Demetrio Antonio Zema

Demetrio Antonio Zema
Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria | UNIRC · Department of Agricultural Science (AGRARIA)

Professor

About

179
Publications
46,251
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,560
Citations
Citations since 2016
130 Research Items
2342 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
Demetrio Antonio Zema currently works at the Department of Agricultural Science (AGRARIA), Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria. Demetrio does research in Environmental Science, Irrigation and Water Management and Water Science.
Additional affiliations
April 1995 - July 2020
Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (179)
Article
Full-text available
This study analyses the collective management of irrigation water in 42 WUAs operating in agricultural regions of Italy, Spain and Turkey. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHCA) are used for benchmarking the technical and financial performance of the WUAs. The analysis shows that the Spanish WU...
Article
Soils of Mediterranean forests can be severely degraded due to wildfire. However, post-fire management techniques, such as soil mulching with vegetal residues, can limit degradation and increase functionality of burned soils. The effects of post-fire mulching on soil functionality have been little studied in Mediterranean forests, and it is still u...
Article
Soils of Mediterranean forests can be severely damaged by wildfire. However, post-fire management techniques by soil mulching with vegetal residues, can limit soil degradation and increased soil functionality. However, post-fire mulching effects on soil functionality have been little studied in these areas, and it is unclear whether if straw or woo...
Article
Full-text available
The hydrological effects of straw mulching and salvage logging have been widely experimented in the Mediterranean forests affected by wildfires. In contrast, knowledge about the impacts of these post-fire management techniques on the physico-chemical properties of burned soils is poor, especially many years after the fire. In particular, no studies...
Article
Full-text available
In the Mediterranean forests, wildfires and post-fire management actions may degrade soil properties and negatively impact vegetation characteristics. These effects may reduce soil functionality and result in loss of plant diversity. Although straw mulching and salvage logging are commonly carried out in burned forests, their impacts on respiration...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known how fires affect the properties of forest soils depending on its severity. A better understanding of the magnitude of these impacts is essential to setup effective management actions after fire against the losses of soil and biodiversity. However, physical, chemical and biological processes in burnt soils are complex, resulting in...
Article
Full-text available
Straw mulching and salvage logging are common management techniques after forest wildfires. However, these post-fire actions may result in an additional disturbance in burned soils, which may hamper the natural regeneration of forest species, especially in Mediterranean areas. Here, the results of the investigations on the impacts of these post-fir...
Article
Full-text available
Prescribed burning with different severity may induce erosion and change many physico-chemical properties of forest soils. Few studies have compared the effects of prescribed fires with different severity on rainsplash erosion and soil properties under natural rainfalls. Therefore, there is the need to better understand these variables of forest so...
Article
Despite ample literature, the influence of the individual soil properties and covers on the hydrological response of burned soils of forests has not clearly identified. A clear understanding of the surface runoff and erosion rates altered by wildfires and prescribed fires is beneficial to identify the most suitable post-fire treatment. This study h...
Article
Full-text available
Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests are the most reliable method for the direct evaluation of the methane yield from a specific feedstock in anaerobic digestion. However, these tests are time-consuming (about 1 month) and quite expensive (need of no less than two or three replicates). This study evaluates the accuracy of the “first-order kine...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of fire on soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and soil water repellency (SWR) have been mainly studied by field experiments in forest areas burned by wildfires with a given severity, while the variability of K and SWR with the fire severities has been less investigated. To fill this gap, the changes in the K and SWR with fire severity (ada...
Article
Full-text available
In Mediterranean oak stands prescribed burning increases acorn emergence and plant survival, while post-fire soil mulching with fern does not significantly enhance the initial recruitment of plants. To avoid the negative impacts of wildfire, prescribed fire is applied in several environments, often with post-fire soil mulching, to control wildfire...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The use of check dams is a common strategy to contrast soil erosion in the Mediterranean headwaters. However, the effects of these control works on water flow rates and sediment yields have been scarcely investigated under possible scenarios of climate and land use changes. On this regard, the use of hydrological models, such as SWAT, pro...
Article
Mulching is one of the most common post-fire management techniques, which has been widely studied at the global scale. However, more research is needed on the hydrological effects of mulching in forest ecosystems under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions. This study has evaluated water infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss using a portable rain...
Article
The SCS‐CN, Horton and USLE‐family models are used worldwide, but few examples are available for olive groves on steep and clayey soils under mulching of pruning residues. We evaluate the accuracy in predicting runoff and soil loss of a steep (20%) and clayey olive grove subject to three soil conservation practices (SCPs): mechanical tillage (MT),...
Article
Wildfires completely remove the vegetal cover, affect plant diversity and promote soil erosion in the forest ecosystems. Reforestation is essential to recover these important forest components, also in view of the forecasted climate change. Clear indications about suitable soil preparation techniques and a cautious choice of the planted species for...
Article
Full-text available
The post-fire hydrological processes depend on both land use and soil condition (burned or not). This study aims at understanding the variability of the water infiltration, surface runoff and erosion in burned soils under different land uses (forestland and cropland) in comparison to unburned sitesTo this aim, infiltration, runoff and soil losses a...
Article
Full-text available
Spanish black pine ( Pinus nigra Arn ssp . salzmannii ) is the most widely distributed pine species in mountain areas of the Mediterranean Basin and is commonly used for afforestation in endangered and degraded areas. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the factors driving seedling survival for this species, which may hamper afforesta...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Several studies have analyzed the changes in individual soil properties and covers and quantified the hydrological response of burned forest soils (with or without post-fire treatment). Less research exists on the influence of these changes on runoff and erosion rates immediately after a prescribed fire and post-fire treatments. Moreover,...
Chapter
Few experiences of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for hydro-logical predictions in forest soils after wildfire and post-fire treatments are available in literature. To fill this gap, an ANN model has been adapted to predict surface runoff and soil erosion in Mediterranean burned pine forests (Central Spain), and tested against hydro-logical obse...
Article
Abstract: In the Mediterranean forests, wildfires and post-fire management actions may degrade soil properties and negatively impact vegetation characteristics. These effects may reduce soil functionality and result in loss of plant diversity. Although straw mulching and salvage logging are commonly carried out in burned forests, their impacts on r...
Chapter
Wildfires are key drivers of changes in hydrological processes in the Mediterranean environment. Hydrologic events in the post-fire period are important to understand, because these events can contaminate major water supplies, damage critical infrastructure, influence human safety and increase soil degradation. Several effects of wildfire influence...
Chapter
The choice of the most suitable management system for wastewater of agro-food industries is a difficult task for firm owners, since the convenience of each system depends on the specific case. This overview discusses advantages and constraints of the main systems for wastewater of oil mills, citrus industries and wineries in Sicily and Calabria (So...
Article
co-engineering techniques are generally effective at reducing soil erosion and restore vegetal cover after wildfire. However, less evidence exists on the effects of the post-fire eco-engineering techniques to restore plant diversity. To fill this knowledge gap, a standardized regional-scale analysis of the influence of post-fire eco-engineering tec...
Article
Prescribed burning is increasingly used to reduce the wildfire risk, and the need to limit runoff and erosion suggest treating burned soils with mulching. To this aim, fern residues may be more advisable compared to the commonly used straw, since this material is directly available in forests and has lower drawbacks. However, the post-fire hydrolog...
Article
This study evaluates soil hydrology in a semi-arid soil of Spain dominated by Macrochloa tenacissima (a widely-spread species in Northern Africa and Iberian Peninsula) after a wildfire. Rainfall simulations were carried out under three soil conditions (bare soil, and burned or soils with unburned vegetation) and low-to-high slopes, and infiltration...
Article
Contour-felled log debris (CFD) and log erosion barriers (LEB) are two restoration practices used worldwide on hillslopes to avoid soil erosion after wildfires. Although significant work has evaluated the effectiveness of these practices on soil loss prevention, their effects on soil properties have been little researched to date. Here, the effects...
Article
Full-text available
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a suitable management option for the energy valorization of many wastes, including the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). However, in some cases, long storage after the separate collection of this waste is required for management reasons, especially when the amount of waste to be treated temporarily excee...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the depuration efficiency of a combined system consisting of lagoons (with aerated and non-aerated tanks) and CWs (with Typha latifolia L.) working at pilot scale for treating SW under two recirculation rates (RRs, 4:1 and 10:1) of the CW effluent. The combined system removed about 99% of the total suspended solids and organic...
Article
Full-text available
The SCS-CN, Horton and USLE-family models are widely used to predict and control runoff and erosion in forest ecosystems. However, in the literature there is no evidence of their use in Mediterranean forests subjected to prescribed fire and soil mulching. To fill this gap, this study evaluates the prediction capability of runoff and soil loss of th...
Article
Prescribed fire, although having low intensity and being able to reduce the risk, of wildfire may modify soil properties in the short term, with possible increases in runoff and erosion risk. Soil mulching with vegetation residues is one of the most common post-fire management strategies. Residues of fern, which is abundant on the Mediterranean for...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire heavy impacts the quality of forest soils, and the precipitation occurring immediately after fire can determine high runoff and erosion rates, which may lead to noticeable soil degradation. Mulching is commonly used to limit the hydrological impacts of wildfire and climate, but this post-fire management technique may alter the erosion-depo...
Article
Full-text available
The uncontrolled disposal of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is hazardous for the health of water and soil, since this wastewater shows low pH and high contents of organic matter and polyphenols (PP). Lagooning is one of the most common treatment systems for agro-industrial wastewater (such as OMW), due to its low cost and easy management. Aeration...
Article
Full-text available
Presently, adsorption/absorption is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods to clean oil spill up. In this work, self-supporting paper-like fibrous membranes were prepared via electrospinning and carbonisation at different temperatures (500, 650 or 800 °C) by using polyacrylonitrile/polymethylmethacrylate blends with a different mass r...
Article
Rill detachment is the most important erosive process in steep slopes and its comprehension and prediction accuracy is important to properly develop soil conservation practices in forest areas. This process is largely influenced by sediment size, soil slope and water flow characteristics, but the results of the studies that have explored these infl...
Article
Full-text available
Prescribed fire is commonly used to reduce the wildfire risk in Mediterranean forests, but the soil’s hydrological response after fire is contrasting in literature experiences. The mulch treatment can limit the increases in runoff and erosion in the short term after fire. The use of fern is preferable to straw, due its large availability in forests...
Article
In recent decades, due to the water shortage around the world and the importance of groundwater in agriculture, the role of Water User Associations (WUAs) – well-known farmer associations that manage collective irrigation in agricultural districts – in groundwater management has received much attention. To ensure sustainable groundwater management...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of vegetation cover after post-fire treatments of burned lands is important for forest managers to restore soil quality and plant biodiversity in burned ecosystems. Unfortunately, this evaluation may be time consuming and expensive, requiring much fieldwork for surveys. The use of remote sensing, which makes quicker and easier these...
Article
In recent decades, due to the water shortage around the world and the importance of groundwater in agriculture, the role of Water User Associations (WUAs) - well-known farmer associations that manage collective irrigation in agricultural districts - in groundwater management has received much attention. To ensure sustainable groundwater management...
Article
Full-text available
Orange peel (OP), the main residue of the citrus industry, is usually used for animal feeding and soil fertilisation if more advanced options are lacking. In areas with warm and dry climatic conditions, OP is land-spread for solar-drying on the fields, the leachate produced is a potential pollution factor for soil especially due to the release of o...
Article
Full-text available
This study has evaluated the runoff and erosion rates in torrents of Southern Italy, two forested headwaters with very similar climatic, hydrological and geomorphological characteristics; in one headwater, 15 check dams were installed in the mid-1950s, while the other is not regulated with engineering works. To this aim, the hydrological variables...
Article
Check dams have been used throughout the world for a variety of purposes including torrent control, water supply enhancement, agricultural land development, and watershed restoration. National, regional and local governments have invested, and continue to invest, in basin scale erosion-control projects that may include both maintenance of existing...
Article
Deforestation, which removes soil protection by plant leafs and roots, causes severe soil erosion, since the beneficial effects of plant cover and root actions on soil erodibility are lost. Hydromulching has been found to be a suitable technique for erosion control, but little research has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of hydromulc...
Article
Research about soil hydrology after wildfire has widely investigated the impacts of many post-fire management strategies on ecosystems with different characteristics. However, despite this ample literature, clear guidelines about the effectiveness and feasibility of the different restoration techniques in environmental contexts showing variable res...
Preprint
Full-text available
To gain a better understanding of the global application of soil erosion prediction models, we comprehensively reviewed relevant peer-reviewed research literature on soil-erosion modelling published between 1994 and 2017. We aimed to identify (i) the processes and models most frequently addressed in the literature, (ii) the regions within which mod...
Article
Full-text available
To gain a better understanding of the global application of soil erosion prediction models, we comprehensively reviewed relevant peer-reviewed research literature on soil-erosion modelling published between 1994 and2017. We aimed to identify (i) the processes and models most frequently addressed in the literature, (ii) the regions within which mode...
Article
Reforestation may help protect the health of endangered forest ecosystems. To implement this action, it is important to evaluate the effects of the planted species on soil quality. Previous studies have demonstrated that soil properties are closely driven by the effects of plant roots and plant remains (quantity and quality) reaching the soil surfa...
Article
Full-text available
Soil erosion can present a major threat to agriculture due to loss of soil, nutrients, and organic carbon. Therefore, soil erosion modelling is one of the steps used to plan suitable soil protection measures and detect erosion hotspots. A bibliometric analysis of this topic can reveal research patterns and soil erosion modelling characteristics tha...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Forest roads are often subject to intense runoff and erosion, and the rates can be increased by other disturbance factors, such as wildfires. Since scarce literature exists on the effects of wildfires on rill erosion of forest roads, this study presents the first results of a wider research, evaluating rill erosion in four different types...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of mesofauna in soil formation, litter decomposition, biological cycles and growth of plants for semi-arid forest ecosystems, the effects of different woody species and seasonality on the abundance, diversity and composition of mesofauna invertebrates have been little studied. This study has evaluated the effects of woody spe...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Check dams act as soil collectors during floods, thus retaining a large amount of sediments. The estimation of the soil volumes stored behind a check dam is a key activity for a proper design of these control works and for evaluation of soil delivery after restoration measures at watershed level. Several topographic techniques have been p...
Article
The beneficial effects of plant roots in decreasing soil detachment in forest ecosystems exposed to rill erosion are well known. However, these effects vary largely between different plant species. There has been lots of research into the relationship between root-soil systems and rill erodibility, with a particular focus on grass species. Converse...
Chapter
In every ecosystem, the calculation of water balance in the hydrological cycle requires accurate estimations of different processes and water components/fluxes. To address this need, this chapter first discusses the concept of the hydrological cycle and water balance at different spatial scales (from plot to global/continental). Then, the component...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates soil hydraulic conductivity (SHC) and water repellency (SWR) in three mixed forest stands in relation to site plant and soil characteristics. The studied forest stands were: i) Pinus nigra Arn. ssp salzmannii and Quercus ilex; ii) Pinus nigra Arn. ssp salzmannii and Juniperus Thurifera; iii) Pinus nigra Arn. ssp salzmannii, Que...
Article
Full-text available
The use of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) model for runoff predictions after rainstorms in fire-affected forests in the Mediterranean climate is quite scarce and limited to the watershed scale. To validate the applicability of this model in this environment, this study has evaluated the runoff prediction capacity of the SCS-CN...
Article
Full-text available
Post-fire environmental conditions can heavily influence the natural regeneration of pine species in Mediterranean forests. Therefore, enhancing post-fire recovery of pine species is fundamental for effective ecological restoration of Mediterranean forests. In this study, the effects of a post-fire restoration treatment on the seedling emergence an...
Article
Full-text available
Salvage logging is thought to have negative impacts on soil functionality because it may increase soil compaction and reduce vegetation cover and soil organic matter content. We investigated whether and to what extent burning and subsequent logging initially altered soil functionality of a Mediterranean forest of Pinus halepensis M. Soil functional...