Declan J Bolton

Declan J Bolton
TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority · Department of Food Safety

Bachelor of Science

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240
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (240)
Article
Full-text available
The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach was developed to provide a regularly updated generic pre-evaluation of the safety of microorganisms, intended for use in the food or feed chains, to support the work of EFSA's Scientific Panels. The QPS approach is based on an assessment of published data for each agent, with respect to its taxonom...
Article
Full-text available
Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of lactic acid to reduce microbiological surface contamination from carcases of wild game (i.e. kangaroos and wild pigs) and small stock (i.e. goats and sheep) before chilling at the slaughterhouse were assessed. Wild pig and kangaroo hide-on carcases may have been chilled before they arrive at the slaught...
Article
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This study investigated the survival of Salmonella Senftenberg, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium sporogenes in sandy and clay loam textured soils when applied in bovine slurry or unpasteurised digestate, using laboratory based inoculation studies. The run-off rate for a test bacterium, Listeria...
Article
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High-pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal treatment in which, for microbial inactivation, foods are subjected to isostatic pressures (P) of 400–600 MPa with common holding times (t) from 1.5 to 6 min. The main factors that influence the efficacy (log10 reduction of vegetative microorganisms) of HPP when applied to foodstuffs are intrinsic (e....
Article
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The European Commission requested EFSA to assess if different thermal processes achieve a 5 log10 reduction in Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Senftenberg (775W) and (if relevant) a 3 log10 reduction in thermoresistant viruses (e.g. Parvovirus) as well as if different chemical processes achieve a 3 log10 reduction of eggs of Ascaris sp., in eig...
Article
Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) studies have suggested that control options to reduce the concentration of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chicken caeca may be highly effective at reducing the risk of human campylobacteriosis. These QMRA studies have been updated based on scientific evidence obtained in the past decade. The relati...
Article
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Background: Campylobacter is commonly transmitted to humans from chickens. Campylobacter jejuni is the species most frequently associated with human illness, and the most prevalent species recovered from poultry. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse a sub-population of C. jejuni from two broiler flocks on the farm and at slaughter...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of florfenicol and thiamphenicol in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in ter...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of tilmicosin, tylosin and tylvalosin in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect i...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of apramycin, paromomycin, neomycin and spectinomycin in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of amprolium in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth promoti...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of colistin in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth promotio...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of trimethoprim in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth promo...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of tiamulin and valnemulin in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of lincomycin in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth promot...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of amoxicillin and penicillin V in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in term...
Article
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Abstract The European Commission requested EFSA to assess, in collaboration with EMA, the specific concentrations of antimicrobials resulting from cross‐contamination in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in microbial agents relevant for human and...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of flumequine and oxolinic acid in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in term...
Article
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Abstract The specific concentrations of sulfonamides in non‐target feed for food‐producing animals, below which there would not be an effect on the emergence of, and/or selection for, resistance in bacteria relevant for human and animal health, as well as the specific antimicrobial concentrations in feed which have an effect in terms of growth prom...
Article
Increased awareness of environmental sustainability has led to a call for actions by producers, scientists, and consumers towards current challenges in the agri-food sector. In particular, food packaging has been observed to be linked with plastic waste and food loss and therefore, the use of alternative packaging materials and extension of shelf l...
Article
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Animal waste contains high numbers of microorganisms and therefore can present a potential biological threat to human health. During episodic rainfall events resulting in runoff, microorganisms in the waste and soil may migrate into surface runoff, contaminating surface water resources. A probabilistic human exposure (HE) model was created to deter...
Article
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Farmyard manure and slurry (FYM&S) is a valuable feedstock for anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. However, FYM&S may contain high concentrations of pathogens, and complete inactivation through the AD process is unlikely. Thus, following land application of digestate, pathogens may contaminate a range of environmental media posing a potential threat t...
Article
Full-text available
The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach was developed to provide a regularly updated generic pre-evaluation of the safety of biological agents, intended for addition to food or feed, to support the work of EFSA's Scientific Panels. The QPS approach is based on an assessment of published data for each agent, with respect to its taxonomic...
Article
Full-text available
Transfer of Escherichia coli in bioaerosols to humans during and shortly after the land application of farmyard slurry may pose human health hazards, but it has not been extensively explored to date. The present study developed a quantitative risk assessment model for E. coli through the air exposure route. The probabilistic model assessed the pred...
Article
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The role of food-producing environments in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in EU plant-based food production, terrestrial animals (poultry, cattle and pigs) and aquaculture was assessed. Among the various sources and transmission routes identified, fertilisers of faecal origin, irrigation and surface water for plant-based...
Article
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Farm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA) typically start with a preliminary estimate of initial concentration (Cinitial) of microorganism loading at farm level, consisting of an initial estimate of prevalence (P) and the resulting pathogen levels in animal faeces. An average estimation of the initial concentration of pathogens ca...
Article
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A risk-based approach was used to develop guidance to be followed by food business operators (FBOs) when deciding on food information relating to storage conditions and/or time limits for consumption after opening a food package and thawing of frozen foods. After opening the package, contamination may occur, introducing new pathogens into the food...
Article
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A new alternative method for the production of biodiesel from rendered fat, including animal by-product (ABP) Category 1 tallow, was evaluated. The method consists of a conversion phase, based on esterification and transesterification in a single step (at temperature ≥ 200°C, pressure ≥ 70 bar with a retention time ≥ 15 min), using MgO as a catalys...
Article
Light-emitting diode (LED) technologies are economical and efficient devices that could be considered in poultry processing as disinfection strategies. This study evaluated the efficacy of a LED-based device to reduce the microbial load on chicken meat and investigated it’s impact on selected quality parameters. Quality parameters including pH, tex...
Article
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Superchilling entails lowering the fish temperature to between the initial freezing point of the fish and about 1-2°C lower. The temperature of superchilled fresh fishery products (SFFP) in boxes without ice was compared to that of products subject to the currently authorised practice in boxes with ice (CFFP) under the same conditions of on-land st...
Article
Full-text available
The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach was developed to provide a regularly updated generic pre-evaluation of the safety of biological agents, intended for addition to food or feed, to support the work of EFSA's Scientific Panels. It is based on an assessment of published data for each agent, with respect to its taxonomic identity, the...
Article
Application of novel decontamination strategies such as Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are required to mitigate the risks associated with Campylobacter jejuni in food. This study evaluated the use of a light-emitting diode (LED) based technology to inactivate C. jejuni NCTC 11168 in Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD) at wavelengths of 280, 300 and 365 nm...
Article
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The potential effects of a 24 or 72-h delay in post-mortem inspection (PMI) of ungulates on public health and monitoring of animal health and welfare was evaluated. The assessment used a survey of meat inspectors, expert opinion, literature search and a stochastic model for Salmonella detection sensitivity. Disease detection sensitivity at a delaye...
Conference Paper
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Ready-to-Eat (RTE) foods have been identified as potential sources of illness in humans causing mainly gastroenteritis. In Ireland, Escherichia coli is ranked highly as a bacteria of concern for human health. A farm-to-fork quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model was developed to investigate the potential exposure to verotoxigenic...
Article
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North Atlantic European grassland systems have a low nutrient use efficiency and high rainfall. This grassland is typically amended with unprocessed slurry, which counteracts soil organic matter depletion and provides essential plant micronutrients but can be mobilised during rainfall events thereby contributing to pathogen, nutrient and metal inci...
Article
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Campylobacter spp. are major causes of foodborne illness globally, and are mostly transmitted through the consumption and handling of poultry. Campylobacter infections have widely variable outcomes, ranging from mild enteritis to severe illness, which are attributed to host interactions and the virulence of the infecting strain. In this study, in o...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a generic safety evaluation for biological agents to support EFSA's Scientific Panels. It is based on an assessment of the taxonomic identity, the body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance. Safety concerns identified for a taxonomic unit (TU) are where...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract An alternative method for the production of biodiesel from processed fats derived from Category 1, 2 and 3 animal by‐products was assessed. The method is based on a pre‐cleaning process, acidic esterification/transesterification of tallow using 1.5% methanesulfonic acid w/w; 140°C; 5.5 bar absolute pressure (bara); 4 h, followed by fractio...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-country outbreak ofListeria monocytogenesST6 linked to blanched frozen vegetables (bfV)took place in the EU (2015–2018). Evidence of food-borne outbreaks shows thatL. monocytogenesisthe most relevant pathogen associated with bfV. The probability of illness per serving of uncooked bfV,for the elderly (65–74 years old) population, is up to 3,...
Article
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Abstract On‐land transport/storage of fresh fishery products (FFP) for up to 3 days in ‘tubs’ of three‐layered poly‐ethylene filled with freshwater and ice was compared to the currently authorised practice (fish boxes of high‐density poly‐ethylene filled with ice). The impact on the survival and growth of biological hazards in fish and the histamin...
Article
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Abstract The 2011 EFSA opinion on Campylobacter was updated using more recent scientific data. The relative risk reduction in EU human campylobacteriosis attributable to broiler meat was estimated for on‐farm control options using Population Attributable Fractions (PAF) for interventions that reduce Campylobacter flock prevalence, updating the mode...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a generic safety evaluation for biological agents to support EFSA's Scientific Panels. The taxonomic identity, body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance are assessed. Safety concerns identified for a taxonomic unit (TU) are where possible to be confirmed a...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a safety pre‐assessment within EFSA for microorganisms. Strains belonging to QPS taxonomic units (TUs) still require an assessment based on a specific data package, but QPS status facilitates fast track evaluation. QPS TUs are unambiguously defined biological agents assesse...
Article
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Abstract The provisional molecular approach, proposed by EFSA in 2013, for the pathogenicity assessment of Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been reviewed. Analysis of the confirmed reported human STEC infections in the EU/EEA (2012–2017) demonstrated that isolates positive for any of the reported Shiga toxin (Stx) subtypes (and enc...
Article
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Abstract This Opinion considers the application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics for outbreak investigation, source attribution and risk assessment of food‐borne pathogens. WGS offers the highest level of bacterial strain discrimination for food‐borne outbreak investigation and source‐attribution as well as potential for more preci...
Article
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Abstract The European Commission asked EFSA for a Scientific Opinion: to revise the state of knowledge about the differences between the chronic wasting disease (CWD) strains found in North America (NA) and Europe and within Europe; to review new scientific evidence on the zoonotic potential of CWD and to provide recommendations to address the pote...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) procedure was developed to provide a harmonised generic pre‐evaluation to support safety risk assessments of biological agents performed by EFSA's Scientific Panels. The taxonomic identity, body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance were assessed. Safety concerns identified for...
Article
Bacteriophages (phages) have traditionally been considered troublesome in food fermentations, as they are an important cause of starter-culture failure and trigger significant financial losses. In addition, from an evolutionary perspective, phages have contributed to the pathogenicity of many bacteria through transduction of virulence genes. In con...
Article
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An increase in confirmed human salmonellosis cases in the EU after 2014 triggered investigation of contributory factors and control options in poultry production. Reconsideration of the five current target serovars for breeding hens showed that there is justification for retaining Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium (including monophasic...
Article
Abstract The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) procedure was developed to provide a harmonised generic pre‐evaluation to support safety risk assessments of biological agents performed by EFSA's Scientific Panels. The taxonomic identity, body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance were assessed. Safety concerns identified for...
Article
Full-text available
Parasites are important food-borne pathogens. Their complex lifecycles, varied transmission routes, and prolonged periods between infection and symptoms mean that the public health burden and relative importance of different transmission routes are often difficult to assess. Furthermore, there are challenges in detection and diagnostics, and variat...
Article
Full-text available
Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of lactic and acetic acids to reduce microbiological surface contamination on pork carcasses pre-chill and pork meat cuts post-chill were assessed. Lactic acid treatments consisted of 2–5% solutions at temperatures of up to 80°C applied to carcasses by spraying or up to 55°C applied on cuts by spraying or...