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Dhruba Pikha Shrestha

Dhruba Pikha Shrestha
University of Twente/Faculty ITC · Applied Earth Sciences

MSc ITC Netherlands/PhD, Ghent University, Belgium

About

71
Publications
29,398
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
He has 33 years of experience in education and research at ITC, University of Twente in the Netherlands, and in several countries (Nepal, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Spain, Morocco). His current research interest focusses on assessing the effects of extreme climate and land cover change on natural hazards e.g. excessive surface runoff leading to erosion, landslide, and flashflood. Methods include analysis of rainfall data, remote sensing techniques, and process-based rainfall-runoff modelling.
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - October 2019
University of Twente
Position
  • Lecturer
September 1986 - December 2009
International Institue for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation (ITC)
Position
  • Lecturer
July 1984 - June 1986
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Position
  • Expert on soil survey

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Land degradation is a crucial issue in mountainous areas and is manifested in a variety of processes. For its assessment, application of existing models is not straightforward. In addition, data availability might be a problem. In this paper, a procedure for land degradation assessment is described, which follows a four-step approach: (1) detection...
Article
Natural as well as human-induced mass movements and gullies are severe environmental hazards. Remote sensing data offer promising possibilities for identification and monitoring. But their effective use in mountainous areas is hampered by cloud effects and relief-controlled factors, which cause geometric distortions and shadow areas, among other co...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing data help in mapping land resources, especially in mountainous areas where accessibility is limited. In such areas, land degradation is a main concern. Land is degraded not only by natural processes but also by human activities through inappropriate land use practices. Land cover and land use mapping is thus very important for evalua...
Article
Full-text available
Desertification is a severe stage of land degradation, manifested by “desert-like” conditions in dryland areas. Climatic conditions together with geomorphologic processes help to mould desert-like soil surface features in arid zones. The identification of these soil features serves as a useful input for understanding the desertification process and...
Article
Quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) and DEM-derived products directly affects the quality of terrain analysis applications. The objective of this work was to review and systematise methods to improve geomorphic plausibility of DEMs and minimise artefacts and outliers in terrain parameters. Three approaches to the reduction of errors in DEM a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rockfall hazard is frequent along the national road (G318) in west Hubei, China. To understand the distribution and potential hazard probability, this study combines the result of a 3-years engineering geological investigation, statistical modeling, and kinemics-based method to identify risky road sections. Rockfall hazard probability is calculated...
Article
Full-text available
Floods are frequent hydro-meteorological hazards which cause losses in many parts of the world. In hilly and mountainous environments, floods often contain sediments which are derived from mass movements and soil erosion. The deposited sediments cause significant direct damage, and indirect costs of clean-up and sediment removal. The quantification...
Thesis
Soil is the outmost layer of earth that supports plant growth and many living creatures depending on it. It provides a suitable environment for forest growth, crop production, securing human food supplies, filtering and storing water and a carbon reservoir. However, the soil is subject to degradation as a result of natural and human factors. Soil d...
Article
Full-text available
Soil is a fundamental natural resource that is vital to the sustainable development of human societies. However, in many developing countries, increased intensity of use and inadequate land use planning has put a lot of pressure on marginal soil, leading to various forms of land degradation. The purpose of this study is to generate an integrated th...
Article
Full-text available
Yadong County located in the southern Himalayan mountains in Tibet, China, is an import frontier county. It was affected by landslides after the 2011 Sikkim earthquake (Mw = 6.8) and the 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw = 7.8). Casualties and property damage were caused by shallow landslides during subsequent rainfall on the earthquake-destabilized slope...
Article
Full-text available
Physical vulnerability is a challenging and fundamental issue in landslide risk assessment. Previous studies mostly focus on generalized vulnerability assessment from landslides or other types of slope failures, such as debris flow and rockfall, while the long-term damage induced by slow-moving landslides is usually ignored. In this study, a method...
Article
A large number of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China, have been reactivated by reservoir impoundment since 2003. Many of them were activated as slow-moving landslides, which caused severe damages buildings and also pose a significant risk for residents. In this study, a quantitative procedure has been proposed to analyze and ass...
Article
Conventional soil survey methods are labor intensive and prohibitively expensive considering the area to be covered. Unfortunately, the current soil survey products are not adequate, either categorically or cartographically, and cannot be easily downscaled for its application at farm-level. On the other hand soil is a continuous variable and does n...
Article
Full-text available
The soil minerals determine essential soil properties such as the cation exchange capacity, texture, structure, and their capacity to form bonds with organic matter. Any alteration of these organo-mineral interactions due to the soil moisture variations needs attention. Visible near-infrared imaging spectroscopy is capable of assessing spectral soi...
Thesis
Full-text available
Thailand has a long tradition of using detailed soil information in agriculture and watershed management. Agricultural extension workers locally named “ soil doctors ”, give advice on farm level on increasing agricultural production and combat land degradation. Unfortunately, detailed soil information is only available for the flat areas where most...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical vulnerability is a difficult fundamental issue in the risk assessment of slow-moving landslides. We aim to develop a method to analyze the physical vulnerability of buildings affected by slow-moving landslides. We calculate the landslide residual force on the buildings' foundation and the landslide safety factor where the buildings are loc...
Article
Full-text available
Land use and land cover change can increase or decrease landslide susceptibility (LS) in the mountainous areas. In the hilly and mountainous part of southwestern China, land use and land cover change (LUCC) has taken place in the last decades due to infrastructure development and rapid economic activities. This development and activities can worsen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globally, soil erosion has been identified as one of the most destructive forms of land degradation. The on-site impacts include loss of topsoil, nutrients, organic matter, crop residues, soil quality and growing plants. The off-site impacts include the inundation of downhill farms by eroded soils, silting in of drainage channels and reservoirs, wa...
Article
Optical remote sensing data has been extensively used since early seventies for mapping and monitoring land cover. But, cloud cover has always been hindering the optimal use of the data, especially in the tropical and temperate regions. Because of cloud cover, researchers are forced to use only cloud free images or generate a composite using data f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extreme rains can trigger natural hazard processes such as soil erosion, land sliding and flash floods. Climate change studies show that the frequency of extreme rains is in an increasing trend, resulting in the amplification of hazard processes. For assessing the magnitude of soil losses various models are available. While annual empirical models...
Article
Full-text available
Land use change influences the hydrological as well as landscape processes such as runoff and sediment yields. The main objectives of this study are to assess the land use change and its impact on the runoff and sediment yield of the upper Serayu Catchment. Land use changes of 1991 to 2014 have been analyzed. Spectral similarity and vegetation indi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Severe flooding causes damage to properties, disruption of economic activities and loss of lives. In the Philippines flooding is of particular concern because it can affect heavily populated areas like Manila. Excessive rain is often the major cause but anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, land use changes, and urbanization also affect f...
Article
Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. On the other hand there can be yearly variation of total precipitation received in an area, with the presence of extreme rains. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While th...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing has shown its potential to assess soil properties and is a fast and non-destructive method for monitoring soil surface changes. In this paper, we monitor soil aggregate breakdown under natural conditions. From November 2014 to February 2015, images and weather data were collected on a daily basis from five soils susceptible to detach...
Article
Airborne gamma-ray imagery (AGRI) provides coarse-resolution (approximately 400 × 400 m pixel) spatial information on gamma-ray emitting elements, i.e. potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U), in the upper half meter of the soil. These radioelements are a potential information source for soil mapping since their abundance is related to soil geo...
Article
Full-text available
Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Variable Source Area (SWAT-VSA) models were employed to predict surface runoff generation in a watershed of the Himalayan landscape in GIS environment. Both the models differed in term of defining hydrological response units (HRUs) that serves as basis in assigning curve numbe...
Article
Extreme rainfall events are the main triggering causes for hydro-meteorological hazards in mountainous areas, where development is often constrained by the limited space suitable for construction. In these areas, hazard and risk assessments are fundamental for risk mitigation, especially for preventive planning, risk communication and emergency pre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Soil is a natural body which delivers important ecosystem services apart from being a medium for plant growth. Soil mapping can be time consuming and expensive. During the 1960s and 1970s, introduction of air photo-interpretation in soil survey through element analysis, physiognomic and physiographic analysis, helped increase mapping effi ciency. I...
Chapter
Two approaches to prepare photo-interpretation maps that guide the location of fi eld observations and serve as frames for soil cartography are compared. The physiographic approach is mainly descriptive and aims at separating relief units on the basis of their physiognomic appearance. The geopedologic approach highlights relationships between soils...
Chapter
Full-text available
Soil is a natural body which delivers important ecosystem services apart from being a medium for plant growth. Soil mapping can be time consuming and expensive. During the 1960s and 1970s, introduction of air photo-interpretation in soil survey through element analysis, physiognomic and physiographic analysis, helped increase mapping efficiency. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land degradation processes in hilly areas are often directly related to land cover changes. At the same time, many hilly areas in the tropics are inaccessible and thus lack proper data. As a result, data scarcity is a crucial problem when trying to assess soil erosion. In this paper a method is described showing the use of digital elevation, remote...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land degradation is a worldwide issue which is often closely linked to human activity. In semi-arid environments common degradation processes are due to excessive soil losses, gully formation, surface sealing, and soil moisture depletion. Forest fire is increasingly an additional problem in the dry areas. In the present study, human interactions wi...
Article
Full-text available
Landsliding is one of the most damaging natural disasters in the mountainous and hilly terrain in the tropics. Landslides occur frequently in the rainy season, which shows that it is the main triggering factor. But how much rain for how long period causes landsliding in the humid tropics is not yet clear. The study tries to understand the relations...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract The use of soil maps and the feasibility of the existing soil survey procedure are often questioned by both surveyors and users. Thanks to the advances in the fi elds of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS), a new trend – digital soil mapping – is emerging which might have answers to some of the questions. With a gla...
Article
Java, the most populated Island in Indonesia, in the pas view decades suffer land degradation do to extreme weather, population pressure and landuse/cover change. The study area, Serayu sub-catchment, as part of Serayu catchment is one of the representative example of Indonesia region facing land use change and land degradation problem. The study a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to find suitable conservation measures to protect the land from further deterioration leading to desertification, sustainable land management technologies were applied in 12 countries having land degradation problems such as erosion (by wind and water), salinization, vegetation degradation and wild fire. The technologies were selected in c...
Article
Full-text available
The upper Serayu watershed is one of several agriculture centers production in the Central Java province. The land cover of this area has been changed since it was utilized as agricultural and plantation area. The land cover changes observation of the upper Serayu watershed was done for 20 years period, it was during 1989 to 2009 period. The land c...
Chapter
Full-text available
The demand for high-resolution soil mapping is growing increasingly, in particular for the purpose of land degradation studies. The objective of this study focuses on applying the methods for digital predictive soil mapping in inaccessible, land degradation-prone areas. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Decision Tree (DT) were employed within the...
Article
Full-text available
More than half of the dry areas worldwide are affected by land degradation (Dregne and Chou, 1994). Although water erosion is the dominant human-induced soil degradation process, an extent of 0.8 million km2 suffers from secondary salinization caused by land mismanagement, with 58% of these in irrigated areas alone, and nearly 20% of all irrigated...
Chapter
Full-text available
More than half of the dry areas worldwide are affected by land degradation (Dregne and Chou, 1994). Although water erosion is the dominant human-induced soil degradation process, an extent of 0.8 million km2 suffers from secondary salinization caused by land mismanagement, with 58% of these in irrigated areas alone, and nearly 20% of all irrigated...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Land degradation is a worldwide issue. The estimated surface area affected by human-induced soil degradation is 24 per cent of the inhabited land areas (Oldeman, 1994; Oldeman et al., 1991). Of various degradation processes soil erosion by action of wind plays an important role in semi arid and arid environment. The causative factors are the drynes...
Article
Full-text available
Soil erosion is one of the severe land degradation problems in many parts of the world. It not only affects on decreasing agricultural productivity but also it causes disasters such as siltation of reservoirs and flooding in low lying areas in case of high rainfall events. To predict soil losses various models are available the results of which can...
Article
Full-text available
Physical degradation undermines soils' ability to perform their many biophysical functions. Currently, there is lack of rapid methods to facilitate timely large-area assessment for effective control of the degradation. This study tested the combined applications of point-measurements of physical properties, soil spectral reflectance, and remote sen...
Article
Full-text available
Salinization is the process of accumulation of soluble salts in the soils which may be caused by groundwater rise due to improper land use practices in dry lands. It is well known that salt concentration in soil has negative impact on crop growth which results in reduced crop yield. Thus it is necessary to timely detect the process for monitoring a...
Article
Full-text available
A method is proposed to transform the red and near infrared data into a soil index in order to map soil features. The index maximises soil variation and helps improve soil feature mapping while suppressing spectral response from vegetation cover. Geo-statistical analysis of field data, on the other hand, helps understand spatial dependency pattern...
Article
Land degradation is a crucial issue in mountainous areas and is manifested in a variety of processes. For its assessment, application of existing models is not straightforward. In addition, data availability might be a problem. In this paper, a procedure for land degradation assessment is described, which follows a four-step approach: (1) detection...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Erosion hazard has been studied under existing conditions in 12 sites, representative of physiographic landscape units in the Likhu Khola watershed which is located 50 km northwest of Katmandu, Nepal. For this purpose the accumulated effect of erosion has been recorded as expressed by microtopographic erosion features formed in a rainy per...
Article
Full-text available
A method is proposed to transform the red and near infrared data into a soil index in order to map soil features. The index maximises soil variation and helps improve soil feature mapping while it suppresses spectral response from vegetation cover. Geo-statistical analysis of fi eld data, on the other hand, helps understand spatial dependency patte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resource mismanagement in most arid parts of the world is alarming. In these areas, harsh climatic conditions such as very low rainfall (0-100 mm), high temperatures with remarkable fluctuations between day and night as well as summer and winter, strong wind and sand storms are common. Besides, they are characterized by the presence of salt-affecte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unlike conventional sensor systems such as Landsat-TM, Spot-MX or IRS-LISS, which acquire data in only a few spectral bands, the development of scanner systems that acquire data in many narrow-wavelength bands allows the use of almost continuous reflectance data in studies of the Earth's surface. This not only produces laboratory-like reflectance s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Field observation of soil microtopography could distinguish seven types of features related to erosion. The features are: resisting clods, eroding clods, flow surfaces, prerills, rills, depressions and basal vegetal cover. In each of fifty tape intervals of 25 cm along the contour, the dominant feature is recorded. The feature record as a whole can...
Chapter
Full-text available
Remote sensing techniques were applied to study saline soils in the semi-arid environment, of the territory of the Dzhizakskaya Steppe of Uzbekistan. Aerial photographs (scale 1:2,000) were used in the sample area to investigate the spectral response of various soil groups prevalent in the area. Satellite photographs were used to map saline soils i...
Article
Full-text available
The potential use of hyperspectral data in mapping "desert-like" surface features was undertaken in a semi -arid area of Tabernas area in Southeastern part of Spain. "Desert-like" soil surface features like desert pavements, surface accumulation of salts, calcium carbonate accumulation, and surface exposure of gypsum materials are manifestations of...
Book
Full-text available
The irrigated fields of the low-lying areas in Nepal face sedimentation problem due to irrigation water. Yearly deposition of sediments gradually lowers the fertility status of the soils, deteriorates soil physical properties and eventually results in lower yields. The sedimentation issue in the Chitwan valley raises three main research questions:...