Detlef Obal

Detlef Obal
Stanford University | SU · Department of Anesthesia/ Cardiovascular Institute

33.52
 · 
MD, PhD, DESA

About

55
Publications
3,075
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,327
Citations
Introduction
Detlef Obal currently works at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Louisville. Detlef does research in Developmental Biology, Cell Biology and Clinical Trials. Their current project is 'SDF and CXCR4'.
Research Experience
September 2018 - June 2020
Stanford University
Position
  • Assistant Professor
Description
  • Primary working on iPSC to develop new strategies to counteract global opioid crisis.
August 2009 - present
Institute of Molecular Cardiology University of Louisville
Position
  • SDF1 and cardiac regeneration
January 2006 - August 2018
University of Louisville
Position
  • Assistant Professor
Description
  • Assistant Professor in Anesthesiology/ Perioperative Medicine
Education
August 2008 - May 2014
University of Louisville
Field of study
  • Physiology and Biophysics
March 2006
University of Louisville
Field of study
  • Molecular Cardiology, Outcomes Research
May 2004 - February 2006
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
Field of study
  • Anesthesiology

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology may provide unprecedented opportunities to study patient‐specific responses to anaesthetics and opioids. In this review, we will 1) examine the advantages and limitations of iPSC technology, 2) summarize studies using iPSCs that have contributed to our current understanding of...
Article
Massive blood loss secondary to major trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. In recent years, multiple different strategies have evolved to counteract this life-threatening condition. In this review, we will review our understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy and summarize current clinical transfusion regimes utilized in military and civ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with complex pathophysiological changes characterized by pH imbalance, the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products acrolein and 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal, and the depletion of ATP levels. Cardioprotective interventions, designed to address individual mediators of I/R injury,...
Article
Perioperative medicine is changing from a "protocol-based" approach to a progressively personalized care model. New molecular techniques and comprehensive perioperative medical records allow for detection of patient-specific phenotypes that may better explain, or even predict, a patient's response to perioperative stress and anesthetic care. Basic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Globally, >300 million patients have surgery annually, and ≤20% experience adverse postoperative events. We studied the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac adverse events on 1-year disability-free survival after noncardiac surgery. Methods: We used the study cohort from the Evaluation of Nitrous oxide in Gas Mixture of Anesthesia (...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exercise promotes metabolic remodeling in the heart, which is associated with physiological cardiac growth; however, it is not known whether or how physical activity-induced changes in cardiac metabolism cause myocardial remodeling. In this study, we tested whether exercise-mediated changes in cardiomyocyte glucose metabolism are impor...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) may increase morbidity and mortality, and patients having massive transfusion might be especially susceptible. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prolonged storage increases mortality in patients receiving massive transfusion after trauma or nontrauma surgery. Secondarily, we consi...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Cardiomyocyte specific conditional overexpression of SDF1 prevents heart failure after permanent coronary ligation, facilitates cardiac regeneration and leads to increased casein kinase 1alpha(CK1α) expression. Hypothesis: CK1α is a key element modulating cardiomyocyte regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results:...
Article
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. However, the contribution of aldehydes to myocardial I/R injury has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that removal of aldehydes by glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) dimi...
Thesis
Full-text available
Obal, Detlef Ernst-Rudolf, "Myocyte-specific overexpression of stromal cell-derived Factor 1 facilitates cardiac regeneration and improves myocardial function after infarction in mice." (2014). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1076.
Article
Full-text available
Objective To test the primary hypothesis that ondansetron or dolasetron extends the rate-corrected QT electrocardiographic interval (QTc) greater than 60 milliseconds or increases the fraction of patients with QTc greater than 500 milliseconds in patients having noncardiac surgery, and the secondary hypothesis that QTc prolongation is worse in diab...
Article
Full-text available
ecSOD function has prototypically been associated with the extracellular space due to its secretion and localization to the extracellular matrix. A myocyte-specific ecSOD transgenic mouse has shown that it can also be localized to the myocyte intracellular compartment and is capable of attenuating Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and increas...
Article
Full-text available
Increased levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) induced by preconditioning or gene therapy protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this action, we studied the effects of increased superoxide scavenging on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in a cardiac myocyte-specific ecSOD trans...
Data
1. EcSOD protein expression in isolated cardiomyocytes and whole heart from WT and ecSOD Tg mice detected by Western analysis (panel A); Representative Western-blots and quantitative analysis of eNOS expression in whole heart from WT and ecSOD Tg mice detected by Western analysis (n = 3, panel B). iNOS expression in whole heart from WT and ecSOD Tg...
Article
Full-text available
Nerve stimulation and ultrasound have been introduced to the practice of regional anesthesia mostly in the last two decades. Ultrasound did not gain as much popularity as the nerve stimulation until a decade ago because of the simplicity, accuracy and portability of the nerve stimulator. Ultrasound is now available in most academic centers practi...
Article
Full-text available
R egional anesthesia has traditionally been performed with the help of a single modality, which has depended on the availability of technology at the time of performance of these blocks. The transitions from pares-thesia-guided to nerve stimulation to ultrasound-guided nerve blocks have helped advance regional anesthesia as a science rather than an...
Article
Adenosine is a soporific neuromodulator; aminophylline, which is clinically used as a bronchodilator, antagonizes the action of adenosine in the central nervous system. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that aminophylline delays loss of consciousness (LOC) and speeds recovery of consciousness (ROC) with propofol anesthesia, and that aminophylline incr...
Article
Full-text available
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an obligatory mediator of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning, but the mechanisms of its cardioprotective actions are unknown. In addition, it remains unclear whether sustained elevation of iNOS in myocytes provides chronic protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Constitutive overexpression o...
Article
Full-text available
'Anaesthetic post-conditioning', that is administration of anaesthetics during early reperfusion, is known to have positive effects on several organs. For the kidney, however, the effects of post-conditioning by volatile anaesthetics are not well researched. We examined renal function and morphology after post-conditioning by desflurane. Anaestheti...
Article
Full-text available
Frequency potentiation is the increase in force of contraction induced by an increased heart rate (HR). This positive staircase phenomenon has been attributed to changes in Ca2+ entry and loading of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Volatile anesthetics interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that frequency potentiation is alter...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the protective effect of anaesthetic and ischaemic preconditioning has been described for several organs, it is uncertain whether this mechanism is also effective in the kidney. We compared the effect of preconditioning with sevoflurane and preconditioning with short episodes of ischaemia on renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the rat in...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile anesthetics induce myocardial preconditioning and can also protect the heart when given at the onset of reperfusion-a practice recently termed "postconditioning." We investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP (mKATP)-channels in sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection for both preconditioning and postconditioning alone and whether there is a...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Delta1-opioid receptor agonists can induce cardioprotection by early and late preconditioning (LPC). Morphine (MO) is commonly used for pain treatment during acute coronary syndromes. We investigated whether MO can induce myocardial protection by LPC and whether a nuclear transcription factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent intracellular...
Article
Salt-water aspiration results in pulmonary oedema and hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that partial liquid ventilation has beneficial effects on gas exchange and rate of survival in acute and extended salt water-induced lung injury. Anaesthetized, ventilated rats (tidal volume 6 mL kg(-1), PEEP 5 cmH2O) received a tracheal salt-water instillation...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing numbers of elderly patients with severe co-existing medical diseases undergo major surgery. With these patients there is also an accompanying risk of age-related cardiovascular complications such as life-threatening myocardial ischaemia. We present a patient who suffered a myocardial infarction after a hemicolectomy and suffered a cardia...
Article
Full-text available
Xenon is an anesthetic with minimal hemodynamic side effects, making it an ideal agent for cardiocompromised patients. We investigated if xenon induces pharmacological preconditioning (PC) of the rat heart and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. For infarct size measurements, anesthetized rats were subjected to 25 min of coronary artery...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile anaesthetics precondition the heart against infarction, an effect partly mediated by activation of the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCepsilon). We investigated whether cardioprotection by activation of PKCepsilon depends on the isoflurane concentration. Anaesthetized rats underwent 25 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 1...
Article
Full-text available
Activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKC-epsilon) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are important for cardioprotection by preconditioning. The present study investigated the time dependency of PKC-epsilon and ERK1/2 activation during desflurane-induced preconditioning in the rat heart. Anesthetized rats were subjected to...
Article
Partial liquid ventilation can improve respiratory functions in acid-induced lung injury. We studied the effects of the interval between induction of injury and initiation of partial liquid ventilation on survival, gas exchange, and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation. Anesthetized rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups ( n = 6 per group)....
Article
The effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on the failing myocardium are still uncertain. We investigated the effects of different concentrations of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane in dogs with pacing induced chronic heart failure. Global (left ventricular pressure, left ventricular dP/dt, Konigsbergtransducer) and regional myocardial function...
Article
Full-text available
Lidocaine is frequently used as an agent to treat ventricular arrhythmias associated with acute myocardial ischaemia. Lidocaine is a potent blocker not only of sodium channels, but also of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. The opening of these channels is a key mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning. We investigated the hypothesis that lidocaine bl...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on lung injury and its treatment options are often performed on small animals like rats. Because conventional blood gas analyses may not detect rapid changes in gas exchange during respiratory distress syndrome and intermittent blood withdrawal can result in hypo-volaemia and anaemia, we tested the applicability and accuracy of a continuous...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile anesthetics can protect the heart against reperfusion injury. When sevoflurane is given for the first 15 min of reperfusion, a concentration corresponding to one minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) provides a maximum protective effect. The present study addresses the question of how long sevoflurane has to be administered to achieve the b...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile anaesthetics protect the heart against reperfusion injury. We investigated whether the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane against myocardial reperfusion injury was concentration‐dependent. Fifty‐eight α‐chloralose anaesthetized rats were subjected to 25 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 90 min of reperfusion. Sevoflurane wa...
Article
This study investigated the effects of left stellate ganglion block (LSGB) in chronically instrumented awake dogs before and after the induction of pacing-induced congestive heart failure. Twelve dogs were instrumented for measurement of global hemodynamics (LV pressure [LVP]), its first derivative, cardiac output (CO), and regional myocardial func...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the non-peptide angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist irbesartan (SR 47436, BMS 186295, 2-n-butyl-3 [2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]-1,3-diaza-spiro [4,4]non-1-en-4-one) has myocardial protective effects during regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. Eighteen an...
Article
Left stellate ganglion block (LSGB) results in acute sympathetic denervation of the left ventricular (LV) posterobasal wall. We investigated the effects of LSGB in chronically instrumented awake dogs before and after the induction of pacing-induced congestive heart failure. Twelve dogs were instrumented for measurement of global hemodynamics [LV pr...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that volatile anaesthetics protect myocardial tissue against ischaemic and reperfusion injury in vitro. In this investigation, we have determined the effects of the inhalation anaesthetics, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane, administered only during early reperfusion, on myocardial reperfusion injury in vivo. Fifty chlor...
Article
A prolongation of the intracellular acidosis after myocardial ischemia can protect the myocardium against reperfusion injury. In isolated hearts, this was achieved by prolongation of the extracellular acidosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regional reperfusion with acidotic blood after coronary artery occlusion can reduce infarc...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to having anti-ischaemic effects, halothane can protect isolated rat hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes against reperfusion injury of the "oxygen paradox" type. The aim of this study was to investigate if halothane can also protect against myocardial reperfusion injury in vivo. Twenty-two rabbits anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose unde...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Using iPSC technology to optimize perioperative outcome and to personalize patients care. I am focusing on the effect of opioids and hypnotics on cardiovascular development, endothelial, and cardiac function.
Project
Role of TRPA1 on perioperative hypotension