Dhaval Dave

Dhaval Dave
Bentley University · Department of Economics

About

106
Publications
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Publications

Publications (106)
Article
The recent lead-in-water crisis in Newark has renewed concerns about the crisis being a widespread problem in the nation. Using data on the exact home addresses of pregnant women residing in the city combined with information on the spatial boundary separating areas within the city serviced by two water treatment plants, we exploit an exogenous cha...
Article
Full-text available
We provide some of the first empirical evidence of maternal and fetal health effects of working during pregnancy by using a unique dataset from the New Jersey Department of Health that includes information not only on pregnancy and birth outcomes but also on maternal employment. We match the mother’s occupation with the Metabolic Equivalent of Task...
Article
This study estimates the effects of welfare reform in the 1990s, which permanently restructured and contracted the cash assistance system in the U.S., on food insecurity—a fundamental form of material hardship—of the next generation of households. An implicit goal underlying welfare reform was the disruption of an assumed intergenerational transmis...
Article
We investigate how welfare reform in the U.S. in the 1990s shaped the age gradient in women’s property crime arrests. Using Federal Bureau of Investigation data, we investigated the age-patterning of effects of welfare reform on women’s arrests for property crime, the type of crime that welfare reform has been shown to affect. We found that welfare...
Article
We study the effects of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on crime, and inform how policies that restrict access to Rx opioids per se within the healthcare system would impact broader non‐health domains. In response to the substantial increase in opioid use and misuse in the United States, PDMPs have been implemented in virtually all st...
Article
A shelter‐in‐place order (SIPO) is one of the most restrictive non‐pharmaceutical interventions designed to curb the spread of COVID‐19. On March 19, 2020, California Governor Gavin Newsom issued the first statewide SIPO in the United States. The order closed non‐essential businesses and required residents to shelter in place for all but essential...
Article
Aims To estimate the association of e‐cigarette advertisement exposure with e‐cigarette and cigarette use behavior among US adults. Design Data from the 2013–14 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) were linked to Kantar Media and National Consumer Study data to construct measures of e‐cigarette advertisements on TV and in magazines. The relationsh...
Article
Large in‐person gatherings of travelers who do not socially distance are classified as the “highest risk” for COVID‐19 spread by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). From August 7–16, 2020, nearly 500,000 motorcycle enthusiasts converged on Sturgis, South Dakota for its annual rally in an environment without mask‐wearing requiremen...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most common policy prescriptions to reduce the spread of COVID-19 has been to legally enforce social distancing through shelter-in-place orders (SIPOs). This study examines the role of localized urban SIPO policy in curbing COVID-19 cases. Specifically, we explore (i) the comparative effectiveness of county-level SIPOs in urbanized as co...
Article
Shelter in place orders (SIPOs) require residents to remain home for all but essential activities. Between March 19 and April 20, 2020, 40 states and the District of Columbia adopted SIPOs. This study explores the impact of SIPOs on health, with particular attention to heterogeneity in their impacts. First, using daily state‐level social distancing...
Article
This study investigates effects of welfare reform in the United States on the next generation. Most previous studies of effects of welfare reform on adolescents focused on high‐school dropout of girls or fertility; little is known about how welfare reform has affected other teenage behaviors or boys. We use a difference‐in‐difference‐in‐differences...
Article
Full-text available
E-cigarettes provide nicotine in a vapor form, which is considered less harmful than the smoke from combustible cigarettes because it does not contain the toxins that are found in tobacco smoke. E-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers to quit or they might simply provide smokers a method of bypassing smoking restrictions. There is very lit...
Article
Full-text available
We study the impact of new information on people’s perceptions of the risks of e-cigarettes. In September 2019 the U.S. experienced an outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, associated lung injuries (EVALI). The EVALI outbreak created an information shock, which was followed by additional new information in a later CDC recommendation. We use data on c...
Article
The minimum wage has increased in multiple states over the past three decades and it continues to be a controversial policy. Most prior research has examined the effect of the minimum wage on employment and wages. In this study, we examine the impact of the state minimum wage on infant health. Using data on the universe of births in the U.S. over 2...
Article
We provide the first causal evidence on whether e-cigarette advertising on television and in magazines encourages adult smokers to quit. We find the answer to be yes for TV advertising but no for magazine advertising. Our results indicate that a policy banning TV advertising of e-cigs would have reduced the number of smokers who quit in the recent...
Article
Full-text available
Despite plausible mechanisms, little research has evaluated potential changes in health behaviors in response to expansions in public insurance coverage of the 1980s and 1990s targeted at low-income families. In this paper, we provide the first national study of the effects of Medicaid expansions on health behaviors for pregnant women, which is a g...
Article
Full-text available
We use difference‐in‐differences models and individual‐level data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System from 2005 to 2015 to examine the effects of e‐cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws on youth cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Our results suggest that these laws increased youth smoki...
Article
The WHO views obesity as a significant risk to population health. Evidence suggests that obesity reduces labor-market attachment, worker productivity, and earnings. This link at the micro level may translate into adverse effects on economic growth at the macro level. Few studies have evaluated how body mass index impacts economic growth across and...
Article
Despite the significant cost of prescription (Rx) drug abuse and calls from policymakers for effective interventions, there is limited research on the effects of policies intended to limit such abuse. This study estimates the effects of prescription drug monitoring (PDMP) programs, which constitute a key policy targeting access to non‐medical use o...
Article
Full-text available
One goal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to enable entrepreneurship by increasing access to non-employer-based health insurance. We evaluate the extent to which the ACA was successful at this, providing some of the first estimates of the effect of the main provisions of the ACA on entrepreneurship. We are the first to focus specifically on old...
Article
We examine the first‐order internal effects of unemployment and nonemployment on a range of health behaviors during the most recent recession using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth‐1979. Ours is the first study to analyze the effect of own‐unemployment on energy intake, energy e...
Article
This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time to identify causal effects of maternal work incentives, and by inference employment, on youth arrests between 1988 and 2005, the period of time during which welfare reform unfolded. We consider both serious and minor crimes as cl...
Article
The public health costs of tobacco consumption have been documented to be substantially larger than those of marijuana use. This study is the first to investigate the impact of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on tobacco cigarette consumption. First, using data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we establish that MMLs induce a 2...
Article
This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time to identify causal effects of maternal work incentives, and by inference employment, on youth arrests between 1988 and 2005, the period of time during which welfare reform unfolded. We consider both serious and minor crimes as cl...
Article
We examine how the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate (DCM) affected young adults' time allocation. Exploiting more accurate measures from the American Time Use Surveys, we find that the DCM reduced labor supply. The question then arises, what have these adults done with the extra time? Estimates suggest a reduction in job-lock, as we...
Chapter
This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime among youth. Specifically, we exploit differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time in the attempt to identify causal effect...
Article
Objectives: To estimate the impact of tobacco cessation on household spending on non-tobacco goods in the USA. Methods: Using 2006-2015 Consumer Expenditure Survey data, 9130 tobacco-consuming households were followed for four quarters. Households were categorised during the fourth quarter as having: (1) recent tobacco cessation, (2) long-term c...
Article
This study investigates the effects of welfare reform in the United States in the 1990s on voting among low-income women. Using the November Current Population Surveys with the added Voting and Registration Supplement for the years 1990 through 2004 and exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time, we estimate the causal effects...
Article
Purpose: This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform across states and over time in the United States in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. Methodology: Using monthly arrest data from...
Article
Nutrition is a key input in the health production function, and a better understanding of how we eat can aid in guiding effective policy change towards better population health. This study documents prevalence rates, trends in, and potential correlates of nutrient intake for panels of countries, categorized by geographical regions and levels of dev...
Article
This study assesses whether mental health interventions can improve academic outcomes for justice-involved youth. Only a limited number of studies have linked justice policies to outcomes beyond crime, particularly education, which carries large monetary and non-monetary benefits. The current study relies on detailed administrative data and unique...
Article
Prevailing economic theory suggests an important distinction between nominal and real values. This concept of purchasing power helps explain the motivation behind basic economic decisions such as whether to invest, save, or consume. Consumers and businesses that make decisions without consideration of purchasing power are assumed to exhibit “money...
Article
Although the primary form of tobacco use worldwide is cigarette smoking, the large majority of users in India consume smokeless forms of tobacco. There is little evidence on the role of policy-related factors in shaping the demand for smokeless tobacco (ST) in India. This study evaluates the relationship between two such factors, prices and adverti...
Article
This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising...
Article
A substantial body of research has found that expansions in Medicaid eligibility increased enrollment in Medicaid, reduced the rate of uninsured, and reduced the rate of private health insurance coverage (i.e., crowd-out). Notably, no published research has examined the labor supply mechanism by which crowd-out could occur. This study examines the...
Article
Autism is a development disorder that has increased in prevalence from 0.5 to 14.7 per 1,000 children over 1970–2010. Using annual wages and provider counts from the American Community Survey and information from 21 regional development centers in California, we estimate the labor demand for auxiliary health providers. We focus on this subset of pr...
Article
This study documents prevalence rates, trends in, and determinants of body mass index (BMI), outcomes related to obesity, and proximate inputs into obesity such as caloric intake for panels of countries, categorized by geographical regions and levels of development for the time period 1980-2008. Our estimates inform the nature and scope of obesity...
Conference Paper
Spending on prescription drugs (Rx) represents one of the fastest growing components of US healthcare spending and has coincided with an expansion of pharmaceutical promotional spending. Most (83%) of Rx promotion is directed at physicians in the form of visits by pharmaceutical representatives (known as detailing) and drug samples provided to phys...
Article
This article discusses the role of advertising and promotion as determinants of health, while providing a conceptual and empirical framework through which to study the economics of advertising in markets for healthcare inputs. Implications for public health generally depend on whether advertising raises 'selective' or brand-specific demand versus '...
Chapter
This article discusses the role of consumer-directed and physician-directed promotion in the pharmaceutical market, based on the classic conceptual framework of whether such promotion is 'persuasive' and/or 'informative.' Implications for public health and welfare partly depend on whether, and to what extent, advertising: (1) raises 'selective' or...
Article
Full-text available
Spending on prescription drugs (Rx) represents one of the fastest growing components of U.S. healthcare spending, and has coincided with an expansion of pharmaceutical promotional spending. Most (83%) of Rx promotion is directed at physicians in the form of visits by pharmaceutical representatives (known as detailing) and drug samples provided to p...
Article
Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so...
Article
While the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) is low relative to smoking, the distribution of ST use is highly skewed with consumption concentrated among certain segments of the population (rural residents, males, whites, low-educated individuals). Furthermore, there is suggestive evidence that use has trended upwards recently for groups that have...
Article
We investigate the effects of broad-based work incentives on female crime by exploiting the welfare reform legislation of the 1990s, which dramatically increased employment among women at risk for relying on cash assistance. We find that welfare reform decreased female property crime arrests by 4–5%, but did not affect other types of crimes. The ef...
Article
This review discusses the role of consumer-directed and physician-directed promotion in the pharmaceutical market, based on the classic conceptual framework of whether such promotion is “persuasive” and/or “informative”. Implications for public health and welfare partly depend on whether, and to what extent, advertising: 1) raises “selective” or br...
Article
While the link between physical activity and health has been studied, there are several limitations that persist in this literature relating to external and internal validity of the estimates, potential measurement error in self-reported weight and risk factors, failure to account for physical activity beyond exercise, and failure to separate the e...
Article
Full-text available
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted or repetitive behaviors. This previously rare condition has dramatically increased in prevalence from 0.5 in 1000 children during the 1970s to 11.3 in 1000 children in 2008. Using data from the California Department of Developmental...
Article
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting...
Article
The behavioral economic model presented in this paper argues that the effect of advertising and price differ by past consumption levels. The model predicts that advertising is more effective in reducing consumption at high past consumption levels but less effective at low past consumption levels. Conversely, the model predicts that higher prices ar...
Article
Full-text available
Recent fluctuations in economic conditions around the world have triggered an academic interest in the effects of economic conditions on indicators of health. Long-run global health issues are of specific interest considering the fact that the world is at an increasing risk of health threats, such as disease outbreaks, epidemics, industrial acciden...
Article
There is suggestive evidence that rates of major depression have risen markedly in the U.S. concurrent with the rise in obesity. The economic burden of depression, about USD100 billion annually, is under-estimated if depression has a positive causal impact on obesity. However, virtually the entire existing literature on the connection between the t...
Article
Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in f...
Article
As economic expansions raise employment and wages, associated shifts in income and time constraints would be expected to also impact individuals' health. This study utilizes information from the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1990-2009) to explore the relationship between the state unemployment rate and the consumption of various he...
Article
This study examines racial, ethnic and gender differentials in physical activity. Individuals engage in physical activity during leisure-time and also during in many other activities such as walking to work, home maintenance, shopping and child care. Physical activity also occurs on the job is this is referred to as work physical activity. Prior st...
Article
Full-text available
Occupational choice is a significant input into individuals’ health investments, operating in a manner that can be either health-promoting or health-depreciating. Recent studies have highlighted the potential importance of initial occupational choice on subsequent outcomes pertaining to morbidity. This study is the first to assess the existence and...
Article
Treatment is highly cost-effective in reducing an individual's substance abuse (SA) and associated harms. However, data from Treatment Episodes (TEDS) indicate that per capita treatment admissions substantially lagged behind increases in heavy drug use from 1992 to 2007. Only 10% of individuals with clinical SA disorders receive treatment, and almo...
Article
Using data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey, this paper analyzes the effect of Medicaid eligibility expansions from 1985 to 1996 on the health insurance coverage of women giving birth. We find that the eligibility expansions reduced the proportion of pregnant women who were uninsured by approximately 10%, although the magnitude of this d...
Article
The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs on prescription drug prices and sales. Major increases in broadcast DTCA began in August 1997 when the FDA eliminated the requirement that broadcast advertising present all of the information on the product insert in the advertisement....
Article
Expenditures on prescription drugs are one of the fastest growing components of national health care spending, rising by almost three-fold between 1995 and 2007. Coinciding with this growth in prescription drug expenditures has been a rapid rise in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), made feasible by the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) clar...
Article
Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the causal effects of welfare reform on adult women’s illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are bas...
Article
We examine the extent to which infant health production functions are sensitive to model specification and measurement error. We focus on the importance of typically unobserved but theoretically important variables (typically unobserved variables, TUVs), other non-standard covariates (NSCs), input reporting, and characterization of infant health. T...
Article
Basic economic theory suggests that health insurance coverage may cause a reduction in prevention activities, but empirical studies have yet to provide much evidence to support this prediction. However, in other insurance contexts that involve adverse health events, evidence of ex ante moral hazard is more consistent. In this paper, we extend the a...
Article
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the USA. The suicide rate for individuals 15-19 years of age, while having declined since the early 1990s, has recently shown signs of an increasing trend. The prevalence of being overweight has also steadily risen among adolescents, and has tripled since 1960. This study utilizes dat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the effect of Medicaid eligibility expansions on the health insurance coverage of women giving birth and on the use of prenatal care and infant health, controlling for year and state effects and state-specific trends that may be correlated with expansions in Medicaid eligibility. We combine estimates from the two sets of analyse...
Article
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital accumulation among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, has promoted work rather than educational acquisition for this group. Exp...
Article
Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are rela...
Article
Prior studies, by relying on nationally representative surveys, have overlooked the important fact that use of addictive substances is not uniformly distributed; subgroups of hardcore users account for most of the drug consumption. This study employs the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system to analyze the demand for cocaine and heroin by urban arr...
Article
Full-text available
While numerous studies have examined how health affects retirement, few have analyzed the impact in the reverse direction. Using the Health and Retirement Study (1992–2005), this paper estimates the effects of retirement on indicators of physical and mental health. To account for biases from unobserved selection and endogeneity, panel data methodol...
Article
Though data from broad household-based surveys indicate that illicit drug use in the U.S. has been steadily declining over the past two decades, more objective indicators of drug consumption show a reverse trend. The concern is that even if casual drug use is falling, drug abuse among heavy, hardcore users, imposing the heaviest costs on society, m...
Article
Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents. The suicide rate for individuals 15-19 years of age in 2003, while having recently declined, still remains more than twice that in 1960. At the same time, the prevalence of being overweight has also steadily risen among adolescents, and has tripled since 1960. This study utilizes data fro...
Article
We estimate the effect of illicit drug use during pregnancy on two measures of poor infant health: low birth weight and abnormal infant health conditions. We use data from a national longitudinal study of urban parents that includes postpartum interviews with mothers, hospital medical record data on the mothers and their newborns, and information a...
Article
This study explores the ways in which information about other individual's action affects one's own behavior in a dictator game. The experimental design discriminates behaviorally between three possible effects of recipient's within-game reputation on the dictator's decision: Reputation causing indirect reciprocity, social influence, and identifica...
Article
This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented w...
Article
While numerous studies have examined how health affects retirement behavior, few have analyzed the impact of retirement on subsequent health outcomes. This study estimates the effects of retirement on health status as measured by indicators of physical and functional limitations, illness conditions, and depression. The empirics are based on seven l...
Article
This paper estimates the empirical relationship between cocaine and heroin prices and drug-related hospital ED admissions for 21 U.S. cities. These outcomes bypass some of the problems with self-reports and directly measure a component of healthcare costs associated with heavy drug usage. The price elasticity of the probability of a cocaine and her...
Article
We examine the extent to which infant health production functions are sensitive to model specification and measurement error. We focus on the importance of typically unobserved but theoretically important variables (TUVs), other non-standard covariates (NSCs), input reporting, and characterization of infant health. The TUVs represent wantedness, ta...