Denis J.F. Réale

Denis J.F. Réale
Université du Québec à Montréal | UQAM · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD Biology, Univ. Rennes I

About

188
Publications
56,282
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15,980
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2003 - December 2012
Université du Québec à Montréal
September 1999 - March 2003
McGill University
September 1997 - August 1999
Université de Sherbrooke

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
Individual diet specialization (IDS) is widespread and can affect the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations in significant ways. Extrinsic factors (e.g., food abundance) and individual variation in energetic needs, morphology, or physiology have been suggested as drivers of IDS. Behavioral traits like exploration and boldness can also...
Article
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocation trade-off...
Preprint
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and to modulate life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocati...
Article
Full-text available
Life‐history strategies differ with respect to investment in current versus ‘future’ reproduction, but when is this future? Under the novel ‘temporality in reproductive investment hypothesis’, we postulate variation should exist in the time frame over which reproductive costs are paid. Slow‐paced individuals should pay reproductive costs over short...
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Abstract Selecting foraging habitat is a fundamental behavior in the life of organisms as it directly links resource acquisition to fitness. Differences in habitat selection among individuals may arise from several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and yet, their interaction has been given little attention in the study of wild populations. We combin...
Article
The island syndrome hypothesis (ISH) stipulates that, as a result of local selection pressures and restricted gene flow, individuals from island populations should differ from individuals within mainland populations. Specifically, island populations are predicted to contain individuals that are larger, less aggressive, more sociable, and that inves...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the main aspects related to the recent trends in animal personality. Newcomers in animal personality raise some questions about the field and its concepts, and discusses terminological and other issues related to personality. The chapter presents a brief history, with an emphasis on behavioral ecology, and reviews the different...
Preprint
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and to modulate life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocati...
Article
In the past decade, numerous studies have explored how urbanisation affects the mean phenotypes of populations, but it remains unknown how urbanisation impacts phenotypic variation, a key target of selection that shapes, and is shaped by, eco-evolutionary processes. Our review suggests that urbanisation may often increase intraspecific phenotypic v...
Preprint
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Cities pose a major ecological challenge for wildlife worldwide. Phenotypic variation is a pivotal metric to predict evolutionary potential in response to environmental change. Recent work suggests that urban populations might have higher levels of phenotypic variation than non-urban counterparts. This prediction, however, has never been tested acr...
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Additive genetic variance in a trait reflects its potential to respond to selection, which is key for adaptive evolution in the wild. Social interactions contribute to this genetic variation through indirect genetic effects —the effect of an individual's genotype on the expression of a trait in a conspecific. However, our understanding of the evolu...
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Trophic networks are composed of many organisms hosting microbiota that interact with their hosts and with each other. Yet, our knowledge of the factors driving variation in microbiota and their interactions in wild communities is limited. To investigate the relation among host microbiota across a trophic network, we studied the bacterial microbiot...
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Animals often interact aggressively when competing over limited resources. Aggressive decisions can be complex and may result from multiple sources of behavioral variation. The outcome of contests may be explained through contest theory and personality by considering conjointly plasticity and individual consistency. This integrative approach also a...
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1. The integration and synthesis of the data in different areas of science is drastically slowed and hindered by a lack of standards and networking programmes. Long‐term studies of individually marked animals are not an exception. These studies are especially important as instrumental for understanding evolutionary and ecological processes in the w...
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Life-history traits are often plastic in response to environmental factors such as temperature or precipitation, and they also vary with age in many species. Trait variation during the lifetime could thus be partly driven by age-dependent plasticity in these traits. We study whether plasticity of a phenological trait - the egg-laying date - with re...
Article
Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically‐structured data and analyze these with linear mixed‐effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean‐centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without pro...
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Full-text available
Metacommunity theory predicts that strongly connected individuals will harbour similar gut microbiomes (GMs) and affiliating with more individuals should increase GM diversity. Additionally, cross-species bacterial transmission may play a role in how interspecific interactions affect host community dynamics. We tracked sympatric mice (Peromyscus ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
The integration and synthesis of the data in different areas of science is drastically slowed and hindered by a lack of standards and networking programmes. Long-term studies of individually marked animals are not an exception. These studies are especially important as instrumental for understanding evolutionary and ecological processes in the wild...
Article
Full-text available
According to the island syndrome and island rule hypotheses, island isolation and reduced area lead to phenotypic shifts in ecologically relevant traits in insular populations compared to mainland ones. These hypotheses have been built up with oceanic islands in mind or islands where isolation is high and colonization rate relatively limited. This...
Article
The number of microsatellite markers currently available for the eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus provides limited capacity to achieve sufficient pedigree building for the study of their genetic structure and relatedness patterns. We developed microsatellite loci for the eastern chipmunk, a small rodent commonly found in eastern North America. More...
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Individual niche specialization can have important consequences for competition, fitness, and, ultimately, population dynamics and ecological speciation. The temporal window and the level of daily activity are niche components that may vary with sex, breeding season, food supply, population density, and predator’s circadian rhythm. More recently, e...
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Linear mixed‐effects models are powerful tools for analyzing complex datasets with repeated or clustered observations, a common data structure in ecology and evolution. Mixed‐effects models involve complex fitting procedures and make several assumptions, in particular about the distribution of residual and random effects. Violations to these assump...
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Understanding the interactions between parasites, hosts, and their shared environment is central to ecology. Variation in infestation prevalence may be the result of varying environmental and population characteristics; however, variations in parasitism may also depend on individual characteristics that influence both the exposure and susceptibilit...
Chapter
For at least a century, psychologists have studied human personality differences. In contrast, they have put fewer efforts in working on animal personality differences, and biologists have only started scrutinizing these differences by the end of the twentieth century. One reason why biologists would find an interest in studying personality differe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Laboratory studies demonstrate that the gut microbiome can regulate host anxiety and exploratory behaviour. While this has implications for human health, it could have ecological and evolutionary implications for wild populations, a hitherto untested hypothesis. We tested whether the microbiome can directly modulate host behaviour and thereby affec...
Article
Understanding the determinants of reproduction is a central question in evolutionary ecology. In pulsed resources environments, the reproduction and population dynamics of seed consumers are driven by pulsed production of seeds by trees, or mast‐seeding. In Southern Québec, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) exclusively reproduce during the summer...
Article
In this paper we used a co-citation network analysis to quantify and illustrate the dynamic patterns of research in ecology and evolution over 40 years (1975–2014). We addressed questions about the historical patterns of development of these two fields. Have ecology and evolution always formed a coherent body of literature? What dominant ideas have...
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Through social interactions, phenotypes of conspecifics can affect an individual's fitness, resulting in social selection. Social selection is assumed to represent a strong and dynamic evolutionary force that can act with or in opposition to natural selection. Few studies, however, have estimated social selection and its contribution to total selec...
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Life-history allocation trade-offs are dynamic over time and space according to the ecological and demographical context. Fluctuations in food availability can affect physiological trade-offs like oxidative status regulation, reflecting the balance between pro-oxidant production and antioxidant capacity. Monitoring the spatio-temporal stability of...
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Zoophytophagous predators provide benefits in agroecosystems when feeding on pests, but they can also cause crop damage. Optimizing the use of zoophytophagous predators as biocontrol agents would require improving pest control and/or limiting damage. Populations of a zoophytophagous species can be composed of a mix of individuals diverging in their...
Preprint
In this paper we used a co-citation network analysis to quantify and illustrate the dynamic patterns of research in ecology and evolution over 40 years (1975–2014). We addressed questions about the historical patterns of development of these two fields. Have ecology and evolution always formed a coherent body of literature? What ideas have motivate...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals consistently differ in their behavior, and such personality differences are often linked to fitness. For biparental care species, the behavior of both parents can impact reproductive success. Behavioral similarity within pairs has been shown to provide selective advantages for many species. In this study, we tested for behavioral simila...
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Background: Animals inhabiting high altitudes consistently show slow life-histories. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis posits behavioural, physiological and/or morphological traits that mediate the trade-off between current and future reproduction or survival, which have coevolved along a slow-fast life history continuum. Previous studie...
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Animals are thought to adjust the intensity of their parental defense to fitness benefits associated with their current reproduction. They should be more defensive when they breed early in the season, when they produce more young, or as their young get older. Beyond these plastic changes, associations among traits could be explained by consistent a...
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A fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology is to identify the sources underlying trait variation on which selection can act. Phenotypic variation will be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and adaptive phenotypic plasticity is expected when organisms can adjust their phenotypes to match environmental cues. Much recent research in...
Article
The concept of coping style represents the way individual animals react to a stressful situation, both behaviourally and neurophysiologically. Over the last decades coping style has been linked to the development of research on animal personality. Based on this concept, we should find a proactive-reactive continuum in animal populations, with proac...
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The pace-of-life syndrome (i.e., POLS) hypothesis posits that behavioral and physiological traits mediate the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This hypothesis predicts that life history, behavioral, and physiological traits will covary under clearly defined conditions. Empirical tests are equivocal and suggest that the conditions...
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Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link in...
Article
Understanding the causes and consequences of population phenotypic divergence is a central goal in ecology and evolution. Phenotypic divergence among populations can result from genetic divergence, phenotypic plasticity or a combination of the two. However, few studies have deciphered these mechanisms for populations geographically close and connec...
Article
This introduction to the topical collection on Pace-of-life syndromes: a framework for the adaptive integration of behaviour, physiology, and life history provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical progress in research on pace-of-life syndromes (POLSs) over the last decade. The topical collection has two main goa...
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The sixth Wild Animal Models Bi-Annual Meeting was held in July 2017 in Québec, with 42 participants. This report documents the evolution of questions asked and approaches used in evolutionary quantitative genetic studies of wild populations in recent decades, and how these questions and approaches were represented at the recent meeting. We explore...
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Using social information can benefit individuals in many ways. Responding to alarm signals can, for instance, maximize survival under predation risk. However, foraging individuals should consider the reliability of such risk-based information to balance antipredator behavior and resource acquisition. Receiver decisions could depend on personality e...
Article
Observed phenological changes can either be explained by individual phenotypic plasticity or by evolutionary changes, but there is more evidence pointing towards phenotypic plasticity to explain the mechanism behind changes in bird phenology. However, most studies on phenology have been conducted on insectivorous bird species for which breeding is...
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Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual's tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of alternative food resources. We compared two isogr...
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Recent studies of the joint dynamics of ecological and evolutionary processes show that changes in genotype or phenotype distributions can affect population, community and ecosystem processes. Such eco-evolutionary dynamics are likely to occur in modern humans and may influence population dynamics. Here, we study contributions to population growth...
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Some populations quickly adapt to strong and novel selection pressures caused by anthropogenic stressors. However, this short-term evolutionary response to novel and harsh environmental conditions may lead to adaptation costs, and evaluating these costs is important if we want to understand the evolution of resistance to anthropogenic stressors. In...
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Many behavioural traits show important inter-individual phenotypic and genetic variation despite strong potential selection that should reduce this variability. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions has been proposed to maintain such variation but empirical evidences supporting this hypothesis are still scarce for behaviour...
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Zoophytophagous predators can substitute zoophagy for phytophagy to complete their development and reproduction. In such predators, variation in feeding behaviour is observed both across and within populations. This may be caused by genetic variation in diet specialization, some genotypes specializing on plant resources, whereas others rely mostly...
Article
Full-text available
Zoophytophagous predators can substitute zoophagy for phytophagy to complete their development and reproduction. In such predators, variation in feeding behaviour is observed both across and within populations. This may be caused by genetic variation in diet specialization, some genotypes specializing on plant resources, whereas others rely mostly...
Article
Environmental heterogeneity can result in spatial variation in selection pressures that can produce local adaptations. The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis predicts that habitat-specific selective pressures will favor the coevolution of personality, physiological, and lifehistory phenotypes. Few studies so far have compared these traits simultaneou...
Article
The potential for populations to undergo adaptive evolution depends on individual variation in traits under selection and how multiple traits are correlated. While fitness relates to the performance of animals in the wild, most of the research on evolutionary potential of behavioural traits has used captive or mesocosm settings, especially with aqu...
Article
Animals foraging under risk have to trade-off resource acquisition and predator avoidance. Environmental factors can modulate the level of risk and should thus influence the expression of anti-predator behaviours such as vigilance. In this study, we investigated the effects of physical and social environments on eastern chipmunks' (Tamias striatus)...
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Full-text available
Given fundamental energetic trade-offs among growth, maintenance, and reproduction, individual differences in energy-saving should have consequences for survival and reproductive success. Many endotherms use periodic heterothermy to reduce energy and water requirements and individual variation in heterothermy should have fitness consequences. Howev...
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Background Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy...
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Full-text available
Phenotypic variation exists in and at all levels of biological organization: variation exists among species, within-populations among-individuals, and in the case of labile traits, within-individuals. Mixed-effects models represent ideal tools to quantify multi-level measurements of traits and are being increasingly used in evolutionary ecology. 2....
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In zoophytophagous predators genetically determined efficiency to exploit either animal or plant resources could lead to diet specialization, and a trade-off between fitness performances on animal and plant diet. Such a trade-off would have important consequences on the efficiency of zoophytophagous species as biocontrol agents. We estimated the ge...
Article
Full-text available
The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes toward...
Article
Full-text available
The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes toward...
Article
In fusionefission social systems, associations are generally weak, but animals can associate preferentially, although the ultimate and proximate causes for such associations can be multiple and depend on the species. We applied a social network approach to a population of marked female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, characterized by a fusione...