Deborah Greco

Deborah Greco
Nestlé S.A. · PTC St. Louis

DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM

About

84
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Publications

Publications (84)
Article
This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such...
Article
Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and sq...
Article
Diabetes insipidus, arising from damage to or congenital abnormalities of the neurohypophysis, is the most common pituitary deficiency in animals. Hypopituitarism and isolated growth hormone or thyrotropin deficiency may result in growth abnormalities in puppies and kittens. In addition, treatment of associated hormone deficiencies, such as hypothy...
Article
Acromegaly, or hypersomatotropism, results from chronic, excessive secretion of growth hormone in the adult animal. The anabolic effects of growth hormone are exerted through the intermediary hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, which is produced in the liver under the influence of growth hormone. Feline acromegaly is caused by a pituitary adenom...
Article
The prevalence of microalbuminuria (MA) and proteinuria was evaluated in 66 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 35 nondiabetic cats with other illness, and 11 healthy nondiabetic cats with use of the E.R.D.-HealthScreen Feline Urine Test. The MA prevalence was higher in the diabetic than in the nondiabetic sick and healthy control cats (70%, 39%, and...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this clinical study were firstly, to assess the effects of breed/genetic group on body composition in dogs using Dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method and secondly, to check, in clinical field conditions, if methods easy to apply in veterinary practice [bioelectrical impedance (BIA), morphometric equations, body...
Article
This review covers the use of common nutritional supplements for the bitch and puppies. Basic nutrients, including fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acid supplementation, will be discussed. Newer supplements, such as probiotics for stimulation of the immune system of the bitch and puppy, and for the non-pharmaceutical treatment o...
Article
Diagnosis of sex steroid excess or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be challenging. Unlike Cushing's disease, sex steroid excess may have a multitude of manifestations that differ from standard hyperadrenocorticism. In particular, the clinical scenario of a dog with sex steroid imbalance involves one of three systems: dermatologic, reproductive, or...
Article
Although only recently discovered, feline adrenal disorders are becoming increasingly more recognized. Feline adrenal disorders include diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's syndrome) and hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome). The clinical signs of feline hyperadrenocorticism, which include unregulated diabetes mellitus and severe skin at...
Article
The diagnosis and treatment of hypoadrenocorticism can be one of the greatest challenges faced by veterinary practitioners, as Addison's disease may have many faces and many presentations. Although the disease is most often diagnosed in dogs, cats may also suffer from Addison's disease. The practitioner must have a high index of suspicion to make a...
Article
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs but is rare in cats. Lymphocytic thyroiditis and idiopathic thyroid atrophy are common causes of this condition. Specific thyroid function tests, in conjunction with clinical signs and physical examination findings, are used to help confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. This disease can be managed...
Article
Information on tumor control and normal tissue effects of radiotherapy to treat pituitary tumors in cats is limited. Radiation therapy is effective in controlling the clinical signs associated with pituitary tumors in cats, with a low incidence of adverse effects. Eight cats were irradiated at Colorado State University between 1991 and 2002 for spo...
Article
Endocrine and metabolic disorders affecting puppies and kittens from birth until 6 months of age may manifest as clinical problems related to growth or to water metabolism (polydipsia and polyuria). Most commonly,endocrine and metabolic disorders affect growth of the animal,and puppies are often presented to the veterinarian for assessment of delay...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the effects of a moderate carbohydrate-high fiber (MC-HF) food and a low carbohydrate-low fiber (LC-LF) food on glycemic control in cats with diabetes mellitus. Sixty-three diabetic cats (48 male castrated, 15 female spayed) were randomly assigned to be fed either a canned MC-HF (n = 32) food or a canned LC-LF (n = 31) food for...
Article
Whereas hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the cat, hypothyroidism is the least common feline endocrine disorder. This is a the result of several factors including low index of suspicion, rarity of the naturally occurring hypothyroidism in cats, and a lack of species specific tests for endogenous TSH and antithyroglobulin anti...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose), combined with a low-carbohydrate diet on the treatment of naturally occurring diabetes mellitus in cats. Eighteen client-owned cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus were entered into the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was pe...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-three dogs with heart failure were evaluated in a 12-month study by measuring baseline plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations. Ten dogs were classified as having mild to moderate cardiac disease (group 1) and 13 dogs were classified as having severe cardiac disease (group 2). The mean plasma ANP concentration for the group 1...
Article
The use of portable blood glucose meters (PBGM) has become common in veterinary medicine as a rapid means of monitoring animals' blood glucose in a variety of medical conditions. These hand-held monitors allow for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions to be made quickly and relatively inexpensively using only a small amount of blood. Both in conditi...
Article
This article describes the clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs, including the types of diabetes, signalment, history, physical examination findings, and laboratory diagnosis. Newer diagnostic tests such as serum fructosamine concentrations and arginine response rate are also briefly discussed.
Article
Congenital renal diseases are present at birth and may be determined genetically; familial renal disorders occur in related animals with a higher frequency than would be expected by chance, and frequently are inherited. The most common familial disorders in cats and dogs include renal amyloidosis, renal dysplasia, polycystic kidneys, basement membr...
Article
Endocrine and metabolic disorders affecting puppies and kittens from birth until 6 months of age may manifest as clinical problems related to growth, water metabolism (polydipsia or polyuria), or as episodic weakness. Endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect stature, such as pituitary or hypothyroid dwarfism, present to the veterinarian for as...
Article
To determine effects of various diets on the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital and the interactive effects of changes in body composition and metabolic rate. Prospective study. 27 healthy sexually intact adult female Beagles. Pharmacokinetic studies of phenobarbital were performed before and 2 months after dogs were fed 1 of 3 diets (group 1, maint...
Article
A blinded, multicenter, prospective clinical trial assessed the effects of enalapril (EN) versus standard care in dogs with naturally occurring, idiopathic glomerulonephritis (GN). Twenty-nine adult dogs with membranous (n = 16) and membranoproliferative (n = 13) GN were studied. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either EN (0.5 mg/kg PO q12-24...
Article
Interpret the signs, evaluate the findings, follow the workup, and make your diagnosis. In this case, the combination of obstipation, stunted growth, and serum chemistry abnormalities led the clinicians to diagnose an uncommon but treatable disease in a kitten.
Article
Diabetes mellitus can be particularly frustrating for veterinarians and clients. Weight management plays a large role in diabetes control, but the recommended high-fiber foods can be unpalatable and are associated with other adverse effects. Rotation of diets and other solutions may help to avoid these problems. Deciding whether to use insulin or h...
Article
Accurate assessment of diabetic patients requires cooperation between owners and veterinarians as well as evaluation of all data, including resolution of clinical signs, serial blood glucose levels, and possibly serum glycosylated protein concentrations. In evaluating serial blood glucose curves, both the duration of action and nadir of glucose con...
Article
In this, the second installment of the new Pearls of Veterinary Medicine section of the Journal, Dr. Deborah Greco provides her insights regarding insulin therapy in the diabetic cat. Discussion topics include available insulin preparations, insulin syringes, dosing and frequency of insulin administration, as well as guidelines pertaining to feedin...
Article
Full-text available
To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and concurrent pituitary and adrenal tumors. Retrospective study. 17 client-owned dogs. Signalment, response to treatment, and results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, endocrine testing, and histologic examinations were obtained from medical records o...
Article
Corticotropin (ACTH) pharmacokinetics was assessed in 10 normal dogs receiving exogenous ACTH (0.5 U/kg, i. v.). A two-compartment open model was most appropriate for description of exogenous ACTH pharmacokinetics. The apparent distribution and elimination rate constants (α and β) were 7.4 ± 2.7 ×10−2 min−1 and 5.5 ± 3.8 ×10−3 min−1, respectively....
Article
This article discusses some of the basic issues concerning fluid therapy in small animals. It is hoped that the reader is able to assess the fluid needs of a dog or cat presented for veterinary treatment. The remaining articles address particular fluid compositions and fluid choices in patients with a variety of diseases and electrolyte imbalances.
Article
Thirty adult, client-owned dogs were diagnosed with hypothyroidism based on history, physical examination findings, hematologic and biochemical abnormalities, thyrotropin (TSH) response testing, endogenous canine thyrotropin (cTSH) concentration, or both, and total serum thryoxine concentration. All dogs received levothyroxine (L-thyroxine) at an i...
Article
The use of oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is still in its infancy. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in cats. Oral hypoglycemic therapy is more successful when the veterinarian is aware of the mechanism of acti...
Article
Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of results of low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) and ACTH stimulation tests with necropsy findings in 81 dogs. Retrospective study. 81 dogs that had undergone screening tests for hyperadrenocorticism and that had a complete necropsy report. Medical records were evaluated for results of CBC, serum biochemical...
Article
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common acquired heart disease in the cat. Middle-aged to older male castrated cats are most commonly affected. Clinical signs associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are usually attributable to decreased left ventricular diastolic filling and myocardial ischemia with resultant heart failure. Radiography,...
Article
Pancreatic disorders often cause emergencies in small animal practice. The most common of these emergencies is diabetic ketoacidosis. As insulin deficiency culminates in diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones and lactic acid accumulate in the blood, and electrolytes and water are lost via urine. The result is profound dehydration, hypovolemia, metabolic ac...
Article
Addisonian crisis is well-recognized endocrine emergency in small animals. Electrolyte abnormalities consisting of severe hyponatremia and hypochloremia associated with hyperkalemia are the hallmarks of hypoadrenocorticism. This article describes the corticotropin stimulation test used to confirm hypoadrenocorticism and the management of addisonian...
Article
To determine the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy llamas after i.v. administration of a single bolus and after repeated parenteral administration. Prospective clinical trial. 19 clinically normal, adult male llamas for the single-dose trial and 10 of the 19 llamas for the multiple-dose trial. In the first trial, llamas were given g...
Article
To evaluate the protective effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TXSI) in dogs given high-dose gentamicin. Clinicopathologic and renal histopathologic changes induced by gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h, for 8 days) were compared in dogs fed an n-3 fatty acid-supple...
Article
To assess factors associated with development of hospital-acquired acute renal failure (HARF) and to determine outcome of and prognostic indicators for dogs with HARF. Retrospective case series. 29 dogs. The most common inciting causes for developments of HARF were exposure to a nephrotoxicant and advanced age. Mortality was 62%, and factors that c...
Article
Platelet aggregation in response to collagen (1 or 3 micrograms/ml), arachidonic acid (10(-2) M), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) was compared in healthy cats treated with diltiazem (approximately 2 mg/kg body weight, q 8 hrs for 10 doses), aspirin (approximately 21 mg/kg body weight [1 baby aspirin], q 72 hrs for three doses), or a combi...
Article
The correlation between 24-hour urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) with urine NAG and GGT/creatinine ratios was assessed in dogs with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicosis. Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles with normal renal function were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6. Each group was f...
Article
The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is relatively straightforward; however, there are important differences in clinical presentation and the incidence of stress-induced hyperglycemia in cats compared with dogs. This article discusses the pathophysiology that leads to the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs, compares and contrasts th...
Article
Insulin therapy is the most important treatment aspect of diabetes mellitus. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, a variety of insulin formulations have been developed. The purpose of this article is to describe the current sources, formulations, and types of insulins available for therapy of diabetes mellitus in small animals and to provide the...
Article
Home management of the insulin-dependent diabetic pet can be confusing and frustrating for many pet owners. This article addresses many of the common concerns of pet owners, as well as issues of interest for the veterinarian regarding insulin therapy and client communication.
Article
Home management of the insulin-dependent diabetic pet can be confusing and frustrating for many pet owners. This aricle addresses many of the common concerns of pet owners, as well as issues of interest for the veterinarian regarding insulin therapy and client communication.
Article
The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is relatively straightforward; however, there are important differences in clinical presentation and the incidence of stress-induced hyperglycemia in cats compared with dogs. This article discusses the pathophysiology that leads to the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs, compares and contrasts th...
Article
This study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics and local and systemic effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin) released from an open-cell polylactic acid polymer when the drug delivery device was placed adjacent to a cortical allograft. Bilateral intercalary femoral allografts were implanted in six normal beagles. The poly...
Article
Eighteen, six-month-old male Beagles with normal renal function were randomly divided into three groups of 6. Each group was fed a diet that was similar except for protein content (high = 26%, medium = 13% and low = 9%, all on an as fed basis) throughout the experimental period. After a 21 day dietary protein conditioning period (including a termin...
Article
In conclusion, interaction between the immune and endocrine systems is highly complex. Generally, abnormalities of T suppressor cells, a result of HLA antigen genetic abnormalities, result in autoimmunity that causes endocrine gland destruction and hormone deficiency, as seen in lymphocytic thyroiditis of dogs, type I DM, hypoparathyroidism, hypoad...
Article
Exogenous creatinine clearance rate was determined in 8 partially (approx 75%) nephrectomized dogs fed 2 concentrations of dietary sodium, beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy was performed. In a double crossover design, dogs were then fed low-sodium diet (0.18% sodium on a dry-weight basis) or high-sodium diet (1.3% sodium on a dry-weight b...
Article
Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were measured by femoral artery puncture every other day in 2 groups (n = 4) of partially nephrectomized (approx 75%) dogs fed 2 concentrations of dietary sodium beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy was completed. In a double crossover design, dogs were fed a low-sodium (0.18% sodium on a...
Article
Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles with normal renal function were allotted at random to 3 groups of 6 dogs each. For 21 days, each group was fed a diet that was similar except for protein content (high protein, 27.3%; medium protein, 13.7%; and low protein, 9.4%). After the conditioning period, gentamicin was administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of...
Article
Dexamethasone pharmacokinetics was studied in 10 healthy dogs receiving high-dose administration of dexamethasone (dosage, 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV), alone or combined with ACTH (dosage, 0.5 U/kg, IV), or low-dose administration of dexamethasone (dosage, 0.01 mg/kg, IV) in an incomplete cross-over design. Serum samples were obtained at 0, 5, 10...
Article
Serum hyperviscosity syndrome was diagnosed in 2 cats with multiple myeloma. Clinical signs included pale mucous membranes, dehydration, retinal hemorrhages, dilated and tortuous retinal vessels, seizures, head-tilt, nystagmus, systolic murmur, and gallop rhythm. Laboratory abnormalities included hyperglobulinemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, nonr...
Article
Congenital hypothyroid dwarfism was diagnosed in a family of Giant Schnauzers. Three female and two male puppies from different litters were evaluated for dwarfism, lethargy, somnolence, gait abnormalities, and constipation. On physical examination, disproportionate dwarfism (n = 5), macroglossia (n = 3), hypothermia (n = 3), delayed dental eruptio...
Article
Norfloxacin was given to 6 healthy dogs at a dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight IV and orally in a complete crossover study, and orally at dosages of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg to 6 healthy dogs in a 3-way crossover study. For 24 hours, serum concentration was monitored serially after each administration. Another 6 dogs were given 5 mg of norfloxacin/kg ora...
Article
Acromegaly was diagnosed in 14 middle-aged to old cats of mixed breeding. Thirteen (93%) of the cats were male and one was female. The earliest clinical signs in the 14 cats included polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, all of which were associated with untreated diabetes mellitus. All developed severe insulin resistance within a few months; peak insu...
Article
Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5),...
Article
gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase activity was measured accurately in canine urine supernatant without gel filtration and was relatively stable at 4 C for at least 4 days after collection. The urinary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-creatinine ratio in spot samples was simple and quick to measure and was correlated with the 24-hour enzyme excretion. H...
Article
Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism was diagnosed in an adult mixed-breed dog examined because of quadraparesis. Unusual clinical signs attributable to juvenile-onset or congenital hypothyroidism included disproportionate dwarfism; enlarged, protruding tongue; mental dullness; and retention of a "puppy" coat, which was soft and fluffy, without guard hair...
Article
Serum creatinine concentrations, 24-hour endogenous creatinine clearance, and 24-hour urinary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (UGGT) activity were measured daily in 6 dogs given nephrotoxic dosages of gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight) every 8 hours for 10 days. Mean UGGT activity was significantly increased by day 5 (P less than 0.05) and preceded...

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