Deepak Srivastava

Deepak Srivastava
Gladstone Institutes · University of California San Francisco

M.D.

About

266
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (266)
Preprint
Exome sequencing of thousands of families has revealed many individual risk genes for congenital heart defects (CHD), yet most cases cannot be explained by a single causal mutation. Further, those who carry de novo and inherited mutations in known risk genes often demonstrate variable phenotypes even within the same family, indicating the presence...
Article
Full-text available
The well-established manifestation of mitochondrial mutations in functional cardiac disease (e.g., mitochondrial cardiomyopathy) prompted the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and/or copy number (mtDNAcn) variation contribute to cardiac defects in congenital heart disease (CHD). MtDNAcns were calculated and rare, non-synonymous mtD...
Article
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is present in 1% of live births, yet identification of causal mutations remains challenging. We hypothesized that genetic determinants for CHDs may lie in the protein interactomes of transcription factors whose mutations cause CHDs. Defining the interactomes of two transcription factors haplo-insufficient in CHD, GATA...
Article
Background: The regenerative capacity of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) is limited. Our previous study showed that ectopic introduction of Cdk1/CyclinB1 and Cdk4/CyclinD1 complexes (4F) promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation in 15-20% of infected cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo and improves cardiac function after MI in mice. Methods:...
Article
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is present in 1% of live births, yet despite large-scale genomic sequencing efforts, identification of causal mutations remains a challenge. We hypothesized that genetic determinants for CHDs may lie in the protein interactomes of GATA4 and TBX5, two transcription factors whose mutation cause CHDs. Defining the GATA4...
Article
Full-text available
Higher-order chromatin structure regulates gene expression, and mutations in proteins mediating genome folding underlie developmental disorders known as cohesinopathies. However, the relationship between three-dimensional genome organization and embryonic development remains unclear. Here we define a role for bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4)...
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In diseased organs, stress-activated signalling cascades alter chromatin, thereby triggering maladaptive cell state transitions. Fibroblast activation is a common stress response in tissues that worsens lung, liver, kidney and heart disease, yet its mechanistic basis remains unclear1,2. Pharmacological inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal d...
Article
Mouse embryonic organoids that model cardiac development ex vivo could be used as a high-throughput, experimentally tractable system to evaluate crucial cell populations and environmental factors that contribute to normal and abnormal cardiogenesis.
Preprint
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is present in 1% of live births, yet identification of causal mutations remains a challenge despite large-scale genomic sequencing efforts. We hypothesized that genetic determinants for CHDs may lie in protein interactomes of GATA4 and TBX5, two transcription factors that cause CHDs. Defining their interactomes in hum...
Article
Mapping the gene regulatory networks dysregulated in human disease would allow the design of network-correcting therapies that treat the core disease mechanism. However, small molecules are traditionally screened for their effects on one to several outputs at most, biasing discovery and limiting the likelihood of true disease-modifying drug candida...
Article
Rationale: The regenerative capacity of the heart to repair itself after myocardial infarction (MI)is limited. Our previous study showed that ectopic introduction of Cdk1/CyclinB1 andCdk4/CyclinD1 complexes (4F) promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo andimproves cardiac function after MI. However, its clinical application is limi...
Article
Background: Gene regulatory networks control tissue homeostasis and disease progression in a cell-type specific manner. Ubiquitously expressed chromatin regulators modulate these networks, yet the mechanisms governing how tissue-specificity of their function is achieved are poorly understood. BRD4, a member of the BET (Bromo- and Extra-Terminal dom...
Preprint
Full-text available
In diseased organs, stress-activated signaling cascades alter chromatin, triggering broad shifts in transcription and cell state that exacerbate pathology. Fibroblast activation is a common stress response that worsens lung, liver, kidney and heart disease, yet its mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Pharmacologic inhibition of the BET fam...
Article
Full-text available
Organogenesis involves integration of diverse cell types; dysregulation of cell-type-specific gene networks results in birth defects, which affect 5% of live births. Congenital heart defects are the most common malformations, and result from disruption of discrete subsets of cardiac progenitor cells¹, but the transcriptional changes in individual p...
Article
Ectopic expression of combinations of transcription factors (TFs) can drive direct lineage conversion, thereby reprogramming a somatic cell's identity. To determine the molecular mechanisms by which Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) induce conversion from a cardiac fibroblast toward an induced cardiomyocyte, we performed comprehensive transcriptomic, DN...
Article
Full-text available
Complex genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie many human diseases, yet experimental proof of this model has been elusive. Here, we show that a human cardiac anomaly can be caused by a combination of rare, inherited heterozygous mutations. Whole-exome sequencing of a nuclear family revealed that three offspring with childhood-onset cardiomyopat...
Preprint
Direct lineage conversion, whereby a somatic cell assumes a new cellular identity, can be driven by ectopic expression of combinations of lineage-enriched transcription factors. To determine the molecular mechanisms by which expression of Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) induces direct reprogramming from a cardiac fibroblast toward an induced cardiomyo...
Data
Myocardial Hypertrophy and Cellularity in MiR-1 TG Mice. (A) Ventricular wall of WT (left) and miR-1 TG (right) hearts at P10 stained for wheat germ agglutinin demonstrates decreased cell number in miR-1 TG hearts. Scale bars = 100 microns. (B) Closer view of wheat germ agglutinin staining shows increased cross sectional area of myocardial cells in...
Data
Echocardiographic Parameters in Awake MiR-1 TG and WT Adult Mice.
Data
Immunohistochemistry of Conduction Tissue in MiR-1 TG Mice. (A) Connexin-40 staining of WT (top panels) and TG (bottom panels) demonstrates connexin-40+ subendocardial Purkinje cells. The boxed regions are magnified in the right panels to show connexin-40 plaques in individual VCS cells. (B) Quantification of fluorescence intensity of Cx40 plaques...
Data
MiR-1 TG Mice Exhibit Cardiac Enlargement, AV block, and Early Death. (A) Gross examination of miR-1 TG hearts versus WT littermate hearts at 4 time points revealed normal cardiac structure with modest age-dependent enlargement in miR-1 TG hearts. (B) Quantification of heart weight to body weight ratio (HW/BW) demonstrated that miR-1 TG animals are...
Data
Optical projection tomography was used to visualize the VCS in miR-1 TG; Irx3-LacZ neonatal hearts and Irx3-LacZ littermates after fixing, staining with bluo-gal, clearing, and scanning. Three-dimensional reconstructions of virtual sections demonstrate markedly reduced Purkinje Fibers in the miR-1 TG hearts, similar to findings from crosses to CCS-...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian cardiac Purkinje fibers (PFs) are specified from ventricular trabecular myocardium during mid-gestation and undergo limited proliferation before assuming their final form. MicroRNA-1 (miR-1), a negative regulator of proliferation, is normally expressed in the heart at low levels during the period of PF specification and outgrowth, but exp...
Article
Human diseases are often caused by loss of somatic cells that are incapable of re-entering the cell cycle for regenerative repair. Here, we report a combination of cell-cycle regulators that induce stable cytokinesis in adult post-mitotic cells. We screened cell-cycle regulators expressed in proliferating fetal cardiomyocytes and found that overexp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Complex genetic inheritance is thought to underlie many human diseases, yet experimental proof of this model has been elusive. Here, we show that a human congenital heart defect, left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), can be caused by a combination of rare, inherited heterozygous missense single nucleotide variants. Whole exome sequencing of a nuc...
Article
Molecular chaperones regulate quality control in the human proteome, pathways that have been implicated in many diseases, including heart failure. Mutations in the BAG3 gene, which encodes a co-chaperone protein, have been associated with heart failure due to both inherited and sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Familial BAG3 mutations are autosomal...
Article
Rationale: During each beat, cardiac myocytes (CMs) generate the mechanical output necessary for heart function through contractile mechanisms that involve shortening of sarcomeres along myofibrils. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be differentiated into CMs (hiPSC-CMs) that model cardiac contractile mechanical output more robustl...
Article
Diseases caused by gene haploinsufficiency in humans commonly lack a phenotype in mice that are heterozygous for the orthologous factor, impeding the study of complex phenotypes and critically limiting the discovery of therapeutics. Laboratory mice have longer telomeres relative to humans, potentially protecting against age-related disease caused b...
Article
miR-1 is a small noncoding RNA molecule that modulates gene expression in heart and skeletal muscle. Loss ofDrosophila miR-1produces defects in somatic muscle and embryonic heart development, which have been partly attributed tomiR-1directly targeting Delta to decrease Notch signaling. Here, we show that overexpression ofmiR-1in the fly wing can pa...
Article
Mutation of highly conserved residues in transcription factors may affect protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, leading to gene network dysregulation and human disease. Human mutations in GATA4, a cardiogenic transcription factor, cause cardiac septal defects and cardiomyopathy. Here, iPS-derived cardiomyocytes from subjects with a heterozyg...
Article
Background: -Reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) in situ represents a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration. A combination of three cardiac transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c and Tbx5 (GMT), can convert fibroblasts into iCMs, albeit with low efficiency in vitro METHODS: -We screened 5,500 compou...
Article
Cellular reprogramming technology has created new opportunities in understanding human disease, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. While a combinatorial code was initially found to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency, a "second generation" of cellular reprogramming involves lineage-restricted transcription factors and microRNAs that dir...
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Full-text available
Background The Activin A and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are critical regulators of the immune system and of bone formation. Inappropriate activation of these pathways, as in conditions of congenital heterotopic ossification, are thought to activate an osteogenic program in endothelial cells. However, if and how this occurs in human e...
Chapter
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Progenitor cells, derived from the cardiac neural crest (CNC) and the second heart field (SHF), play key roles in development of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT), and their interaction is essential for establishment of the separate pulmonary and systemic circulation in vertebrates. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) or Takao syndrome is the most co...
Chapter
Full-text available
Congenital heart disease is still the leading cause of death within the first year of life. Our lab forces on understanding the morphology of congenital heart disease. Outflow tract anomalies, including abnormal alignment or septation, account for 30 % of all congenital heart disease. To solve the developmental problem of these defects, we are inte...
Article
Full-text available
Reprogramming somatic fibroblasts into alternative lineages would provide a promising source of cells for regenerative therapy. However, transdifferentiating human cells to specific homogeneous, functional cell types is challenging. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-like cells can be generated by treating human fibroblasts with a combination of nine...
Article
Full-text available
Tissue engineering approaches have the potential to increase the physiologic relevance of human iPSderived cells, such as cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). However, forming Engineered Heart Muscle (EHM) typically requires <1 million cells per tissue. Existing miniaturization strategies involve complex approaches not amenable to mass production, limiting the...
Article
Stem cell-based approaches to cardiac regeneration are increasingly viable strategies for treating heart failure. Generating abundant and functional autologous cells for transplantation in such a setting, however, remains a significant challenge. Here, we isolated a cell population with extensive proliferation capacity and restricted cardiovascular...
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Full-text available
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) with human embryonic stem (hES)-cell-like properties has led to hPS cells with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in vitro disease modeling and drug discovery as well as mec...
Article
The heart is a complex organ, consisting of multiple cell types that coordinately regulate blood flow. Reciprocal Notch pathway signalling in endocardial and myocardial cells is now shown to promote maturation of the ventricular chambers. These insights reveal mechanisms that, when disrupted, can lead to cardiomyopathies.
Article
The ability to directly trans-differentiate fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes through overexpression of three core transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2C &TBX5 (GMT), has been demonstrated by our group and others. Direct cardiac reprogramming has great potential to treat heart failure. However, clinical application remains limited due to inefficiencies...
Article
Human adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity resulting in permanent loss of cardiomyocytes in the setting of many forms of heart disease. In an effort to replace lost cells, several groups have reported successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) without going through an intermediate progeni...
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Full-text available
The advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has revolutionized biomedicine and basic research by yielding cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like properties. The use of iPS-derived cells for cell-based therapies and modeling of human disease holds great potential. While the initial description of iPS cells involved overexpression...
Article
Single cardiomyocytes contain myofibrils that harbor the sarcomere-based contractile machinery of the myocardium. Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) have potential as an in vitro model of heart activity. However, their fetal-like misalignment of myofibrils limits their usefulness for modeling contractile acti...
Article
The field of miRNA biology is relatively young, but its impact on our understanding of the regulation of a wide array of cell functions is far-reaching. The importance of miRNAs in development has become nearly ubiquitous, with miRNAs contributing to development of most cells and organs. Although miRNAs are clearly interwoven into known regulatory...
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Full-text available
Valvular and vascular calcification are common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Developing effective treatments requires understanding the molecular underpinnings of these processes. Shear stress is thought to play a role in inhibiting calcification. Furthermore, NOTCH1 regulates vascular and valvular endothelium, and human mutatio...
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Smyd1/Bop is an evolutionary conserved histone methyltransferase previously shown by conventional knockout to be critical for embryonic heart development. To further explore the mechanism(s) in a cell autonomous context, we conditionally ablated Smyd1 in the first and second heart fields of mice using a knock-in (KI) Nkx2.5-cre driver. Robust delet...
Article
The mechanisms by which transcription factor haploinsufficiency alters the epigenetic and transcriptional landscape in human cells to cause disease are unknown. Here, we utilized human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) to show that heterozygous nonsense mutations in NOTCH1 that cause aortic valve calcification dis...
Article
Rationale: Treatment of sinus node disease with regenerative or cell-based therapies will require a detailed understanding of gene regulatory networks in cardiac pacemaker cells (PCs). Objective: To characterize the transcriptome of PCs using RNA sequencing and to identify transcriptional networks responsible for PC gene expression. Methods and...
Article
Cardiac fibroblasts play critical roles in maintaining normal cardiac function and in cardiac remodeling during pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction (MI). Adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) have little to no regenerative capacity; damaged CMs in the heart after MI are replaced by cardiac fibroblasts that become activated and transform into...
Article
Introduction: Heart function relies on the contractility of its muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). However, while their myogenic maturity increases with time, they do not resemble adult cardiomyocytes in their morphology, structural organization, mechanical output...
Article
In humans, NOTCH1 mutations result in congenital heart defects including valve malformations and severe valve calcification in adults. Valve calcification typically occurs on the aortic side of the valve leaflets that is not exposed to laminar shear stress, suggesting a protective role of flow sensed by the endothelial lining. To understand the mec...
Article
Mammalian hearts transition from a hypoxic in utero environment to an oxygen-rich habitat after birth, coinciding with the rapid postnatal exit of cardiomyocytes out of the cell cycle. A recent article in Cell identified a novel connection between the 2 seminal events, focusing on the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in cardiomyocytes as a m...
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Full-text available
T-box transcription factor, TBX1, is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/ Velo-cardio-facial syndrome) characterized by facial defects, thymus hypoplasia, cardiovascular anomalies and cleft palates. Here, we report that the loss of Tbx1 in mouse (Tbx1−/−) results in skeletal abnormalities similar to those of cleidocrani...
Article
Full-text available
Coordinated contraction of the heart is essential for survival and is regulated by the cardiac conduction system. Contraction of ventricular myocytes is controlled by the terminal part of the conduction system known as the Purkinje fiber network. Lineage analyses in chickens and mice have established that the Purkinje fibers of the peripheral ventr...
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Full-text available
High-throughput sequencing of related individuals has become an important tool for studying human disease. However, owing to technical complexity and lack of available tools, most pedigree-based sequencing studies rely on an ad hoc combination of suboptimal analyses. Here we present pedigree-VAAST (pVAAST), a disease-gene identification tool design...
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Full-text available
MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is regulated by interaction of particular miRNA precursors with specific RNA-binding proteins. Following their biogenesis, mature miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) where they interact with mRNAs to negatively regulate protein production. However, little is known about how mature miRNAs...
Article
Full-text available
It was recently shown that mouse fibroblasts could be reprogrammed into cells of a cardiac fate by forced expression of multiple transcription factors and microRNAs. For ultimate application of such a reprogramming strategy for cell-based therapy or in vivo cardiac regeneration, reducing or eliminating the genetic manipulations by small molecules w...
Article
Congenital heart disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood and is the most common human birth defect, affecting nearly 1% of all live births worldwide. The morphogenetic events that are disrupted during cardiogenesis that lead to CHD are now partially understood, as are many of the molecular networks that guide n...
Data
miR-1 targets as predicted by three algorithms.Putative miR-1 target genes as predicted by Targetscan, PITA and Pictar. Genes used for this analysis were expressed at a relative quantity of ≥1 based on FPKM in miR-1 null vs wild-type hearts. Genes indicated in bold were significantly upregulated (FDR<0.1) in miR-1 null vs wild-type hearts.DOI: http...
Data
Probe sequence/part number. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01323.036
Article
Reprogramming differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) promotes a broad array of cellular changes. Here we show that the let-7 family of microRNAs acts as an inhibitory influence on the reprogramming process through a regulatory pathway involving prodifferentiation factors, including EGR1. Inhibiting let-7 in human cells pro...
Article
Heart disease affects millions worldwide and is a progressive condition involving loss of cardiomyocytes. The human heart has limited endogenous regenerative capacity and is thus an important target for novel regenerative medicine approaches. Although cell-based regenerative therapies hold promise, cellular reprogramming of endogenous cardiac fibro...