Delroy Paulhus

Delroy Paulhus
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC ·  Department of Psychology

PhD Columbia University

About

141
Publications
560,727
Reads
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29,692
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
15547 Citations
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Introduction
Delroy Paulhus currently works at the Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia - Vancouver. Del does research in Personality and social Psychology. His most recent publication is 'Internet Trolling and Everyday Sadism: Parallel Effects on Pain Perception and Moral Judgment'.
Additional affiliations
September 2004 - April 2005
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Researcher
September 1997 - May 1998
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Researcher
August 1983 - present
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Education
September 1975 - May 1980
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (141)
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Empathy for animal suffering can be powerful, but it varies across animal species. In fact, some people empathize as much (or more) with the suffering of certain animals than they do with human suffering. Beginning with Paulhus and Dean, we review research comparing empathic reactions to a diverse array of animal species, as well as to selected hum...
Article
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Research on the personality foundations of aggression typically implicates either (a) aspects of the so‐called “Dark Tetrad” or (b) severe mental disturbance (psychosis). The appearance of psychotic symptoms in general populations is termed schizotypy. We conducted two studies to compare the effects of dark personalities and schizotypy on aggressio...
Article
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Agency and communion are the two fundamental content dimensions in psychology. The two dimensions figure prominently in many psychological realms (personality, social, self, motivational, cross-cultural, etc.). In contemporary research, however, personality is most commonly measured within the Big Five framework. We developed novel agency and commu...
Chapter
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everyday sadism
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To date, no studies have examined a range of structural models of the interpersonally aversive traits tapped by the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism), in conjunction with their measurement invariance (males vs. females) and how the models each predict external correlates. Using a large sample of young adults...
Method
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Per favore, valuti il suo accordo o disaccordo con ciascuna affermazione utilizzando le seguenti linee guida. 1 2 3 4 5 Discordo Fortemente Discordo Nè Concordo, Nè Discordo Concordo Concordo Fortemente Sottoscala Machiavellismo 1. Non è saggio che racconti i tuoi segreti. 2. Mi piace utilizzare un'astuta manipolazione per riuscire a persuadere gli...
Article
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The popular short Dark Triad (SD3) measure was translated into Chinese (SD3-C). In two large samples (total N = 950), we evaluated its psychometric properties, including: (a) factorial structure, and (b) reliability estimates and intercorrelations of the three subscales. The nomological network was explored by showing links with established persona...
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Consensus is emerging that the constellation of dark personalities should include the sadistic personality. To build a four-factor measure, we modified and extended the Short Dark Triad (SD3) measure to include sadism. A series of three studies yielded the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4), a four subscale inventory with 7 items per construct. Study 1 ( N =...
Preprint
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We present a new measure of the Dark Tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism). The measure is brief (28 items), making it useful in identifying socially aversive individuals in an economical fashion.
Article
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The term Dark Triad refers to three socially aversive personality dimensions (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) that are evident in the normal range of personality. Jones and Paulhus (2014) developed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) as a 27-item measure of the three constructs. To assess the psychometric properties of the Italian trans...
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Previous research on Western college samples has identified a number of personality traits associated with scholastic cheating. Based on these findings, we suggest a model integrating personality predictors of cheating. However, it remains unclear whether the proposed model can be generalised to the Chinese culture, which has different norms and so...
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Researchers have recently drawn a contrast between two forms of envy: benign and malicious envy. In three studies (total N = 3,123), we challenge the assumption that malicious envy is destructive, whereas benign envy is entirely constructive. Instead, both forms have links with the Dark Triad of personality. Benign envy is associated with Machiavel...
Preprint
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Researchers have recently drawn a contrast between two forms of envy: benign and malicious envy. In three studies (total N = 3,123), we challenge the assumption that malicious envy is destructive, whereas benign envy is entirely constructive. Instead, both forms have links with the Dark Triad of personality. Benign envy is associated with Machiavel...
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
Aggression is often construed as a unitary trait fully captured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Our review of the literature questions that assumption in several respects. Instead of a top-down approach, we argue for a bottom-up conception based on the Dark Tetrad of personality, that is, narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy...
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Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study...
Article
How did Donald Trump dominate his more experienced competitors in the primaries? We suspected the answer might lie in his communication style rather than his platform details. Hence, we analyzed the announcement speeches of the top nine Republican contenders as of October, 2015. We transcribed 27 speech segments each and applied Pennebaker's Lingui...
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Contamination with positivity bias is a potential problem in virtually all areas of psychological assessment. To determine the impact of positivity bias, one common approach is to embed special indicators within one's assessment battery. Such tools range from social desirability scales to overconfidence measures to the so-called overclaiming techni...
Chapter
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We review self-report measures of socially aversive personalities. Rather than the clinical or forensic domains, our focus is on those variables that apply in normal work settings, community surveys, college samples, and laboratory research. Three of these personalities - Machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy - form an overlappin...
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Do less able students cheat more? Although relevant research has been published over the past eight decades, no consensus has been reached. We reviewed all studies using objective measures of both ability and cheating. A comprehensive search yielded 20 such articles, including 22 samples, that estimated the ability-cheating association. A meta-anal...
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The term dark personalities refers to a set of socially aversive traits in the subclinical range. Not extreme enough to invite clinical or forensic attention, they can get along (even flourish) in everyday work settings, scholastic settings, and the broader community. Along with my research group, I have studied a constellation of these personaliti...
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The overclaiming technique is a novel assessment procedure that uses signal detection analysis to generate indices of knowledge accuracy (OC-accuracy) and self-enhancement (OC-bias). The technique has previously shown robustness over varied knowledge domains as well as low reactivity across administration contexts. Here we compared the OC-accuracy...
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In two online studies (total N = 1215), respondents completed personality inventories and a survey of their Internet commenting styles. Overall, strong positive associations emerged among online comment-ing frequency, trolling enjoyment, and troll identity, pointing to a common construct underlying the measures. Both studies revealed similar patter...
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Measures of impression management have yet to incorporate two-factor models of person perception. The 2 primary factors are often labeled agency and communion. In Study 1, we assembled a new measure of impression management-the Bidimensional Impression Management Index (BIMI): It comprises 2 subscales designed specifically to tap agentic and commun...
Article
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Three socially aversive traits-Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-have been studied as an overlapping constellation known as the Dark Triad. Here, we develop and validate the Short Dark Triad (SD3), a brief proxy measure. Four studies (total N = 1,063) examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the subscales in both community a...
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Chronic self‐promoters may thrive in job interviews where such behavior is encouraged. In Study 1, 72 participants were videotaped as they simulated the job applicant role. Accountability was manipulated by the expectation of expert versus nonexpert interviewers. As accountability increased, self‐promotion tended to decrease among non‐narcissists b...
Article
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Past research on socially aversive personalities has focused on subclinical psychopathy, subclinical narcissism, and Machiavellianism-the "Dark Triad" of personality. In the research reported here, we evaluated whether an everyday form of sadism should be added to that list. Acts of apparent cruelty were captured using two laboratory procedures, an...
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Objective We used the FAD-Plus to investigate the association of free will belief (FWB) with political orientation, moral attitudes, and punitiveness. Other goals included (a) confirming the independence of believing in free will and determinism and (b) contrasting scientific determinism with fatalistic determinism. Method Three studies were conduc...
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Much acculturation research has investigated links with depression or with general psychological adjustment. Social adjustment, although critical to the acculturation process, has been relatively neglected. The association between acculturation and interpersonal problems was assessed in two samples of Chinese-Canadian university students using the...
Article
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Ten years ago Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three members – Machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy – often show differential correlates but share a common core of callous-manipulation. There are...
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How are the Big Two personality dimensions of agency (e.g., competence, uniqueness, ambition) and communion (e.g., warmth, relatedness, morality) related to religiosity? A standard view assumes that communion encourages religiosity, whereas agency is independent of religiosity. Our model is more nuanced, taking into account the Big Two’s motivation...
Chapter
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The Dark Triad of personalities—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—all project onto Quadrant 2 of the interpersonal circumplex. That spatial similarity reflects their common interpersonal exploitativeness. An explanation of their distinctive behavioral tactics, however, requires both circumplex location and a specification of two moderat...
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Sexual promiscuity is a known risk factor for unprotected sex. A related variable, emotional promiscuity, has conceptual relevance but has yet to be studied with respect to unprotected sex. Data from four studies (total N = 908) indicated that both sexual promiscuity and emotional promiscuity were associated with womens' reports of unprotected sex....
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Agency is the meta-concept associated with self-advancement in social hierarchies; communion is the partner concept associated with maintenance of positive relationships. Despite the wealth of data documenting the conceptual utility of agency and communion (A & C) as superordinate metaconcepts, no direct measures of global A & C value dimensions ar...
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Among the Dark Triad of personality, both narcissism and psychopathy have been linked to impulsivity. What remains unclear is the pattern of associations that the Dark Triad have with functional and dysfunctional types of impulsivity. Using both student (N=142) and adult samples (N=329), we investigated the association of the Dark Triad variables w...
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The over-claiming technique (OCT) is offered as a method of identifying fakers while simultaneously measuring their expertise in specific knowledge domains. The procedure is straightforward: Respondents are asked to rate their familiarity with a range of items relevant to a faking domain (e.g., academic facts, workplace items, consumer products). K...
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An irresistible look within the mind and behind the hit TV drama, House While House is a smart medical drama and Gregory House faces countless ethical quandaries as a doctor, what makes the show unique is that it′s much more deeply rooted in psychology than in medicine. At its core, House is a show about the mind and human behavior. Gregory House i...
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We describe the development of FAD-Plus, a 27-item measure of lay beliefs in free will and 3 closely related constructs: scientific determinism, fatalistic determinism, and unpredictability. Previously published measures included only a subset of these variables and tended to assume an a priori pattern of relations among these 4 beliefs. In Study 1...
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Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating....
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Although previous research has demonstrated that ego-threatened narcissists react aggressively, no allowance was made for the overlap of subclinical narcissism with subclinical psychopathy. Nor is there research directly comparing the reactions of these two personalities to physical threat. To investigate these distinctions, the present study exami...
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In this chapter, the authors note that social and personality psychologists address the issue of behavior in rather different ways. Social psychologists tend to exploit behavior as a concrete outcome reflecting the difference in psychological state induced by an experimental manipulation. In contrast, personality psychologists view behavior as only...
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There is widespread concern that deviant sexual fantasies promote corresponding behaviors. The authors investigated whether that concern is valid in nonoffender samples. Self-reports of nine deviant sexual fantasies and behaviors were compared in two samples of male undergraduates. In Study 1, 95% of respondents reported experiencing at least one s...
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Early in the 16th century, Niccolo Machiavelli acted as chief political advisor to the ruling Medici family in Florence, Italy. The details of his counsel are well known because Machiavelli laid them out for posterity in his 1513 book, The Prince. The gist of his advice for maintaining political control is captured in the phrase "the end justifies...
Article
Full-text available
There is widespread concern that deviant sexual fantasies promote corresponding behaviors. The authors investigated whether that concern is valid in nonoffender samples. Self-reports of nine deviant sexual fantasies and behaviors were compared in two samples of male undergraduates. In Study 1, 95% of respondents reported experiencing at least one s...
Conference Paper
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How many kinds of self-presentation are there? Jones and Pittman (1982) outlined five different styles of self-presentation; self-promotion, ingratiation, exemplification, supplication, and intimidation. In apparent contradiction, other research has found that self-presentation styles fall on two factors labeled agency and communion (Paulhus and Tr...
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The literature includes conflicting perspectives regarding the impact of self-enhancement on adjustment outcomes. To help sort out the disparities, we examined four potential moderators of the enhancement–adjustment association in 123 college students. First was the method of operationalizing self-enhancement, that is, social comparison (rating one...
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In this chapter, we are concerned with chronic individual differences in self-presentation. We argue that such dispositions constitute strong and pervasive aspects of personality. People differ in the degree to which they are attuned to self-presentation demands, are motivated to self-present, and in the nature of the image they tend to present. Bo...
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Cultural differences in questionnaire response styles have been reported in a number of studies. Compared to those of European-heritage, responses from individuals of East-Asian heritage tend to be more ambivalent and moderate. These stylistic differences warrant attention because they may contaminate substantive conclusions about cultural differen...
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Glossary Between-family research – Involves the comparison of individuals from different families. Therefore, when birth orders are compared, the large genetic differences between families are not controlled and add much extraneous variance. Big five personality traits – Factor analyses of comprehensive personality questionnaires typically yield fi...
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A number of self-report psychopathy scales have been used successfully in both clinical and nonclinical settings. However, their factor structure does not adequately capture the four factors (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) recently identified in the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 200340. Hare , R. D. 2003. The Ha...
Article
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A number of self-report psychopathy scales have been used successfully in both clinical and nonclinical settings. However, their factor structure does not adequately capture the four factors (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) recently identified in the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and related measures. This d...
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The personality and misconduct correlates of body modification (e.g., tattoos, piercings) and other markers of cultural deviance (Goth or provocative appearance) were examined in a sample of 279 undergraduate students. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of personality questionnaires and provided detailed self-reports of any unusual appe...
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Although many studies have examined individual difference predictors of cheating, insufficient attention has been given to several important personality variables (the Big Five, perfectionism, and subclinical psychopathy). Moreover, insufficient use has been made of concrete indicators of naturalistic scholastic cheating. Using a computer-based beh...
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Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a “kernel of truth,” or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared...
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Although relationship violence is of great interest to researchers and the general public,
Article
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Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared...
Article
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Two studies were conducted to uncover the factor structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy (SRP-II) scale in non-forensic samples. In Study 1 (N=289 students), the full 60 items yielded two large factors explaining 21% of the variance. The first factor was a combination of anti-social behavior, impulsivity, and interpersonal manipulation. The second...
Article
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The overclaiming technique requires respondents to rate their familiarity with a list of general knowledge items (persons, places, things). Because 20% of the items are foils (i.e., do not exist), the response pattern can be analyzed with signal detection methods to yield the accuracy and bias scores for each respondent. In Study 1, the accuracy in...
Article
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Suppressor situations occur when the addition of a new predictor improves the validity of a predictor variable already in the equation. A common allegation is that suppressor effects rarely replicate and have little substantive import. We present substantive examples from two established research domains to counter this skepticism. In the first dom...
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Previous research has questioned the educational value of taking introductory courses in psychology. Study I confirmed the usual null to negative associations between taking introductory psychology and performance in a subsequent psychology course. Study 2 showed that, after controlling for IQ, there was actually a positive association between taki...
Article
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Over-claiming is a concrete operalization of self-enhancement based on respondents' ratings of their knowledge of various persons, events, products, and so on. Because 20% of the items are nonexistent, responses can be analyzed with signal detection formulas to index both response bias (over-claiming) and accuracy (knowledge). Study 1 demonstrated...
Article
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Over-claiming is a concrete operalization of self-enhancement based on respondents' ratings of their knowledge of various persons, events, products, and so on. Because 20% of the items are nonexistent, responses can be analyzed with signal detection formulas to index both response bias (over-claiming) and accuracy (knowledge). Study 1 demonstrated...
Article
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Recent research on clinical psychopathy has uncovered four facets in the standard measuring device, namely, the PCL-R (Antisocial Behavior, Impulsive Thrill-Seeking, Interpersonal Manipulation, Cold Affect). The current version of the Self Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II) cannot fully represent that structure. To augment the instrument, we factore...
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Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs...
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Reviews of the self-report literature suggest that shyness is more prevalent among East Asians than among those of European heritage. We evaluated the generalizability of that claim with four studies comparing students of Asian heritage (AH) and European heritage (EH). Study 1 (N=897) confirmed a substantially higher rate of self-reported shyness a...
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Implicit theories of intelligence were investigated via surveys of exemplars of intelligence. Study 1 was a four-sample survey of famous exemplars. These diverse samples reported a similar set of popular exemplars, which clustered into five groups. These groups represented five types of intelligence: scientific, artistic, entrepreneurial, communica...
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OVERVIEW Socially desirable responding (SDR) is typically defined as the tendency to give positive self-descriptions . Its status as a response style rests on the clarification of an underlying psychological construct. A brief history of such attempts is provided . Despite the growing consensus that there are two dimensions of SDR, their interpreta...