Derek D Reed

Derek D Reed
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Applied Behavioral Science

PhD

About

204
Publications
81,307
Reads
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3,028
Citations
Introduction
My interests lie in the translation of basic operant principles and research to issues of societal importance. Specifically, I apply behavioral economic principles to understand and influence sustainable decisions and health related behaviors.
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - present
University of Kansas
Position
  • Professor (Associate), Director of Applied Behavioral Economics Laboratory
August 2007 - August 2008
May Institute
Position
  • Pre-Doctoral Intern (Clinical Psychology)
August 2004 - August 2008
Syracuse University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (204)
Article
Full-text available
Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identif...
Article
Although humans do not always respond rationally, decades of behavioral economic research have brought order to these irrational patterns of responding, particularly in individuals whose maladaptive behavior and the neurobiological dysregulation that presumably undergirds it directly impact their health (drug addiction and obesity). These findings...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in behavioral economic research methodology have generated novel insights into public policy considerations regarding substance use and addiction. A major advancement toward this end was the development of hypothetical purchase tasks (HPTs) that permit modeling of consumption and demand without the need for actual purchases and lengthy hum...
Article
Many everyday choices are associated with both delayed and probabilistic outcomes. The temporal attention hypothesis suggests that individuals’ decision making can be improved by focusing attention on temporally distal events and implies that environmental manipulations that bring temporally distal outcomes into focus may alter an individual’s degr...
Article
The Ideal Free Distribution suggests the relative allocation of the number of organisms foraging across two or more resource sites will match the relative density of reinforcement patches in those resource sites. This initial project sought to develop a new method of foraging research for dogs by using a commercially available treat dispenser in ba...
Article
Crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk, Prolific, and Qualtrics Panels have become a dominant form of sampling in recent years. Crowdsourcing enables researchers to effectively and efficiently sample research participants with greater geographic variability, access to hard-to-reach populations, and reduced costs. These methods have...
Article
Objective: In the context of behavioral economics, drug use is a choice to which an individual may allocate responding despite the presence of alternative response possibilities. To examine the demand for a drug in an environment in which other drugs or nondrug alternatives are present, researchers often use a cross-commodity purchase task. These...
Article
Behavioral economics is an approach to understanding behavior though integrating behavioral psychology and microeconomic principles. Advances in behavioral economics have resulted in quick-to-administer tasks to assess discounting (i.e., decrements in the subjective value of a commodity due to delayed or probabilistic receipt) and demand (i.e., eff...
Article
Full-text available
Operant behavioral economic methods are increasingly used in basic research on the efficacy of reinforcers as well as in large-scale applied research (e.g., evaluation of empirical public policy). Various methods and strategies have been put forward to assist discounting researchers in conducting large-scale research and detecting irregular respons...
Article
Full-text available
The role of human behavior to thwart transmission of infectious diseases like COVID-19 is evident. Psychological and behavioral science are key areas to understand decision-making processes underlying engagement in preventive health behaviors. Here we adapt well validated methods from behavioral economic discounting and demand frameworks to evaluat...
Article
Behavioral economics offers unique tools for assessing value and motivation associated with college drinking. Tasks that model changes in consumption as a function of price (operant demand) or the decline in an outcome’s subjective value as a function of time-to-occurrence (delay discounting) provide valuable information that may efficiently supple...
Article
Recentemente, a economia comportamental tem ganhado bastante atenção na psicologia e nas políticas públicas. Apesar do aumento do interesse e a condução de estudos básicos experimentais, a aplicação da economia comportamental em ambientes terapêuticos ainda é esparsa. Usando exemplos de estudos básicos e aplicados, nós apresentamos uma visão geral...
Article
Background: Delay discounting assessments typically involve choices between an immediate outcome and a larger amount of the same outcome after a delay. Real-world choices, however, more often involve qualitatively different alternatives. The primary aim of this study was to examine single- and cross-commodity discounting of money, alcohol, and cann...
Article
Condom use substantially reduces unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. While condom availability is a significant public health priority, effects of condom availability constraints remain relatively under‐researched. The limited research on condom availability suggests two major barriers to use: (1) effort/costs and (2) delay to...
Article
The world is now believed to be operating in a no-analogue state, exceeding the norms of any point in documented history. Substantial disturbance of our natural environmental systems threatens life on Earth. Innovation and change are critical. Social science has historically played a vital role in amassing a body of knowledge implicating potential...
Preprint
A large proportion of individuals who use psychoactive substances regularly use more than one substance. This pattern of behavior, termed polysubstance use, is associated with greater risks than when consuming only single substance. The present study examined delay discounting, neurocognitive functioning, and demographic indicators among a large, r...
Article
A large proportion of individuals who use psychoactive substances regularly use more than one substance. This pattern of behavior, termed polysubstance use, is associated with greater risks than when consuming only a single substance. The present study examined delay discounting, neurocognitive functioning, and demographic indicators among a large,...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary approaches for evaluating the demand for reinforcers use either the Exponential or the Exponentiated model of operant demand, both derived from the framework of Hursh and Silberberg (2008). This report summarizes the strengths and complications of this framework and proposes a novel implementation. This novel implementation incorporate...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role of human behavior to thwart transmission of infectious diseases like COVID-19 is evident. Yet, many areas of psychological and behavioral science are limited in the ability to mobilize to address exponential spread or provide easily translatable findings for policymakers. Here we describe how integrating methods from operant and cognitive...
Chapter
In the years ahead, humans will face unprecedented challenges in the realm of sustainable living. Viable solutions will be necessarily technological—advancements in engineering and electronics will be fundamental to a reduced carbon footprint—and behavioral, as neither solution is alone adequate to yield change on a scale necessary to curb the runa...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of public perceptions of vaccine safety and efficacy on intent to seek COVID-19 vaccination using hypothetical vaccine acceptance scenarios. The behavioral economic methodology could be used to inform future public health vaccination campaigns designed to influence public perceptions and improve publi...
Article
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The reinforcer pathologies model of addiction posits that two characteristic patterns of operant behavior characterize addiction. Specifically, individuals suffering from addiction have elevated levels of behavioral economic demand for their substances of abuse and have an elevated tendency to devalue delayed rewards (reflected in high delay discou...
Article
Factors influencing drug consumption can be effectively evaluated in the context of behavioral economic demand. Specifically, hypothetical purchase tasks (HPTs) allow for estimated drug consumption at a range of prices in which drug administration is not ethically or feasibly possible. With the marked increase of HPTs in behavioral research, unders...
Article
We examined whether elucidating underpinning smoking motivation and related pharmacological processes enhances understanding of nicotine dependence among smokers from vulnerable populations. Data were obtained between Oct, 2016 and Sept, 2019 from 745 adult smokers with co-morbid psychiatric conditions or socioeconomic disadvantage at University of...
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that the hypothetical Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), especially its demand Intensity index (i.e., estimated cigarettes participants would smoke if free), is associated with individual differences in smoking risk. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the extent to which hypothetical CPT demand Intensity may differ f...
Article
Full-text available
This brief report provides an account of varying interpretations of elasticity (η) in the operant demand framework. General references to “demand elasticity” have existed since the Exponential model of operant demand was proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008). This term has been used interchangeably with Essential Value (EV), PMAX, and the rate of...
Article
Background While using most drugs of abuse is associated with higher than control rates of delay discounting, cannabis use may be the exception. As such, between-commodity differences in delay discounting (i.e., money vs. cannabis) have not been thoroughly examined. We examined these between-commodity differences using modern analytic techniques to...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy drinking among college students is a public health concern in part due to the accessibility of alcohol and promotions such as “happy hours,” which discount the price of alcohol. In addition, consuming alcohol at unregulated off-campus parties may result in greater alcohol consumption, higher blood alcohol concentrations, and increased negativ...
Article
The reinforcer pathologies model proposes two behavioral economic constructs interact in addiction: operant demand and delay discounting. These constructs manifest as behavioral markers of addiction in the form of excessive reinforcer value and strong preference for immediate access and consumption of this reinforcer despite suboptimal long-term ou...
Chapter
Impulsivity is associated with a host of short‐ and long‐term setbacks in the developmental trajectory. Individuals exhibiting impulsivity—the relative preference for smaller sooner reinforcers over larger delayed reinforcers—are more likely to be less educated, to be prone to addiction and other risky health decisions, and to exhibit higher body m...
Data
These data represent a working attempt to summarize the contributions of behavior analysis to the sustainability movement. The following is a list of all empirical literature focused on sustainable living, as published by primarily behavior analytic journals (i.e., to determine the contributions of behavior analysis only). We've flagged and coded f...
Article
Full-text available
The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a behavioral economic method for assessing demand for cigarettes. Growing interest in behavioral correlates of tobacco use in clinical and general populations as well as empirical efforts to inform policy has seen an increase in published articles employing the CPT. Accordingly, an examination of the published m...
Article
Underage drinking is a significant public health concern, specifically among college students. The availability of fake IDs increases risks of college binge drinking as well as sexual victimization, providing a call for research on behavioral correlates. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine how much money an underage college sampl...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes a wide range of symptoms, which, if left untreated, worsen over time. Despite the availability of effective medications, however, many MS patients fail to take their medications. One possibility is that these patients fail to follow through on treatment recommendations because they...
Article
Importance Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsive preferences for smaller-immediate or larger-delayed rewards that is argued to be a transdiagnostic process across health conditions. Studies suggest some psychiatric disorders are associated with differences in discounting compared with controls, but null findings have also be...
Article
Tornadoes are atmospheric events capable of massive devastation, involving physical destruction and human casualties. Following the 2011 Joplin, MO tornado that claimed the lives of nearly 160 people, the National Weather Service and National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that better warning systems would have saved lives. This co...
Article
Hypothetical Purchase Tasks (HPTs) simulate demand for a substance as a function of escalating price. HPTs are increasingly used to examine relationships between substance-related correlates and outcomes and demand typically characterized using a common battery of indices (Intensity, Omax, Pmax, Breakpoint, Elasticity). This review examines the rel...
Article
The present experiments assessed the extent to which mobile electronic and print media interact with operant demand and delay of gratification in preschool children. Participants were six boys recruited from a university-operated preschool. In Phase 1, participants allocated responses to buttons providing access to either a print book at a fixed-pr...
Article
Composting systems are poised to make a significant impact on waste-management strategies and greatly contribute to global sustainability efforts. However, risk of contamination by potentially detrimental compounds must be overcome before these systems can be widely adopted. Behavior analytic approaches to waste disposal adherence have consisted of...
Article
Behavioral economic measures have demonstrated marked success in the evaluation of consumer choice. Field-standard operant demand curve analyses provide a valuable model of resource allocation via responses to maintain "free-rate" commodity use or consumption. This demand analysis thereby provides a behavioral complement to consumer science techniq...
Article
Full-text available
Research applying the behavioral economic demand framework is increasingly conducted across disciplines, as is research on improving the mathematical accuracy of demand metrics. At present, a variety of methods have been introduced to solve for the point of unit elasticity, or PMAX, in the Exponential model of demand; however, most of these methods...
Article
Background: Nicotine is the addictive component in cigarettes that maintain cigarette smoking that subsequently leads to morbidity and mortality. Methods for assessing the abuse liability of cigarettes are essential to inform new tobacco product standards. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of one subjective effects measure, the modifie...
Article
Full-text available
Two common behavioral economic simulation tasks used to study cigarette smoking are the Cigarette Purchase Task, a measure of cigarette demand, and delay discounting, a measure of the subjective value of rewards as a function of delays to delivery. Few studies have evaluated whether combining these tasks enhances understanding of smoking beyond eit...
Article
Full-text available
Published in Perspectives on Behavior Science. beezdemand: Behavioral Economic Easy Demand, a novel R package for performing behavioral economic analyses, is introduced and evaluated. beezdemand extends the R statistical program to facilitate many of the analyses performed in studies of behavioral economic demand. The package supports commonly used...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Patients weigh risks and benefits when making treatment decisions. Despite this, relatively few studies examine the behavioral patterns underpinning these decisions. Moreover, individual differences in these patterns remain largely unexplored. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test a probability discounting model to explain the...
Article
Objective: Co-use of cannabis and alcohol is associated with increased drinking and other negative consequences relative to use of alcohol alone. One potential explanation for these differences is overvaluation of alcohol (e.g., alcohol demand) among co-users, similar to established overvaluation of alcohol among tobacco and alcohol co-users. This...
Article
Introduction: Research has recently shown that nicotine reinforcement is better characterized by a bi-factorial latent structure: Persistence (insensitivity to cigarette pricing) and Amplitude (consumption at inexpensive prices). No study to date has examined its value as a predictor of abstinence. This study aimed to provide new evidence on the C...
Article
Full-text available
Free and open‐source software for applying models of operant demand called the Demand Curve Analyzer (DCA) was developed and systematically evaluated for use in research. The software was constructed to streamline the use of recommended screening measures, prepare suitable scaling parameters, fit one of several models of operant demand, and provide...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that causes a range of problematic symptoms. These symptoms tend to get worse over time, causing substantial impairment in patient quality of life. Although many effective disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) exist that slow the course of MS, patients often do not choose to take them, which may be beca...
Article
Full-text available
Much human choice and decision-making research has employed a discounting framework to help aid our understanding of how time, uncertainty, and other factors influence an outcome’s value. Most of this research, however, is limited to the study of monetary outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the discounting of an environmental o...
Preprint
Background and Aims: The evolving legal status of cannabis in the United States and other countries necessitates the development of evidence-based regulatory policies to minimize risks associated with cannabis misuse. A prominent public health concern is whether legalization will lead to an expansion of the illegal cannabis market, with illegal can...
Thesis
Full-text available
The sunk cost effect, known as the degree to which an initial investment of time, effort, or money increases the likelihood of continued investment, and delay discounting, defined as how rapidly the subjective value of a reward declines as a function of the delay to its receipt, incorporate the role of temporally distant stimuli, but have not been...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller–sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger–later reward, thus presenting choices as an extend...
Article
Full-text available
Despite vaccines' consistently demonstrated effectiveness, vaccination rates remain suboptimal due to vaccine refusal. Low vaccination rates are particularly problematic for individuals who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons and thus must rely on herd immunity (i.e., protection of vulnerable individuals due to the high rate of vaccination of...
Article
This study examines whether tobacco dependence severity moderates the acute effects of reducing nicotine content in cigarettes on the addiction potential of smoking, craving/withdrawal, or smoking topography. Participants (N = 169) were daily smokers with mild, moderate, or high tobacco-dependence severity using the Heaviness of Smoking Index. Foll...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of s...
Article
The success of behavioral economics is underscored by its emerging role in informing public policy. While applied behavioral economics has almost exclusively investigated pharmacological issues or the reinforcing efficacy of stimuli used in educational and clinical settings, we propose that this technology can be applied to the understanding and pr...
Article
The success of behavioral economics is underscored by its emerging role in informing public policy. While applied behavioral economics has almost exclusively investigated pharmacological issues or the reinforcing efficacy of stimuli used in educational and clinical settings, we propose that this technology can be applied to the understanding and pr...
Article
There is strong evidence to suggest that happy hour drink specials are associated with undesirable outcomes such as increased amount of drinking, increased likelihood of being highly intoxicated, and increased likelihood of experiencing negative outcomes related to drinking (e.g., getting into fights). Public policy efforts have been made to ban or...
Article
Although effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available for individuals suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), many patients fail to take their recommended medications. Unlike medications that provide immediate relief from existing symptoms, DMTs decrease the probability of future symptoms (i.e., a probabilistic benefit) while concurr...