together with associated supplementary material. The main aim is to ensure that material deposited is replicable. Key features include § Advice on format to make data easy for others to download and use § Advice on how to deposit code so that findings are replicable § Suggestions, possibly contr...
Experiment Findings
Data from the following studies were analysed Dutilh, G., Annis, J., Brown, S. D., Cassey, P., Evans, N. J., Grasman, R. P. P. P., . . . Donkin, C. (2018). The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1417-2...
Experiment Findings
Data from the following studies were analysed Dutilh, G., Annis, J., Brown, S. D., Cassey, P., Evans, N. J., Grasman, R. P. P. P., . . . Donkin, C. (2018). The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1417-2...
Experiment Findings
Data from the following studies were analysed Dutilh, G., Annis, J., Brown, S. D., Cassey, P., Evans, N. J., Grasman, R. P. P. P., . . . Donkin, C. (2018). The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1417-2...
Experiment Findings
Data from the following studies were analysed Dutilh, G., Annis, J., Brown, S. D., Cassey, P., Evans, N. J., Grasman, R. P. P. P., . . . Donkin, C. (2018). The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1417-2...
Experiment Findings
Data from the following studies were analysed Dutilh, G., Annis, J., Brown, S. D., Cassey, P., Evans, N. J., Grasman, R. P. P. P., . . . Donkin, C. (2018). The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1417-2...
Article
Full-text available
The recent ‘replication crisis’ in psychology has focused attention on ways of increasing methodological rigor within the behavioral sciences. Part of this work has involved promoting ‘Registered Reports’, wherein journals peer review papers prior to data collection and publication. Although this approach is usually seen as a relatively recent deve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying the best framework for two-choice decision-making has been a goal of psychology theory for many decades (Bohil, Szalma, & Hancock, 2015; Macmillan & Creelman, 1991). There are two main candidates: the theory of signal detectability (TSD) (Swets, Tanner Jr, & Birdsall, 1961; Thurstone, 1927) based on a normal distribution/probit function...
Preprint
Identifying the best framework for two-choice decision-making has been a goal of psychology theory for many decades (Bohil, Szalma, & Hancock, 2015; Macmillan & Creelman, 1991). There are two main candidates: the theory of signal detectability (TSD) (Swets, Tanner Jr, & Birdsall, 1961; Thurstone, 1927) based on a normal distribution/probit function...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of psychological studies is currently a major concern. The Many Labs Project (MLP) and the Open-Science-Collaboration (OSC) have collected key data on replicability and statistical effect sizes. We build on this work by investigating the role played by three measurement types: ratings, proportions and unbounded (measures without concept...
Data
This provides data sets obtained from OSC and MLP. (XLSX)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent studies into ‘digital learners’ have pointed to the high level of digital skills which many UK and US based students entering HE are now demonstrating (White & Beetham, 2013; Pew, 2013). However while students may display high levels of functional skill or competency in digital media this is often evidenced in a narrow corridor of involvemen...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascrib...
Article
Full-text available
Stevens' power law for the judgments of sensation has a long history in psychology and is used in many psychophysical investigations of the effects of predictors such as group or condition. Stevens' formulation [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the psychological judgment, P is the physical intensity, and [Formula: see text] is the p...
Chapter
Kendall's tau, τ, is a correlation measure of association based on ranks of scores rather than raw scores. It is based on the number of swaps needed to put the second variable into exactly the same or exactly the opposite order to the first variable. It is applicable if either or both variables are direct rankings, or only ordinal. It is also appli...
Article
New strategies are required to rapidly identify novel cytostatic agents before embarking on large randomized trials. This study investigates whether a change in rate of rise (slope) of serum CA125 from before to after starting a novel agent could be used to identify cytostatic agents. Tamoxifen was used to validate this hypothesis. Asymptomatic pat...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of mild depression on time estimation and production was investigated. Participants made both magnitude estimation and magnitude production judgments for five time intervals (specified in seconds) from 3 sec to 65 sec. The parameters of the best fitting psychophysical function (power law exponent, intercept, and threshold) were determine...
Article
Full-text available
Research on ageing and prospective memory-remembering to do something in the future-has resulted in paradoxical findings, whereby older adults are often impaired in the laboratory but perform significantly better than younger adults in naturalistic settings. Nevertheless, there are very few studies that have examined prospective memory both in and...
Article
Full-text available
A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy and Abramson, 1979...
Article
Full-text available
Depressed mood states affect subjective perceptions of time but it is not clear whether this is due to changes in the underlying timing mechanisms, such as the speed of the internal clock. In order to study depression effects on time perception, two experiments using time discrimination methods with short (<300 ms) and long (>1,000 ms) durations we...
Article
It is shown that results of categorical judgement experiments cannot simultaneously conform to a single process signal detectability model and to the recently proposed two process attention band model. Since there is substantial evidence for the Thurstone case V version of the signal detectability model for categorical judgement of prothetic contin...
Article
The essential features that any satisfactory model of categorical judgement must account for are discussed. The implications of the strong evidence for the Thurstone case V model are drawn out. Then evidence for a linear learning model of criterion setting is presented including new data for isobias functions with either response speed deadlines or...
Article
Full-text available
A new distribution free inferential procedure for comparing paired observations, called the ‘rank difference test’, is presented. The new procedure is based on ranks, and is applicable as a robust alternative to the related f test in all situations where the Wilcoxon signed ranks test is applicable. In additions it may be applied to ordinal data or...
Article
Background: The proliferation antigen Ki67 has been shown to be a reliable predictive marker of treatment efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer but its prognostic significance remains uncertain. This study assesses Ki67 before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in relation to long-term outcome. Methods: 117 patients with prim...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies, the special status of flashbulb memories was investigated by contrasting the effects of age on the phenomenology and consistency of flashbulb memories of September 11, over a 2-year delay period, with those of a mundane staged control event: participants learning that they had not won a small prize. Flashbulb memories produced no si...
Article
3075 Background: There is an urgent need for methods to screen novel agents capable of stabilizing advanced cancer, prior to undertaking large randomized trials. This study was set up to determine whether, in asymptomatic relapsed ovarian cancer patients, their rising CA125 levels could be used to test the activity of such novel drugs. For proof of...
Article
The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of memory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test–retest delays of 2 and 3years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event and an initial test...
Article
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t The consistency of flashbulb memories over long delays provides a test of theories of mem-ory for highly emotional events. This study used September 11, 2001 as the target event, with test–retest delays of 2 and 3 years. The nature and consistency of flashbulb memories were examined as a function of delay between the target event an...
Article
We test the hypothesis that people with depression experience difficulties in maintaining task-relevant context information over longer periods of time using the AX version of the continuous performance task (AX-CPT). The AX-CPT requires that participants maintain a context cue (A) in an active state in order to respond correctly to a target cue (X...
Article
Full-text available
Remembering to do something in the future (termed prospective memory) is distinguished from remembering information from the past (retrospective memory). Because prospective memory requires strong self-initiation, Craik (1986) predicted that age decrements should be larger in prospective than retrospective memory tasks. The aim of the present study...
Article
Full-text available
Psychophysical functions for perceived roughness, relating ln (magnitude estimate of roughness) to ln (groove width), were obtained for blind and sighted participants in virtual reality using the PHANToM force feedback device. The stimuli were sinusoidal surfaces with groove widths between 0.675 mm and 20.700 mm. Group functions showed a similar no...
Article
The tendency to use thought suppression in everyday life as assessed by the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) has been related to several psychopathological and personality factors. However, previous research has primarily investigated a limited set of psychopathological factors and their relation to the use of thought suppression in younger...
Article
Full-text available
New and old methods of analyzing two-choice experiments with confidence ratings are evaluated. These include the theory of signal detectability (TSD), Luce's choice theory,nonparametric techniques based on areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) functions, andmethods based on S' and omega, proposed by Balakrishnan and his colleagues. Ne...
Article
Full-text available
Who exactly are our students and what characteristics do they have in terms of their interest in using technology for learning The study presented in brief below developed from a desire to know how far the--new generation of learners entering Higher Education had experienced technology and what their expectations might be for using technology in--t...
Chapter
Full-text available
The point biserial correlation is the value of Pearson's product moment correlation when one of the variables is dichotomous and the other variable is metric. Values range from +1, a perfect positive relation; through zero, no association at all; to −1, a perfect negative correlation. The square of this correlation, , is a measure of effect size in...
Article
Full-text available
Length of stay (LOS) is an important performance indicator for costing and hospital management and a key measure of efficiency of NHS. However, LOS is difficult to analyse because its statistical distribution is non-normal and LOS data habitually have many outliers. Furthermore, the usefulness of LOS for improving NHS performance is undermined beca...
Article
Full-text available
The perception of the effectiveness of instrumental actions is influenced by depressed mood. Depressive realism (DR) is the claim that depressed people are particularly accurate in evaluating instrumentality. In two experiments, the authors tested the DR hypothesis using an action-outcome contingency judgment task. DR effects were a function of int...
Article
To develop an intrapartum intervention scoring tool which could be used to define maternity units as either 'lower intrapartum intervention' or 'higher intrapartum intervention' units. This scoring tool was designed to form the basis of a comparison of the perception of risk by midwives working in either 'lower intrapartum intervention' or 'higher...
Article
to test the hypothesis that midwives working in higher intervention units would have a higher perception of risk for the intrapartum care of women suitable for midwifery-led care than midwives working in lower intervention units. an initial retrospective analysis of the computerised records of 9887 healthy Caucasian women in spontaneous labour enab...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines flashbulb memories of a salient recent and a distant public event to assess patterns of forgetting in the formal characteristics of these memories. Memories of a recent event (September 11) were compared to memories of a distant event (the death of Princess Diana) in several samples of British and one sample of Italian participa...
Article
I cannot see any advantages for SigmaStat. SigmaPlot does indeed have many excellent features and any psychologist could feel proud of many of the graphs it produces (not the box plots). As to the competition, JMP-IN produces a similar rage of graphs (and a rotating 3D plot for factor analysis), but has much less flexibility about appearance in ter...
Article
Full-text available
The rise of all forms of information systems has been one of the major factors affecting the nature of work over the last decade. This article reports on research that suggests that whilst females may now gain more experience of computers and information systems at an earlier age, this does not appear to lead to more favourable evaluations of jobs...
Article
This study presents a comparison of the intrapartum care of women suitable for midwifery-led care in four neighbouring maternity units. The computerized maternity data were systematically reduced to exclude: previous medical history; multiple pregnancies; present pregnancy abnormalities; previous operative or instrumental deliveries; inductions and...
Article
Full-text available
The incorporation of the sense of touch (haptic sense) into virtual reality (VR) has considerable potential to enhance the realism of virtual environments and make VR accessible to blind people. This paper summarises a series of investigations into the haptic perception of texture and object size/angularity in VR, with two haptic devices. Guideline...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a series of studies involving a haptic device which can display virtual textures and 3D objects. The device has potential for simulating real world objects and assisting in the navigation of virtual environments (VEs). Three experiments investigated: (a) whether previous results from experiments using real textures could be rep...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a series of studies involving a haptic device which can display virtual textures and 3-D objects. The device has potential for simulating real world objects and assisting in the navigation of virtual environments. Three experiments investigated: (a) whether previous results from experiments using real textures could be replicat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The incorporation of the haptic sense (the combined effects of touch and proprioceptive information) into virtual reality (VR) has considerable potential to enhance the realism of virtual environments and make VR more accessible to blind people. This paper summarises an experiment into the haptic perception of texture in VR conducted with a Phanto...
Article
Full-text available
The development of force feedback devices to add haptic information to virtual environments (VEs) has important implications for both able-bodied and disabled computer users. A study is presented in which blind and sighted participants used a PHANToM 1.0 force feedback device to feel a range of virtual grooved textures using both a thimble and styl...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a fusion of two independent studies investigating related problems concerning the use of haptic virtual environments for blind people: a study in Sweden using a PHANToM 1.5 A and one in the U.K. using an Impulse Engine 3000. In general, the use of such devices is a most interesting option to provide blind people with information about...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is generally accepted that failure to reason correctly during the early stages of software development causes developers to make incorrect decisions which can lead to the introduction of faults or anomalies in systems. Most key development decisions are usually made at the early system specification stage of a software project and developers do...
Article
Geary's model is a worthy effort, but ambiguous on important issues. It ignores differential resource allocation, although this follows directly from sexual selection via differential parental investment. Dimorphism in primary traits is arbitrarily attributed to sexual selection via intramale competition, rather than direct evolutionary pressures....
Article
Full-text available
Bem and Honorton (1994) have recently presented data that appear to support the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP). A major part of their argument rests on a set of parapsychological experiments known as the "autoganzfeld" studies. In these studies one participant (a sender) attempted to psychically communicate the contents of a film clip (...
Article
Ashby is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He obtained his Ph.D. in Cognitive-Mathematical Psychology in 1980 from Perdue University. His major research interests are perceptual and cognitive processes in identification and categorization, with this major current theoretical framework being stochas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research into the software design process currently centres on a particular model of the software design which is based on a number of assumptions that are really tested and have little theoretical grounding. This paper attempts to highlight some of these assumptions and to suggest ways in which they may be limiting current research. It identifies...
Chapter
Research into the software design process currently centres on a particular model of the software design which is based on a number of assumptions that are rarely tested, and have little theoretical grounding. This paper attempts to highlight some of these assumptions and to suggest ways in which they might be limiting current research activity. It...
Chapter
The structural organisation of motor plans into high and low level units was investigated using a discrete keying task. Motor patterns, in terms of ease of organisation and number of key strokes in a sequence, were experimentally manipulated. The pattern of correlation between interresponse times, both within a single trial sequence and from trial...
Article
The psychological processes involved in initiating and executing a rapid sequence of movements were investigated. Subjects were required to read a sequence of digits, and then on presentation of a visual cue, key the whole sequence as fast as possible. Motor pattern, in terms of ease of organisation, and number of key strokes in the sequence were e...
Article
Random walk models of binary choice were evaluated using line length discrimination tasks of varying difficulty. Subjects' gained monetary payoffs when their responses were correct and lost when their responses were incorrect, or exceeded a prescribed deadline. The payoff structure heavily favoured one response. Mean latency for each stimulus was a...
Article
Examined student variables that affected degree performance in England and Wales, comparing magnitude of effects associated with studying science A-levels (advanced) with mathematics O-level grade (ordinary), gender, and A-level point scores, using 1980–1984 data from the University Statistical Record and from a polytechnic school. The author also...
Article
Degree performance in England and Wales was investigated as a function of social class and gender for several disciplines of study. Three performance criteria were considered: FIRST class; GOOD, and COMPETENT. The findings are complex, and some of them conflict with widely held class and gender stereotypes. Women performed better than men at the FI...
Article
Full-text available
A flexible computer system for research and teaching experiments in psychology is described. Special features of the system include (1) separate phases for the generation and running of experiments, (2) facilities to control presentation of stimuli according to any factorial design, and (3) different modes of operation depending on the prior knowle...
Article
Full-text available
Develops a theory to make it possible to estimate the slope parameter of a presumed power law utility function from an analysis of data from signal detection experiments. The theory can be applied to detection data analyzed either according to constant likelihood ratio models or according to linear learning models of bias. Two experiments with 20 u...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical predictions of the two models are analyzed and shown to be different if the number of categories is three or more. Then two common methods of testing mathematical models empirically are examined: (1) direct testing of predictions embodied in constraint equations, and (2) minimum chi-square methods. In the experimental investigation, two...
Article
Full-text available
Quality measures are often derived from weighted sums of diverse indicators, including ordinal Likert items. This procedure can be dangerously misleading because it takes no account of correlations among indicators. It also takes no account of whether indicators are input measures, e.g. prior achievement of incoming students, or outcome measures, e...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid visual search, depending on iconic memory, is a core but controversial psychophysical topic. A key example is the claim by Horowitz & Wolfe (1998a) that 'visual search has no memory. Their evidence is the effect of increasing search set size in a letter identification task. Search time per item was unimpaired when all letters were randomly re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes two studies concerning the use of haptic virtual environments for blind people. The studies investigated the perception of virtual textures and the perception of the size and angles of virtual objects. In both studies, differences in perception by blind and sighted people were also explored. The results have implications for th...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
To make all stations on London Underground wheelchair accessible. Stakeholders include Transport for London Transport for All University of Hertfordshire Mobility Unit Women Engineering Society, London Cluster
Project
Examine haptic perception of object dimensions of texture, size and angularity within VR in both sighted and blind individuals.