Debra L. Shapiro

Debra L. Shapiro
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Robert H. Smith School of Business

PhD

About

130
Publications
101,061
Reads
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12,587
Citations
Citations since 2016
22 Research Items
4981 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - July 2025
University of Maryland, College Park
Position
  • CEO

Publications

Publications (130)
Article
Numerous organizational scandals have implicated leaders in encouraging employees to advance organizational objectives through unethical means. However, leadership research has not examined leaders' encouragement of unethical behaviors. We define leader immorality encouragement (LIE) as an employee's perception that their leader encourages unethica...
Article
This paper builds on the scant literature regarding antecedents and consequences of employee thriving, a positive psychological state characterized by the joint experience of vitality and learning. Guided by conservation of resource (COR) theory and the social embeddedness perspective, we predict that the social network centrality of employees help...
Article
Full-text available
Employees’ may view prohibitive voice—that is, expressing concerns about harmful practices in the workplace—as a moral yet interpersonally risky behavior. We, thus, predict that prohibitive voice is likely to be influenced by variables associated with moral and relational qualities. Specifically, we hypothesize that employees’ moral identity intern...
Article
How can employees of multinational corporations (MNCs) who are dispersed in various locations around the globe feel included? Integrating social capital theory and the MNC literature regarding resource and status differences between employees located in headquarter (HQ) versus non-HQ (i.e., subsidiary) country locations, we examined the role of the...
Article
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Organizational scholars frequently rely on experiments using human confederates or descriptions of vignette characters to study a range of phenomena. Although experiments with confederates allow for realism and rigor, human confederates have several critical limitations. We present a novel and efficient alternative: the use of responsive electronic...
Article
As organizations compete in an increasingly global and challenging environment, “working” often requires working harder for fewer rewards. In this article, we introduce the concept of “organization-wide hardship,” which refers to workforce-shared hardship that results from an organization’s pursuit of a strategy associated with its industry-positio...
Article
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Team innovation requires idea generating and idea implementing. In two studies, we examine how these team activities are affected by the extent to which members value traditionalism – that is, placing importance on preserving old ways of doing things over breaking precedent and forging new approaches. We proposed that higher average levels of team...
Article
This paper provides a historical review of the conceptualization and measurement of organizational justice. We demonstrate how, over time, a dominant norm for conceptualizing and measuring justice has emerged. We posit that although consistent conceptualization and measurement across justice studies can enable the accumulation of knowledge, if the...
Article
In this tribute to the 2009 recipient of the International Association for Conflict Management Lifetime Achievement Award Winner, we celebrate the work of Jeanne M. Brett. Each of us highlights a few unique contributions from four areas of Jeanne's research: (a) getting disputes resolved (Debra Shapiro); (b) negotiating globally (Wendi Adair); (c)...
Article
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Purpose The paper aims to investigate why organizations often opt to reject Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)-sponsored mediation of employment disputes (in contrast to employees who tend to readily agree to it). It is guided by recent research associated with Shapiro and Kirkman’s (1999, 2001) theory of “anticipatory justice”, whereby...
Article
We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also h...
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Management scholars have noted that leader departures often foreshadow higher turnover intentions (or lower organizational attachment) of subordinates left behind, especially when relationships between the departing leader and subordinates (leadermember exchanges) have been high quality. In this article we posit that the quality of subordinates' re...
Article
Via a longitudinal study of organizational change, we found that employees’ later commitment to change, in both affective and normative forms, was generally greater when they initially felt more rather than less commitment to change and that more commitment to change was sustained over time when employees perceived their leaders to have provided mo...
Article
The experience of injustice is a ubiquitous reality of organizational life. Accordingly, a small body of literature has sought to investigate how organizational authorities can mitigate such unfavourable reactions, citing such initiatives as: managerial excuses and justifications, training interventions for managers, and, remedies distributed by th...
Article
We critically assess a common approach to scholarly impact that relies almost exclusively on a single stakeholder (i.e., other academics). We argue that this approach is narrow and insufficient, and thereby threatens the credibility and long-term sustainability of the management research community. We offer a solution in the form of a broader and n...
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Using a survey of 393 employees who were natives and residents of China, Japan, and South Korea, we examined the extent to which employees from different countries within East Asia experience distributive justice when they perceived that their work outcomes relative to a referent other (i.e., someone with similar “inputs” such as educational backgr...
Article
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We review prior research that has examined virtuality in teams (e. g., pertaining to the use of electronic media) or the global nature of teams (e. g., national and cultural differences), demonstrating that very few scholars have examined both simultaneously. Given that the global and virtual elements often coincide in the same team, this is a crit...
Chapter
To effectively manage conflict in organizations requires understanding the pervasive role that voice plays in the process of managing conflict from the perspective of the grievant(s), “the accused party," and the "conflict resolver." Additionally, it is important to understand how each of these perspectives is influenced by the broader organization...
Article
Using a survey of 393 employees who were natives and residents of China, Japan, and South Korea, we examined the extent to which employees from different countries within East Asia experience distributive justice when they perceived that their work outcomes relative to a referent other (i.e., someone with similar “inputs” such as educational backgr...
Article
In this paper, we review literature regarding whether openly talking about relationship conflict (RC) helps or harms team-effectiveness and, in so doing, illuminate competing views on this. To reconcile these competing views we offer a contingency model which, unlike prior work, distinguishes between “surfacing” and “discussing” RC and notes that t...
Article
The theme of the Academy of Management Orlando 2013 Conference on “Capitalism in Question” provides a unique opportunity to critically reflect on the ways in which we both define and account for impact. Capitalism as an idea, as much as an economic system, has emerged over time in ways that its effects could not have been predicted and its conseque...
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Current theory and research suggest a positive linear relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and employees’ taking charge, or change-suggesting, behaviors. Via a sample of 89 subordinate-supervisor dyads, we hypothesize and test an inverted U-shaped relationship between employees’ POS and their taking charge behaviors and the l...
Article
Via three studies of varying methodologies designed to complement and build upon each other, we examine how supervisory ethical leadership is associated with employees’ reporting unethical conduct within the organization (i.e., internal whistle-blowing). We also examine whether the positive effect of supervisory ethical leadership is enhanced by an...
Article
We contribute to research on the management of social perceptions by considering the relative effectiveness of a firm's technical and ceremonial actions in managing media coverage after its own or its competitors' wrongdoing. We examine these relationships in the context of product recalls by U.S. toy companies over the ten-year period 1998–2007. A...
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The boundary between organizational insiders (e.g., employees) and outsiders (e.g., customers) has become increasingly permeable due to Internet discussion boards that enable members of both groups to share experiences of organizational fairness and unfairness. We studied discussion board threads on Vault.com, focusing on threads initiated by posti...
Article
We contribute to research on the management of social perceptions by considering the relative effectiveness of a firm's technical and ceremonial actions in managing media coverage after its own or its competitors' wrongdoing. We examine these relationships in the context of product recalls by U.S. toy companies over the ten-year period 1998–2007. A...
Article
Full-text available
Using cross-cultural laboratory and field studies with samples of leaders, employees, and students from the United States and the People's Republic of China, we examined how team-level stimuli, including empowering leadership and relationship conflict, combine to influence individual members' motivational states of psychological empowerment and aff...
Article
Despite noting the likelihood of dissimilar motives in many transactions, previous negotiation research has focused on negotiations whose participants were similarly motivated (to be cooperative or individualistic). In this paper, we answer recent calls to examine “mixed dyads” (i.e. negotiators with differing social motives) in addition to homogen...
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Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less p...
Article
In order to adjust, expatriates working abroad must form network ties in the host country to obtain critical informational and emotional support resources. We present a five-stage process model that delineates how expatriates form adjustmentfacilitating support ties in a culturally unfamiliar context. We then provide propositions about how the prog...
Article
This research tests the notion that mediation is an art and thereby reflects mediators' unique interpretation of case characteristics and their intuitive resolution skills. Self-report data were collected from 327 grievance mediation conferences. Specifically, five mediators reported whether or not they encouraged a compromise settlement, proposed...
Conference Paper
Although the benefits of knowledge sharing have been widely recognized, organizations often encounter difficulties in making them happen. It is important to understand what influence employees contribute to knowledge sharing. Using survey responses from 173 employees of a large US university, we found that employees' creative contributions to an el...
Article
In order to adjust, expatriates working abroad must form network ties in the host country to obtain critical informational and emotional support resources. We present a five-stage process model that delineates how expatriates form adjustment-facilitating support ties in a culturally unfamiliar context. We then provide propositions about how the pro...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether negative emotions mediate the relationship between supervisor rudeness and subordinates' retaliatory reactions and how the reactions to supervisor rudeness differ between US Americans and Koreans and between in‐group and out‐group supervisors. Design/methodology/approach A survey involving 19...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the causes, impact, and resolution of ideological conflicts in the workplace. By integrating research on organizational justice, the paper aims to argue that ideological discord is engendered though the interaction of distributive, procedural, and interactional (un)fairness. Design/methodology/appr...
Article
Drawing on the recruitment, marketing, and explanation literatures, we examine how the language used to describe diversity practices in employee recruitment advertisements influences the organizational attractiveness perceptions of white, black, and Asian prospective applicants. Results show that prospective applicants' reactions to advertised supp...
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This study examined the effects of workplace offenders' characteristics and offense-type on victims' reactions. Responses from 352 employed graduate students in the U.S. and South Korea to a hypothetical offense incident revealed that employees from the U.S. and Korea differ in their expressed desirability of avoiding, seeking revenge against, and...
Chapter
Can authors, especially aspiring authors whose work is not already well-known, trust the reviews they receive from major journals? Can they trust that editors will act fairly towards them? These are crucial questions that speak to the trustworthiness of a field and the sources of its scholarly development. In this chapter we will discuss why editor...
Chapter
Full-text available
Management researchers have paid an increasing amount of attention to issues regarding interpersonal treatment in the workplace, due in part to increased national concern regarding why employee acts of violence seem to be on the rise. In this chapter, we note the need for management researchers to accumulate knowledge regarding the quality of inter...
Article
This article examines the reluctance of organizations and corporations to offer mediation in employment disputes. According to the article, few decision makers within organizations choose to actively participate in sponsored mediation. Particular focus is given to the evaluations and attitudes of an organizational representative that is responsible...
Article
abstract We investigated how third party managers from China, Japan and the USA intervened in employees' disputes. Consistent with predictions, we found (using non-linear HLM analysis) that managers who were superiors to the disputants behaved autocratically and/or decided on conservative (e.g., contract adhering) outcomes; but managers who were pe...
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The impact that management research has (or doesn't have) on private and public sector manage-rial practice is a topic of ongoing debate within the Academy of Management (AOM). In recent journal special issues and editors' forums (Bailey, 2002; Rynes, Bartunek, & Daft, 2001; Rynes & Shapiro, 2005; Shapiro & Rynes, 2005) and conference themes ("Crea...
Article
In this paper we introduce the concept of 'polycontextuality', which refers to multiple and qualitatively different contexts embedded within one another. We distinguish polycontextuality from the singularly contextual types of description typically provided by social scientists, and use the case of China to elucidate polycontextual phenomena. Polyc...
Article
The effects of multiple influence tactics in dyadic compliance-gaining situations are underexplored. In a laboratory experiment, we exposed subjects to a scenario-based influence attempt within which tactics that convey a rational exchange of benefits were juxtaposed with soft tactics that project friendliness and flattery. We found support for the...
Article
Back when the great society was building, they were present at the creation. Academics, especially in the social sciences, laid the groundwork; they testified before Congress, they contributed to the process. Now, you know, they've largely become irrelevant. The locus of power has shifted to specialists in think tanks, many of whom are refugees fro...
Article
The article discusses the role of management scholarship in the public sector. Many believe management scholars should matter more to how organizations operate. However, opinions differ as to whether the public sector demands greater involvement, and if scholars should immerse themselves in practical affairs individually or collectively. Some say i...
Article
As our editorial team completes its first year of receiving manuscripts, we believe it would be helpful to reflect upon and share answers to the most frequently asked questions regarding publication goals and processes at Academy of Management Journal (AMJ). This editorial deals with everything one has always wanted to know about AMJ. AMJ aspires t...
Article
Although cross-cultural research tends to compare deeply held values across nations, different cultures can exist within nations, as evidenced by clashes of cultures in Israel, Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere. We refer to multicultural teams (MCTs) to reflect our interest in team dynamics involving people from varying cultures (which may or may no...
Article
This article presents a response by Richard M. Steers, Richard T. Mowday and Debra L. Shapiro to Christopher Michaelson's comments on the July 2004 “Academy of Management Review” Special Topic Forum regarding the Future of Work Motivation Theory. Steers and colleagues agree with Michaelson that the articles in the forum did not directly address his...
Chapter
In this paper we develop a model that explains how dual attitudes towards target members of out-groups influence fairness judgments of social policies that are designed to assist members of these groups. The model emphasizes the role of identity driven processes that either neutralize or reinforce the link between negative implicit attitudes and fa...
Article
The author extends the conclusions made by Wright regarding why his student cheater chose to unmask himself. She argues that “delayed” integrity (i.e., confessing a dishonest act belatedly) cannot occur in the absence of felt guilt, and therefore, an understanding of antecedents to guilt are essential for predicting when delayed integrity will occu...
Article
We highlight linguistic-related challenges in multicultural teams that increase the likelihood of emotional conflict, and also highlight the difficulty of "finding words" in emotional situations because of the nonlinear, fragmented, image-driven qualities of these circumstances. As a result, we question whether team members embroiled in emotional c...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies of different methodologies investigated ethnic and gender similarity's effect on responses to offense episodes. Despite the different methodologies, common findings were obtained. Cumulatively, our findings show that: (1) victims of offensive workplace interactions do not always choose revengeful responses; instead, they sometimes opt t...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on effort-withholding behaviors (e.g., loafing, shirking, free-riding) in groups has generally focused on co-located and single-country settings. Drawing from a variety of literatures, we offer a causal model that shows why effort-withholding behaviors may be particularly at risk in transnational teams (TNTs). We theorize that three...
Article
Transnational teams (TNTs) - teams whose members are geographically spread across at least two co-ntries - are often plag-ed with s-bstantial member differences. These incl-de the different time zones members work in, their different c-lt-ral c-stoms and norms, and the different native lang-ages they speak. The res-lting interpersonal and task -nce...
Article
Using a field survey of 81 self-managing work teams (SMWTs) in Belgium, Finland, the Philippines, and the United States, we examined the extent to which team members’ resistance to SMWTs mediated the relationships between team members’ cultural values and team effectiveness. Specifically, we found that teams higher, rather than lower, in collectivi...
Article
Increasing competition resulting from the global and technological nature of markets has heightened the need for businesses to rely on cross-functional new product teams to produce innovations in a timely manner; yet functionally diverse teams' inevitable disagreements often appear to prevent this. In a study of 43 such teams, we found that the eff...
Conference Paper
Via a scenario-based experiment, we tested when employee retaliation against supervisory mistreatment (termed the “mistreatment-retaliation effect”) was more versus less likely to occur. Administered in the U.S. and Korea, the scenario manipulated whether an employee had/had not been mistreated by a supervisor and whether the supervisor was/was not...