Dharm Bhawuk

Dharm Bhawuk
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | UH Manoa · Department of Management and Industrial Relations

PhD

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78
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Introduction
Dharm Bhawuk currently works at the Department of Management and Industrial Relations, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Dharm does research in Applied Psychology, Behavioural Science and Community Psychology. He is working on indigenous constructs (lajjA, lokasaMgraha, adhyAtma, zraddhA, manas, buddhi, Indian concept of self, spirituality-based theory of creativity) from India and has developed multiple methods that can be employed for doing research in the area of Indian Psychology.

Publications

Publications (78)
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In this concluding chapter, we reflect upon all the chapters and identify what is distinctive about Indian management. We also identify significant themes like spirituality that pervades indigenous Indian management. We propose ideas for the development of new concepts and constructs. We recognize the need for enhancing the methodological repertoir...
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A historical reflection shows that industrial revolutions have come at much human cost globally since what ought to be done and what ought not to be done have both been often neglected, and 4IR may not be an exception. Democratic deficit and speed of communication combined with global interconnectivity pose threats to human society with the dawn of...
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Employing one of the established theories from cross-cultural psychology and sociology, first it is shown that both China and India are collectivist cultures. Then the Chinese and Indian worldviews are compared to highlight fundamental similarities between the two cultures. Finally, it is shown how self-cultivation is emphasised in both China and I...
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Presents an obituary for Harry C. Triandis (1926 -2019). Harry Charalambos Triandis, universally acknowledged as the father of cross-cultural social psychology as well as a leader of industrial/organizational and attitude research, passed away at his retirement home in Carlsbad, California, on June 1, 2019, in his 93rd year. Harry's academic career...
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Examining the concept of epistemic violence and its two antecedents, three strategies—developing Indigenous constructs and theories, going beyond the search for universals, and eliminating structural causes of violence—are proposed to generate dialogue between researchers for epistemic harmony.
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In this article, the construct of śraddhā which is derived from a sacred Hindu text, the Bhagavad-Gītā is explicated. The analysis of text resulted in nine themes, and many behavioural outcomes of śraddhā such as not finding faults in others. Jñāna or knowledge is seen as mediating between śraddhā and mokṣa or liberation. This relationship is moder...
Conference Paper
In this symposium each panelist will explore how they find meaning in their work and, in doing so, play a part in making their organizations meaningful. Given the essence of meaning is connection and is inherently spiritual as it is a nonphysical reality (Baumeister, Submission number: TBA 4 2002), we believe it fruitful to examine how people sati...
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In this chapter, the essential characteristic of the indigenous concept of adhyAtma or spirituality is derived from the bhagavadgItA. It emerges that adhyAtma is an inward-looking process of self-discovery, which is closely related to other constructs like brahman, adhibhUta, adhidaiva, adhiyajJa, and karma. Following this, ideas relevant to the pr...
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lajjA is a personal virtue to be cultivated, not a social sanction to be avoided, to lead a noble life. It guides us in life by (1) prescribing what we ought to do and (2) proscribing what we ought not do. It is cultivated through cultural socialization process from early childhood, but as young adults we make choices that leads to further learning...
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Research in creativity has hitherto neglected the contribution of indigenous cultures, and especially the relationship between spirituality and creativity. In this chapter, I present a spirituality-based theory of creativity by synthesizing theories from the microworld or academic world of theory using the wisdom of upaniSads, the repository of Ind...
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Western models and constructs have dominated research in leadership. Cross-cultural research in leadership has questioned the validity of western models, but because of its focus on etics or universals, it has not provided much insight to managers in non-western cultures. We need to develop indigenous models of leadership that can provide insights...
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This article reviews the theoretical foundations of Height Psychology, which proposes that researchers not only do research but act on their ideas to make the world a better place. It is posited that researchers should be passionate humanist whose thoughts propel actions and whose actions propel new thoughts, and they should be engaged change agent...
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The concept of lajjA is developed by (i) examining dictionary meanings, synonyms, and antonyms of the word in sanskrit and hindi, and (ii) analyzing its usage in two popular scriptural texts, the bhagavadgItA and drugA saptazatI. Following this, its use in literature is examined in kAmAyanI, a modern hindi mahAkAvya or epic. Further, the use of laj...
Chapter
This case study captures some of the career issues facing women and members of minority groups in US society. The story is of a high achieving minority woman manager and the way her career advanced and then declined, leading her finally to leave her employment after investing 7 years in the organization. The views are presented of the senior manage...
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Bhawuk discusses the general state of peace existent in India and details the contributory cultural factors. Recognition of over two thousand represented ethnic groups, hundreds of languages, and diverse religions practiced reveals a unique continuing tradition of harmony. Proposed mechanisms of the conceptual framework termed General and Complete...
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As was noted in Chapter 3, what we study and how we study the problem is influenced to a substantial degree by our cultural values. It was shown in Chapter 2 that cultural values and beliefs direct the geniuses in a culture to the behavioral domain that is valued and that the Indian culture values spirituality. It is no surprise that the classical...
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Psychologists have argued about the primacy of cognition and emotion for decades without any resolution. Deriving ideas from the bhagavadgItA, in this chapter, cognition, emotion, and behavior are examined by anchoring them in desire. The model presented here posits that cognition, emotion, and behavior derive significance when examined in the cont...
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Industrial and organizational psychology is one of the branches of psychology that is dedicated to the study of work and work-related psychological variables. Other areas of psychology that also cover work-related issues include human factor studies, occupational psychology, and social psychology. Work is also central to human identity, a topic tha...
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Watson (1913) noted that “Psychology, as the behaviorist views it, is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science, which needs introspection as little as do the sciences of chemistry and physics. It is granted that the behavior of animals can be investigated without appeal to consciousness. …The position is taken here that the behavi...
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The increasing general stress level in both the industrialized and developing worlds has made personal harmony and peace a survival issue for the global community. To serve this need, models of how personal harmony can be achieved are derived from the bhagavadgItA. It is hoped that insights provided by these models would serve practitioners and cli...
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Comparing Western and Indian knowledge, Rolland (1960, p. 91) described Western knowledge as the “science of facts” and spirituality as “the science of the soul, a peculiarly Indian science.” A major difference between philosophy and spirituality, or for that matter religion and spirituality, is that spirituality, as practiced in India, has an acti...
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Worldview is shaped by culture, and worldview directs the choice of conceptual models, research questions, and what we do professionally as a social scientist. This chapter examines the Indian culture vis-à-vis the culture of science. First the thesis that science has a culture is laid out by recognizing the defining attributes of science. Then the...
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Our global village is fast changing with astronomical growth in virtual communication and physical movement of millions of people for leisure as well as work. The shrinking of the globe calls for a better understanding of each other, and we can do this by learning how each of us operates in our unique cultural space. In this chapter, I present thre...
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As ecology and history shape culture, any discussion of the roots and practice of a discipline like psychology needs to be couched in the historical context since the present emerges from the interaction between the past and the zeitgeist (Bhawuk, 2003a, 2010; Liu, in press; Liu & Hilton, 2005; Triandis, 1994). It is important to do so as this woul...
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I noted in the introduction to this book how Triandis was frustrated in trying to collect ideas that did not fit the Western mold, and Terry Prothro pointed out to him that researchers’ conceptual and methodological tools are culture bound, and how Western-educated scholars find it difficult to examine their culture from indigenous perspectives (Tr...
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The concept of self has been studied from multiple perspectives in India. A review of the study of self in India reveals that indeed the core of Indian self is metaphysical, and it has been the focus of study by philosophers as well as psychologists. There is general agreement that the metaphysical self, Atman, is the real self. This metaphysical s...
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Building on the Indian Psychological literature, this article presents a methodology of how to construct models from scriptures. Four approaches to model building are proposed by presenting examples. First, models exist in the scriptures, and they need to be discovered and polished to fit with the relevant literature. Second, a content analysis of...
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As ecology and history shape culture, any discussion of the roots and practice of a discipline like psychology needs to be couched in the historical context since the present emerges from the interaction between the past and the zeitgeist (Bhawuk, 2003a, 2010; Liu, in press; Liu & Hilton, 2005; Triandis, 1994). It is important to do so as this woul...
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Living in a multicultural society like the United States leads to sampling a range of experiences that vary from being extremely delightful to excessively stressful, with many types of experiences in between. I present cases of positive experiences of immigrants that provide positive feelings of freedom, equality, fairness and due process. I also d...
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In this article we argue that the problem-solving paradigm of engineering is limiting and therefore not suitable for social change. Social change requires more than rules, legislations, and procedures. It requires nurturing and building people so that they can transform communities, and thus not simply solve or navigate problems but go on to uproot...
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As the discipline of intercultural training has matured, modules and programs are increasingly being grounded in theory. This chapter attempts to further develop intercultural training by introducing a theoretical framework that is grounded in economy-based differences between countries, an area that has been hitherto neglected. The framework captu...
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Intercultural training modules and programs need to be grounded in theory, and this paper presents a theoretical framework that is grounded in economy-based differences between countries, an area that has been hitherto neglected. The framework captures ten key economy-based differences that can help orient business people to differences beyond cult...
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This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respond-ents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164...
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U.S. military missions often require that our troops work effectively with people from different cultures. To do this requires, at all levels of our force structure, an appreciation of the intricacies of societal and tribal cultures and the complexity of human-to-human interactions. This report describes the concept for a culture-general training s...
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This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respondents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164)...
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Health-care managers are increasingly interested in client perceptions of clinic service quality and satisfaction. While tremendous progress has occurred, additional perspectives on the conceptualization, modeling and measurement of these constructs may further assist health-care managers seeking to provide high-quality care. To that end, this stud...
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The constructs of individualism and collectivism have been used in the social sciences from the beginning of research. However, the constructs gained popularity in the 1980s, and they continue to draw the attention of social scientists in all disciplines even today. A theoretical framework using the independent and interdependent concepts of selves...
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In this paper, I posit that people strive to excel in areas that are compatible with their cultural values. Since spirituality is valued in the Indian culture, it is argued that creative geniuses are readily channeled in this field of human endeavor. A historical analysis followed by a case-analytic approach using three cases is applied to examine...
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Technology transfer is a significant effort of the federal government and the intent of this effort is to transfer technologies developed in federal laboratories to the private sector for commercial use. The Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer is a clearinghouse for technologies developed through federal research laboratories. In...
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Foreign aid plays a critical role in the increasingly interdependent global economy, but research on foreign aid project negotiation has received little attention. It is posited that the successful implementation of foreign aid projects requires managing the negotiation process as much as technical matters like technology and international finance....
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A review of cross-cultural literature shows that culture assimilators have emerged as the most researched method of cross-cultural training, and that the theory of individualism and collectivism has begun to find many applications. Since researchers have generally disregarded the inclusion of culture theories in assimilators, and theories are value...
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Dans cet article, nous suivons l’e´volution des concepts qui font partie de la litte´rature de ces 50 dernie`res anne´es sur la formation trans-culturelle en passant en revue quelques e´tudes qui ont fait date. Apre`s avoir de´battu des recherches et pratiques au fil des de´cennies, nous poursuivons en identifiant les grands courrants de recherche...
Article
Despite agreement on the importance of satisfaction processes to the adoption and maintenance of pro-social behaviors (Andreasen, 1995), social marketing theory in this area is limited. This paper proposes a model that integrates mainstream and social marketing theories in order to better understand how increasing knowledge within the "maintenance...
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In a multimethod evaluation of cross-cultural training tools, a theory-based individualism and collectivism assimilator (ICA), compared to a culture-specific assimilator for Japan, a culture-general assimilator for sensitizing people to cultural differences, and a control group, was found to have significant effects on a number of criterion measure...
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Researchers have generally disregarded the inclusion of culture theories in assimilator. Since theories are valued for both their explanatory and predictive functions, a culture assimilator based on the theory of individualism and collectivism was developed and validated using samples from Nepal and the United States.
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The central research question examined in this study focused on whether diverse groups react differently. to politics in the workplace as a function of understanding. Understanding moderated the relationships between dimensions of politics perceptions and employee reactions for white males but not for racial/ethnic minorities, as hypothesized. The...
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Collectivism and individualism are cultural syndromes that have some common cores. Allocentrism and idiocentrism are constructs at the individual level that correspond to collectivism and individualism respectively at the cultural level. In two studies, the first with American (from Illinois) and the second with Japanese subjects, we examined the b...
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In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the selfas a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a...
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The authors discuss the most overarching of culture theories, namely the theory of individualism and collectivism, and describe its relationship to other theories, especially to A. P. Fiske's 4 kinds of sociality (1990, 1992) and to M. Rokeach's typology of values and political systems (1973). The authors then discuss how an understanding of this c...
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Intercultural sensitivity is a concept that is frequently viewed as important in both theoretical analyses of people's adjustment to other cultures and in applied programs to prepare people to live and work effectively in cultures other than their own. Attempts to measure this concept have not always been successful, and one reason is that research...
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In this chapter we will offer different perspectives in trying to understand the rules of behaviors between people from different cultures. The first perspective, Individualism-collectivism allows us to better understand why some people prefer to be closely associated with groups while others prefer to be on their own. Social categorization theory,...
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Printout. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1995. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 133-148).

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As a collaboration of various researchers and practitioners from all over the world, we study and research SHAME from different interdisciplinary and intercultural perspectives. Thereby we do look at shame and its impact as well as on its transformational force to become and be a health resource for individuals, organisations and societies. During the past years, we have focused on the value of shame, its bright side and its meaning for the individual, for organisations and societies. We have focused on culture-specific views on shame, as well as on interdisciplinary and intercultural perspectives and we have developed practical applications how to deal with shame in a positive and constructive way. At the moment we focus on shame within cultures of Industry 4.0.