Deborah A. Prentice

Deborah A. Prentice
Princeton University | PU · Department of Psychology

About

54
Publications
25,778
Reads
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7,756
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
2983 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we emp...
Article
Providing people with information about the behavior and attitudes of their peers is a strategy commonly employed by those seeking to reduce behavior deemed harmful either to individuals (e.g., high alcohol consumption) or the collective (e.g., high energy consumption). We review norm-based interventions, detailing the logic behind them and the var...
Article
Five studies examined whether the concern for self-other distinction is moderated by self-guide activation, with the predictions based on deviance regulation theory that distinctiveness striving is amplified by activation of ideal self-guides and diminished by activation of ought self-guides. In Study 1, trait differences in self-guides predicted t...
Article
Full-text available
Five studies develop and validate the Self- and Other-Interest Inventory, an individual-difference measure of the motivation to act in one's own interest and the motivation to act in another's interest that measures these motivations at the level of self-beliefs. Study 1 demonstrates that self- and other-interest can be measured reliably and validl...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms that govern human learning and decision making under uncertainty have been the focus of intense behavioral and, more recently, neuroscientific investigation. Substantial progress has been made in building models of the processes involved, and identifying underlying neural mechanisms using simple, two-alternative forced choice decisio...
Data
Reward functions for the multi-person decision-making tasks. For a single trial, reward was determined by two variables: (1) whether button “A” (red line) or “B” (blue line) was most recently pressed, and (2) the percentage of the last twenty choices allocated to button “A” (X axis, 0% to 100%, plotted in increments of 5%). The dotted black line de...
Data
Supporting methods. Additional details are given regarding the structure of the individual decision-making tasks, as well as the organization of the data used in the hierarchical logistic regression. (DOCX)
Article
A view of inequality as a relationship between the advantaged and the disadvantaged has gained considerable currency in psychological research. However, the implications of this view for theories and interventions designed to reduce inequality remain largely unexplored. Drawing on the literature on close relationships, we identify several key featu...
Article
Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a...
Article
The Independent Self-ConstrualActing IndependentlyThe Self-Regulation of IndependenceConcluding RemarksReferences
Article
To investigate the influence of information about fellow group members in a constrained decision-making context, we develop four two-armed bandit tasks in which subjects freely select one of two options ( $A$ or $B$) and are informed of the resulting reward following each choice. Rewards are determined by the fraction $x$ of past $A$ choices by two...
Conference Paper
This research explores the relationship between self-interest (concern for one’s own outcomes), and other-interest (concern for others’ outcomes). A commonly held, but rarely tested assumption is that self-interest and other-interest function in a zero-sum manner. In three studies, we contrast this zero-sum model with a two-factor model in which se...
Conference Paper
To investigate the influence of input from fellow group members in a constrained decision-making context, we consider a game in which subjects freely select one of two options (A or B), and are informed of the reward resulting from that choice following each trial. Rewards are computed based on the fraction x of past A choices by two functions f<su...
Conference Paper
This study tests the hypothesis that the degree of fit between the power structure and the norms of a situation impact perceptions of one's own actions and the actions of others. A hierarchical power structure was created in the standard 2-person prisoner's dilemma by giving one participant prior knowledge of his or her partner's choice on each rou...
Article
Psychological essentialism is an ordinary mode of category representation that has powerful social-psychological consequences. This article reviews those consequences, with a focus on the distinctive ways people perceive, evaluate, and interact with members of human categories they essentialize. Why and when people engage in this mode of thinking r...
Article
We demonstrate that an oft-used indirect attitude assessment technique—the attitude activation paradigm—accurately assesses atti-tudes only when participants attend to the prime stimuli during the attitude activation task. Attitude activation attitudes toward obvi-ously valenced words (e.g., torture, liberty) were more sensitive to attitude valence...
Article
People represent many social categories, including gender categories, in essentialist terms: They see category members as sharing deep, nonobvious properties that make them the kinds of things they are. The present research explored the consequences of this mode of representation for social inferences. In two sets of studies, participants learned (...
Article
Recent research has documented the pervasive effects of social identities on task performance. Our research examines the influence of the tasks themselves on the salience of competing identities. In Study 1, student-athletes were primed with their athlete identity, their student identity, or no identity. Consistent with research on stereotype threa...
Article
In this volume, a diverse group of leading social psychologists explores topics central to to work of W. J. McGuire (considered one of the pioneers of cognitive psychology), including self-concept, language, mass media and political communication, the history of social psychology, and contextualist philosophy of science. Each chapter delivers a per...
Article
This article presents a four-category framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. The framework distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified by virtue of one's gender, and those that are relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the utility of this framework for characterizi...
Article
Homegrown stereotypes are generalizations that groups develop about their own typical characteristics. They are a distinct class of in-group stereotypes in the contexts and processes that give rise to them, as well as in their consequences for individual group members. The authors develop the concept of homegrown stereotypes and locate the origins...
Article
Homegrown stereotypes are generalizations that groups develop about their own typical characteristics. They are a distinct class of in-group stereotypes in the contexts and processes that give rise to them, as well as in their consequences for individual group members. The authors develop the concept of homegrown stereotypes and locate the origins...
Article
Full-text available
Personal well-being and resilience are contingent on the ability to negotiate and successfully pursue personal goals through life tasks and opportunities afforded by one's social environment. Our research addresses these processes by examining college students' participation in campus groups. We investigated simultaneous strivings toward the develo...
Article
Full-text available
Our experiments explore readers' application of trait-based situation models for narrative characters. In the first episode of each of our experimental stories, characters performed behaviors that allowed readers to construct trait inferences (e.g., Albert's shoes were “buried under old candy wrappers, crumpled magazines, and some dirty laundry.”)....
Article
In this chapter, we begin by outlining what we know, from phenomenological experience, common sense, and existing data, about the psychology of fiction. Next we describe several models of the processes underlying belief and attitude formation. We rely on several models rather than just one, because each was developed to explain different phenomena,...
Article
Research has shown that students' beliefs about alcohol use are characterized by pluralistic ignorance: The majority of students believe that their peers are uniformly more comfortable with campus alcohol practices than they are. The present study examines the effects of educating students about pluralistic ignorance on their drinking behavior. Ent...
Article
We hypothesize that sharing a birthday is suÅcient to create a unit relationship. Two studies demonstrated that individuals cooperated more in a prisoners dilemma game when their (fictitious) opponent shared their birthday. They also reacted more negatively to betrayal and were less sensitive to relative gains for self versus other. #1998 John Wile...
Article
We hypothesize that sharing a birthday is sufficient to create a unit relationship. Two studies demonstrated that individuals cooperated more in a prisoners dilemma game when their (fictitious) opponent shared their birthday. They also reacted more negatively to betrayal and were less sensitive to relative gains for self versus other. (C) 1998 John...
Article
This article argues for the use of contrasts to test a priori interaction hypotheses in 2-way analysis of variance designs. It focuses on 3 underused types of interaction contrast tests: a "matching" pattern for cognate levels of row and column factors; the "qualitative quadratic" for monotonic profiles of means in the same direction but with oppos...
Article
Full-text available
Research on text processing has generally focused on the types of inferences that all readers draw in common. Our research examines aspects of processing that depend on the particular relation of the reader to the text. Students read fictional stories that contained weak and unsupported assertions and that were set either at their own school or at...
Article
Pluralistic ignorance begins with a discrepancy between public actions and private sentiments, typically produced by widespread behavioral adherence to a social norm. Pluralistic ignorance is a pervasive feature of social life and is found to characterize the dynamics of social situations, social groups, and social movements. Group identification i...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the circumstances in which individuals mistakenly assume that their beliefs, perceptions, and feelings differ from those of their peers. Pluralistic ignorance, as this phenomenon is called, yields numerous significant consequences for the self (e.g., illusory feelings of deviance) and for the collective (e.g., the perpetuati...
Article
Two studies sought to validate the distinction between common-identity groups, which are based on direct attachments to the group identity, and common-bond groups, which are based on attachments among group members. Study 1 focused on members of selective and nonselective university eating clubs. Study 2 focused on members of a diverse sample of ca...
Article
A naturalistic experiment investigated the effects of language reforms on several aspects of thought. Half of the students in an introductory psychology class received corrections any time they used "he" as a generic pronoun in their written work; the other half received no corrections to their written language use. At the end of the semester, all...
Article
Two studies investigated the influence of social roles on sex differences in aggression, the first focusing on expectations and the second on behavior In both studies, deindividuation was used to remove the influence of social roles. In Study 1, implicit theories about sex differences in aggression were examined by asking people to predict aggressi...
Article
Four studies examined the relation between college students' own attitudes toward alcohol use and their estimates of the attitudes of their peers. All studies found widespread evidence of pluralistic ignorance: Students believed that they were more uncomfortable with campus alcohol practices than was the average student. Study 2 demonstrated this p...
Article
Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to demonstrate that an effect is important. This article describes 2 alternative methodological strategies, in which importance is a function of how minimal a manip...
Article
Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to demonstrate that an effect is important. This article describes 2 alternative methodological strategies, in which importance is a function of how minimal a manip...
Article
Much of the information we encounter every day appears in settings that are clearly marked as fictional (e.g., novels, television, movies). Our studies explore the extent to which information acquired through these fictional worlds is incorporated into real-world knowledge. We used short stories to introduce fictional facts. The first experiment de...
Article
Two studies compared representations of the self and of other people, guided by the hypothesis that self-other differences derive from one's greater familiarity with oneself than with others. For the first study, participants wrote open-ended descriptions of themselves, a familiar person, and an unfamiliar person, which were analyzed for the amount...
Article
Three studies were conducted to investigate individual consistency in the psychological functions of possessions, attitudes, and values. In the first study, participants listed favorite possessions, which other subjects classified by their similarity in source of value. The similarity data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling. In Study 2, n...
Article
present interview data from a field study that suggests that very different principles may be used by the same individual to calculate deservingness at the workplace and at home / suggestion that the concept of derservingness not only varies in character between different social contexts, but may also vary in its accessibility across settings sam...

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