Diana Bowler

Diana Bowler
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig | iDiv

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91
Publications
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Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Ecological thresholds comprise relatively fast changes in ecological conditions, with respect to time or external drivers, and are an attractive concept in both scientific and policy arenas. However, there is considerable debate concerning the existence, underlying mechanisms, and generalizability of ecological thresholds across a range of ecologic...
Article
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Winners and losers over 35 years of dragonfly and damselfly distributional change in Germany-Recent studies suggest insect declines in parts of Europe; however, the generality of these trends across different taxa and regions remains unclear. Standardized data are not available to assess large-scale, long-term changes for most insect groups but opp...
Article
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Insects are the most diverse group of animals on Earth, but their small size and high diversity have always made them challenging to study. Recent technological advances have the potential to revolutionise insect ecology and monitoring. We describe the state of the art of four technologies (computer vision, acoustic monitoring, radar, and molecular...
Article
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Citizen scientists play an increasingly important role in biodiversity monitoring. Most of the data, however, are unstructured—collected by diverse methods that are not documented with the data. Insufficient understanding of the data collection processes presents a major barrier to the use of citizen science data in biodiversity research. We develo...
Article
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Aim In this study, we assessed the importance of local‐ to landscape‐scale effects of land cover and land use on flying insect biomass. Location Denmark and parts of Germany. Methods We used rooftop‐mounted car nets in a citizen science project (“InsectMobile”) to allow for large‐scale geographic sampling of flying insects. Volunteers sampled ins...
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Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing data sets are typical...
Article
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Large‐scale biodiversity databases have great potential for quantifying long‐term trends of species, but they also bring many methodological challenges. Spatial bias of species occurrence records is well recognized. Yet, the dynamic nature of this spatial bias – how spatial bias has changed over time – has been largely overlooked. We examined the s...
Article
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Broad‐scale biodiversity monitoring relies, at least in part, on the efforts of citizen, or community, scientists. To ensure robust inferences from citizen science data, it is important to understand the spatial pattern of sampling effort by citizen scientists and how it deviates from an optimal pattern. Here, we develop a generalized workflow to e...
Article
Changes in the abundances of animals, such as with the ongoing concern about insect declines, are often assumed to be general across taxa. However, this assumption is largely untested. Here, we used a database of assemblage-wide long-term insect and arachnid monitoring to compare abundance trends among co-occurring pairs of taxa. We show that 60% o...
Article
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Aim Recent studies suggest insect declines in parts of Europe; however, the generality of these trends across different taxa and regions remains unclear. Standardized data are not available to assess large-scale, long-term changes for most insect groups but opportunistic citizen science data are widespread for some. Here, we took advantage of citiz...
Preprint
Global change has altered biodiversity and impacted ecosystem functions and services around the planet. Understanding the effects of anthropogenic drivers like human use and climate change on biodiversity change has become a key challenge for science and policy. However, our knowledge of biodiversity change is limited by the available data and thei...
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Christensen et al. criticized the application of Beals’ index of sociological favourability to adjust for incomplete species lists when comparing repeated surveys. Their main argument was that using Beals’ conditional occurrence probabilities would systematically underestimate biodiversity change compared to using observed frequencies. Although thi...
Article
Insects across the globe are facing multiple anthropogenic pressures. A study combining several data streams and advanced modelling helps to unravel the main factors underlying declines in monarch butterfly populations.
Preprint
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Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality of non-target species, is a major threat to seabirds worldwide. Mitigating bycatch is an important factor to reduce seabird population declines and consequent changes in ocean trophic dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, it remains an open question how and where mitigating bycatch at a global scal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality of non-target species, is a global threat to seabirds and a major driver of their declines worldwide. Identifying the most vulnerable species is core to developing sustainable fisheries management strategies that aim to improve conservation outcomes. To advance this goal, we present a preliminary vulnerab...
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Urban expansion poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Given that the expected area of urban land cover is predicted to increase by 2–3 million km2 by 2050, urban environments are one of the most widespread human‐dominated land‐uses affecting biodiversity. Responses to urbanization differ greatly among species. Some species are unable to tolerate...
Article
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Insects are the most ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms on Earth, forming a crucial link in terrestrial and freshwater food webs, but have recently made headlines because of observations of dramatic declines in some places. Although there are hundreds of long‐term insect monitoring programs, a global database for long‐term data on...
Article
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1. Selection for crypsis has been recognised as an important ecological driver of animal coloration, whereas the relative importance of thermoregulation is more contentious with mixed empirical support. A potential thermal advantage of darker individuals has been observed in a wide range of animal species. Arctic animals that exhibit colour polymor...
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Growing urbanisation is a threat to both mental health and biodiversity. Street trees are an important biodiversity component of urban greenspace, but little is known about their effects on mental health. Here, we analysed the association of street tree density and species richness with antidepressant prescribing for 9751 inhabitants of Leipzig, Ge...
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Jähnig et al. make some useful points regarding the conclusions that can be drawn from our meta‐analysis; however, some issues require clarification. First, we never suggested that there was a globally increasing trend of freshwater insect abundances, but only spoke of an average increasing trend in the available data. We also did not suggest that...
Article
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According to classic theory, species' population dynamics and distributions are less influenced by species interactions under harsh climatic conditions compared to under more benign climatic conditions. In alpine and boreal ecosystems in Fennoscandia, the cyclic dynamics of rodents strongly affect many other species, including ground-nesting birds...
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Desquilbet al. take issue with our data inclusion criteria and make several other dubious claims regarding data processing, analysis, and interpretation. Most of their concerns stem from disagreement on data inclusion criteria and analysis, misunderstanding of our goals, and unrealistic expectations. We maintain that our synthesis provides a state-...
Article
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Based on plant occurrence data covering all parts of Germany, we investigated changes in the distribution of 2136 plant species between 1960 and 2017. We analyzed 29 million occurrence records over an area of ~350,000 km2 on a 5 × 5 km grid using temporal and spatiotemporal models and accounting for sampling bias. Since the 1960s, more than 70% of...
Article
In this article, we identify possibilities and limits of processing as yet unused data sources for spatio-temporal biodiversity trend analyses in Germany. The sMon synthesis project (https://www.idiv.de/smon) of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig is a joint working group of federal and state authoritie...
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Despite conservation commitments, most countries still lack large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs to track progress toward agreed targets. Monitoring program design is frequently approached from a top-down, data-centric perspective that ignores the socio-cultural context of data collection. A rich landscape of people and organizations, with...
Preprint
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Recent studies report declines in biomass, abundance and diversity of terrestrial insect groups. While anthropogenic land use is one likely contributor to this decline, studies assessing land cover as a driver of insect dynamics are rare and mostly restricted in spatial scale and types of land cover. In this study, we used rooftop-mounted car nets...
Preprint
Full-text available
Based on plant occurrence data covering all parts of Germany, we investigated changes in the distribution of 2136 plant species between 1960 and 2017. We analyzed 29 million occurrence records over an area of approx. 350.000 km^2 on a 5 x 5 km grid using temporal and spatio-temporal models and accounting for sampling bias. Since the 1960s, more tha...
Article
Local drivers of decline matter Recent studies have reported alarming declines in insect populations, but questions persist about the breadth and pattern of such declines. van Klink et al. compiled data from 166 long-term surveys across 1676 globally distributed sites and confirmed declines in terrestrial insects, albeit at lower rates than some ot...
Article
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Abstract Climate change and other anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change are unequally distributed across the world. Overlap in the distributions of different drivers have important implications for biodiversity change attribution and the potential for interactive effects. However, the spatial relationships among different drivers and whether...
Article
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Most large herbivores in arid landscapes need to drink which constrains their movements and makes them vulnerable to disturbance. Asiatic wild ass or khulan (Equus hemionus) were widespread and abundant throughout the arid landscapes of Central Asia and Mongolia, but have undergone dramatic population declines and range constrictions; denying khula...
Article
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Applied ecological research is increasingly inspired by the open science movement. However, new challenges about how we define our science when biodiversity data are being shared and re‐used are not solved. Among these challenges is the risk associated with blurring the distinction between research that mainly seeks to explore patterns with no a‐pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to classic theory, species interactions are less important than climatic variation for species population dynamics and distributions in climatically harsh regions compared with more climatically benign regions. In boreal ecosystems, the cyclic dynamics of rodents strongly affect many other species, including ground-nesting birds. Accordin...
Article
Plant-animal interactions are fundamentally important in ecosystems, but have often been ignored by studies of climate-change impacts on biodiversity. Here, we present a trait-based framework for predicting the responses of interacting plants and animals to climate change. We distinguish three pathways along which climate change can impact interact...
Article
Spatial structure of species change Biodiversity is undergoing rapid change driven by climate change and other human influences. Blowes et al. analyze the global patterns in temporal change in biodiversity using a large quantity of time-series data from different regions (see the Perspective by Eriksson and Hillebrand). Their findings reveal clear...
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Long-term data of local bird communities have shown changes over the past few decades due to anthropogenic pressures, especially in temperate regions. However, we lack information on bird community change in many parts of the world, including hot and dry, desert areas that are also exposed to human activities. We analysed unique time series data of...
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Despite its value for conservation decision-making, we lack information on population abundances for most species. Because establishing large-scale monitoring schemes is rarely feasible, statistical methods that combine multiple data sources are promising approaches to maximize use of available information. We built a Bayesian hierarchical model th...
Technical Report
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Report summing up census-work of willow ptarmigan and forest grouse carried out in Norway from 2013-2018.
Preprint
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1.Conservation biology is becoming a more open science, with an increasing focus on large-scale assessments of the patterns and processes of biodiversity dynamics. However, the new challenges arising when it comes to defining exploratory and confirmatory research practices, has been so far overlooked. We discuss how the research community could mee...
Article
Evidence of declines in insect populations has recently received considerable scientific and societal attention. However, the lack of long-term insect monitoring makes it difficult to assess whether declines are geographically widespread. By contrast, bird populations are well monitored and often used as indicators of environmental change. We compa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human activities have fundamentally altered biodiversity. Extinction rates are elevated and model projections suggest drastic biodiversity declines. Yet, observed temporal trends in recent decades are highly variable, despite consistent change in species composition. Here, we uncover clear spatial patterns within this variation. We estimated trends...
Article
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Ecological communities change in time and space, but long-term dynamics at the century-to-millennia scale are poorly documented due to lack of relevant data sets. Nevertheless, understanding long-term dynamics is important for explaining present-day biodiversity patterns and placing conservation goals in a historical context. Here, we use recent ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change and other anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change are unequally distributed across the world. The geographic patterns of different drivers, and the spatial overlap among these drivers, have important implications for the direction and pace of biodiversity change, yet are not well documented. Moreover, it is unknown if the geogra...
Article
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Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communitieswithin central Europe to comp...
Article
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Climate change indicators are tools to assess, visualize and communicate the impacts of climate change on species and communities. Indicators that can be applied to different taxa are particularly useful because they allow comparative analysis to identify which kinds of species are being more affected. A general prediction, supported by empirical d...
Data
Definition of CTI terminology used in the paper. (DOCX)
Data
R script for the simulations and application to a real-world dataset. (DOCX)
Data
The effect of using different methods to obtain the modelled CTI. In (a) the predicted abundances of each species, without the confounding effect of habitat breadth, was calculated in the same way as presented in the main text (i.e., dropping model coefficients of year X habitat breadth to predict abundances). In (b) an alternative but equivalent a...
Data
The effect of including bird species from all habitat types, not just farmland, urban and forest. The same analysis is presented as shown in Fig 3 but using more species. Here, 65 species were included and those not falling into one of the aforementioned habitat types were classed as having “other” habitat preference as their species attribute. We...
Data
The effect of including an outlier species (Syngnathus acus) on the results presented in Fig 4. The original CTI value in the last census year is shown to be strongly influenced by the abundance of this species. However, the general patterns remain the same: the modelled CTI is lower than the original CTI, especially since 1995. (DOCX)
Data
Analysis of the factors affecting the bias in the CTI. Bias (difference between the true CTI and the original CTI—see S1 Table for explanation of terms) when temperature niche correlates with habitat breadth, assuming the same dynamics as presented in the simulations of the main text. The results are the mean and 95% of the bias from 500 simulation...
Data
The effectiveness of the modelled CTI approach is robust to different sorts of assumptions. (a) for comparison, the original simulation results shown in Fig 2a; (b) the effect of including a 3-way interaction between temperature niche, habitat breadth and year in the statistical model to obtain the predicted abundance when no such interaction exist...
Article
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Climate change, land-use change, pollution and exploitation are among the main drivers of species’ population trends; however, their relative importance is much debated. We used a unique collection of over 1,000 local population time series in 22 communities across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms within central Europe to compare the impac...
Article
The increasing conversion of agricultural and natural areas to human-dominated urban landscapes is predicted to lead to a major decline in biodiversity worldwide. Two conditions that typically differ between urban environments and the surrounding landscape are increased temperature, and high patch isolation and habitat turnover rates. However, the...
Article
Predators can have non‐consumptive effects on their prey by causing anti‐predator responses such as changes in behaviour. These effects may vary with the number of predators, which determines per capita predation risk. Predator density and cue concentration have been shown to affect prey responses in aquatic predator–prey systems; however, there ar...
Article
Many biodiversity conservation strategies aim to increase species movement by changing the landscape between suitable areas of habitat. We applied systematic review and meta-analytical methods to robustly assess evidence on the impact of matrix structure on movement rates, with the hypothesis that movement will be greater through matrix of a more s...
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Background: Predicted increases in stream temperature due to climate change will have a number of direct and indirect impacts on stream biota. A potential intervention for mitigating stream temperature rise is the use of wooded riparian zones to increase shade and reduce direct warming through solar radiation. To assess the effectiveness of this in...
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Global financial donors have invested billions of dollars in "Sustainable Forest Management" to conserve forests and the ecosystem services they provide. A major contributing mechanism, community forest management (CFM), aims to provide global environmental benefits (reduce deforestation, maintain biodiversity), while also improving local human wel...
Article
Many biodiversity conservation strategies aim to increase species movement by changing the landscape between suitable areas of habitat.We applied systematic review and meta-analytical methods to robustly assess evidence on the impact of matrix structure on movement rates, with the hypothesis that movement will be greater through matrix of a more si...
Article
Dispersal can play an important role in both the local and regional dynamics of populations. Empirical studies have shown that the proportion of individuals dispersing is often density dependent, which may have implications for the effect of dispersal on populations. In this study, we manipulate the dispersal strategy of adults within two-patch lab...
Article
‘Urban greening’ has been proposed as one approach to mitigate the human health consequences of increased temperatures resulting from climate change. We used systematic review methodology to evaluate available evidence on whether greening interventions, such as tree planting or the creation of parks or green roofs, affect the air temperature of an...
Article
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There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthe...
Data
Effect size (and standard error of the effect size) calculated from each article for the most commonly reported outcomes.
Data
Adjusted effect sizes (posttest - pretest effect size) and 95% CI to investigate sensitivity of results to any pretest differences.
Data