Deirdre Brown

Deirdre Brown
University of Otago ·  Department of Psychological Medicine (Dunedin)

PhD

About

63
Publications
13,394
Reads
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1,057
Citations
Citations since 2016
33 Research Items
734 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Additional affiliations
November 2009 - present
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Academic staff
Description
  • Lecturer in Clinical and Forensic Psychology
August 2003 - February 2007
Lancaster University
Description
  • Postdoctoral Fellow
February 1998 - May 2003
University of Otago
Description
  • PhD candidate and postgraduate diploma in clinical psychology
Education
February 1998 - January 2003
University of Otago
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
The aim of this paper is to identify some of the urgent issues currently confronting criminal justice policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. To this end a diverse group of researchers and clinicians have collaborated to identify pressing concerns in the field and to make some suggestions about how to proceed in the future. The authors repre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Memory plays a vital role in the reporting of medical errors. Current reporting policies allow clinicians days, or even weeks, to report medical errors. Decades of memory research demonstrates that memories of events can become distorted within minutes of being exposed to misleading information (misinformation).Objectives: Our objective...
Article
Children often answer questions when they do not have the requisite knowledge or when they do not understand them. We examined whether ground rules instruction-to say "I don't know," to tell the truth, and to correct the interviewer when necessary-assisted children in applying those rules during an interview about a past event and whether doing so...
Article
In this brief review we reflect upon the key contributions of research examining children's eyewitness testimony. Children's testimonial ability became a focus of interest for researchers about forty years ago in the wake of several high profile child abuse cases that prompted questions about children's reliability in the face of problematic interv...
Article
We examined interviewers’ use of visual aids (e.g., diagrams, dolls, drawings), their questioning strategies, children's productivity, and factors associated with visual aid use in 98 forensic interviews with children (6–16 years) about sexual abuse. Use of aids was common: 62% of interviews included at least one, with sketch-plans being the most c...
Chapter
This chapter reviews important aspects of children's development that affect their ability to provide useful information when interviewed about events they have experienced. The ability to organize the remembered details into a coherent form is important for both communication and for long‐term memory. Infantile amnesia curtails the ability of chil...
Chapter
This chapter considers children who may be especially difficult to interview because they have learning, behavioral, social, or communicative difficulties that might affect how well they can recall and describe their experiences. Relevant studies examining children with developmental or intellectual disabilities (CWID) have almost exclusively been...
Chapter
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book reviews what research has demonstrated about young witnesses' strengths and difficulties, the challenges that interviewers face when eliciting testimony from children, and how to effectively prepare children to be interviewed. It a...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors discuss their ongoing efforts to develop and evaluate variants of the Protocol that address the special circumstances that attend interviews with such reluctant witnesses. It is important to consider disclosure history, as well as the type of abuse and characteristics of the child, when planning for an interview and ant...
Chapter
This chapter describes the various phases of the Protocol for young victims and witnesses and the research that informed them. Although the Protocol does not provide prescriptive advice about preparing for an interview, interviewers should consider a number of factors in advance of meeting children. In the introductory phase, the interviewer introd...
Chapter
This chapter presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book examines the interview context and how it may influence children's testimony. Before considering issues that would benefit from the attention of researchers in the future, it is important to emphasize that forensic interviews need to b...
Chapter
Systemic issues such as the quality of training provided, the availability of a structured interviewing model, and provision for continuing professional development, practice‐focused supervision, and regular opportunities for objective feedback on interviewing promote good interviewing practice better than how long interviewers have been working. C...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes research that has examined the use of various aids to complement Protocol strategies when interviewing alleged victims and witnesses. Dolls are the most studied visual aids, largely because of concerns raised by researchers and the courts about whether they are inherently suggestive or place too many demands on young childre...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors summarize research examining whether use of the Protocol is associated with improved interviewing practice and enhances the nature of children's responding. They describe the results of seven field studies conducted in Canada, Israel, Japan, Korea, the U.K., and the U.S.; they demonstrate convincingly that interviewers...
Chapter
This chapter presents the interview context, summarizing what researchers have learned about how the way in which children are prepared for an interview and how the strategies employed by the interviewer can also have a major impact on what children say. Just as there may be delays between children experiencing maltreatment and telling others about...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the impact that the use of the NICHD Protocol has on broader case‐related outcomes. In particular, it considers research examining whether the information elicited from children during Protocol interviews enhances assessments of their credibility and of their testimony more generally, the impact of the Protocol on the availa...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the extent to which interviewers actually adhere to the recommendations that have emerged from the research on children's eyewitness testimony when conducting investigative interviews with alleged victims. For many years now, expert professional groups and individuals have published consensus statements or formal guidelines d...
Chapter
It is clear that children as young as 3 years of age can respond to open‐ended questions, and that the NICHD Protocol can be used successfully when interviewing these very young children. Risky questions are even riskier when addressed to children aged 6 and under, and thus that forensic investigators need to make special efforts to maximize the am...
Article
Full-text available
Children must describe maltreatment coherently for their testimony to be influential in court. We know little about how well children with intellectual disabilities (CWID) describe their experiences relative to typically developing (TD) children, despite CWID's vulnerability to maltreatment. We investigated children's reports of an experienced even...
Article
Full-text available
Practitioners interview children in a range of settings to assess their wellbeing and to make decisions about their care. These interviews often have a significant memory component. Interviewing children about their past experiences, however, is a challenging task. It requires practitioners to be sensitive to children’s developmental capacities and...
Chapter
Obesity is one of the defining health challenges of our generation. Studies project that, if current trends continue, more than 50% of the US population will have obesity within the next 20 years. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-obesity-stigma-trends-and-interventions-paperback/
Article
Children with intellectual disabilities (CWIDs) are vulnerable to victimization, but we know little about how to interview them about possible maltreatment. We examined whether interviewers used proportionally more direct and option-posing, and fewer open questions, with CWID than with typically developing (TD) children or with less mature children...
Article
Background: Parental inability to recognize child overweight and physician reluctance to instigate discussion prevents behaviour change. Objective: To evaluate parental acceptance of child overweight status following screening. Methods: Interviewers used motivational interviewing or best practice care to discuss overweight status of 271 young...
Article
Full-text available
Regular supervision influences interviewing quality with child witnesses. It is unclear, however, whether interviewers recognize the importance of supervision, and how often they access it. The present study surveyed 39 New Zealand Specialist Child Witness Interviewers (otherwise known as forensic interviewers), and examined: (a) their access to, a...
Article
This study examined adherence to the New Zealand Specialist Child Witness Interviewing (SCWI) model in 93 interviews with children about sexual abuse allegations. Interviewers (n = 27) demonstrated good adherence to the scripted components of the model during the preparation stage of the interview. When investigating the abuse allegation, interview...
Article
Full-text available
We used sequential analysis to examine the relationship between interviewer question types, child responsiveness, and subsequent interviewer prompting in 103 forensic interviews investigating sexual abuse allegations with children (6-16 years old). Broad open-ended prompts were more likely to elicit responses (83%) than nonresponses (17%) from chil...
Article
For several decades, researchers have examined how children develop autobiographical memory, demonstrating that even young children report useful information about their experiences. However, the way adults question children influences profoundly the amount and nature of what children report. This research is relevant for the many contexts in which...
Article
To determine whether a 2-year family-based intervention using frequent contact and limited expert involvement was effective in reducing excessive weight compared with usual care. Two hundred and six overweight and obese (BMI ≥85th percentile) children aged 4 to 8 years were randomized to usual care (UC) or tailored package (TP) sessions at universi...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of an early interview on children's (N = 194) later recall of an experienced event was examined in children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (CWID; 7-12 years) and typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological (7-12 years) or mental (4-9 years) age. Children previously interviewed were more informative,...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Subjects: Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile)...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives As parents of young children are often unaware their child is overweight, screening provides the opportunity to inform parents and provide the impetus for behaviour change. We aimed to determine if parents could recall and understand the information they received about their overweight child after weight screening. Design Randomised cont...
Article
To determine whether a single session of motivational interviewing (MI) for feedback of a child's overweight status promotes engagement in treatment following screening. One thousand ninety-three children aged 4-8 years were recruited through primary and secondary care to attend health screening, including assessment of parenting practices and moti...
Article
Full-text available
One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 7-year-old children were interviewed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol about an event staged 4 to 6 weeks earlier. Children were prepared for talking about the investigated event using either an invitational or directive style of prompting, with...
Article
To determine what factors drive participation in a family-based weight management program for 4- to 8-year-old children following screening for overweight or obesity. Children (n = 1093) attended a comprehensive screening appointment where parents completed questionnaires on demographics, motivation for healthy lifestyles, feeding practices, and be...
Article
Full-text available
Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children’s cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we consider...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines mock jurors’ perceptions of a young witness according to whether or not he was described as having an intellectual disability. Our study examined perceptions of a child witness younger (five or seven years) than previously studied. Mock jurors (n = 71) viewed a short video excerpt of a boy recalling a personally experienced even...
Chapter
KEY POINTS ENHANCING ADULT EYEWITNESS MEMORY: THE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW OBTAINING CHILDREN'S TESTIMONY: THE NICHD PROTOCOL CONCLUSIONS FORENSIC IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the ability of children with intellectual disabilities to give reliable accounts of personally experienced events, considering the effects of delay, severity of disability, and the types of interview prompt used. Method: In a between-subjects design, we compared children with intellectual disabilities (7-12 years) that fell...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the amount, accuracy, and consistency of information reported by 58 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact/touching. Both 1 and 7 months following the event, children were asked both open and yes/no questions about touch [i] when provided with human body diagrams (HBDs), [ii] following instruction...
Chapter
Rationale for Using Supplementary Techniques in Interviews with ChildrenAnatomically Detailed DollsBody DiagramsProps: Real Items, Toys, and PhotographsReinstatement of ContextDrawingsTruth InductionLegal IssuesFuture ResearchConclusions References
Article
Full-text available
Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1) whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental accep...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews current understanding of children's abilities to recall and recount instances of abusive experiences, particularly in forensic interviews. It is argued that although the quality of children's testimony is influenced by a number of factors pertaining to the children themselves and the events they have experienced, the ways in wh...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the verbal i...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the verbal i...
Article
Alleged victims of child abuse are often the only sources of information about the crimes, and this places them in the role of experts when conversing about their experiences. Despite developmental deficiencies in memory, cognition, communication skills, and social style, researchers have shown that children's informativeness in such conversations...
Article
The current study examined first, whether the positive effects demonstrated by the Narrative Elaboration Technique (NET) could be further enhanced when coupled with mental reinstatement of context (MR), prior to interview, and second, compared the efficacy of the NET at a two-week delay and a nine-month delay. In Study 1, 47 children took part as a...
Article
Full-text available
Children between 7 and 8 years old took part in a staged event at school and 1 week later were assessed using a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence scale for children (third edition) and measures of metamemory, narrative ability, and socioeconomic status. Two weeks following the event, children either received narrative elaboration training (NE...
Article
The study compared children's reports of two medical events, to assess the effects of the type of event on children's recall. Additionally, the study examined the effect of props on children's event reports. Twenty children between the ages of 37 and 67 months were interviewed following either a voiding cysto-urethrogram (VCUG) or a pediatric asses...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The study compared children’s reports of two medical events, to assess the effects of the type of event on children’s recall. Additionally, the study examined the effect of props on children’s event reports.Method: Twenty children between the ages of 37 and 67 months were interviewed following either a voiding cysto-urethrogram (VCUG) or...

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