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Deborah Boehm-Davis

Deborah Boehm-Davis
Oculus Research

PhD

About

159
Publications
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2,170
Citations

Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Full-text available
Computer network defense analysts engage a difficult, though critical, task in cyber defense. Anecdotally, these operators complain of frequent task interruptions while they are performing their duties. The goal for the current study was to investigate the effect of a commonly reported interruption, answering email, on accuracy and completion times...
Article
The objectives of this research were to (1) explore whether goal-activation models of procedurally based interrupted task performance can be applied to content production, and if not, (2) develop a new theoretical account, and (3) provide support for that theory. Experiment 1 found that interruptions during planning resulted in less developed plans...
Article
This reply is in response to Delaney and Ericsson (2016), who argue that the results of our recent research (Foroughi, Werner, Barragán, & Boehm-Davis, 2015) can be explained by Ericsson and Kintsch’s (1995) long-term working memory (LTWM) theory. Our original work was designed to test the prediction made by LTWM theory that interruptions of up to...
Article
Full-text available
The labor market as a whole and specifically those areas where human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) professionals are employed are in constant flux. Academic institutions, on the other hand, tend to be more stable with changes in programs happening much more slowly. There is some evidence that the education of new HF/E professionals falls short of meeti...
Article
Although there is an abundance of research showing how interruptions disrupt performance, there is little evidence regarding whether individuals believe they are personally affected by interruptions. The goal for this research was to determine whether individuals are sensitive to changes in performance when interrupted. Thirty-two participants wrot...
Article
Errors following interruptions are problematic in many environments. Previous interruption research has focused on mitigation methods (e.g., alerts, cues) to reduce the deleterious effects of interruptions. However, little research has examined whether any individual difference measures can be used to predict how many errors individuals are likely...
Article
Researchers have suggested that video games can be used to measure cognitive abilities (e.g., Boot, 2015). To that end, we wanted to test the feasibility of developing a measure of fluid intelligence within a commercially-available video game. We created a 15 chamber (i.e., problems to be solved) test called the “Portal 2 Test Battery” using the Pu...
Article
Long-term working memory (LT-WM; Ericsson and Kintsch, 1995) theory claims that the "transient portion of working memory is not necessary for continued comprehension" (pp. 225-226) and that "reading can be completely disrupted for over 30. s with no observable impairment of subsequent text comprehension" (p. 232). Follow-up research testing claims...
Article
Previous research has shown that there is a time cost (i.e., a resumption lag) associated with resuming a task following an interruption and that the longer the duration of the interruption, the greater the time cost (i.e., resumption lag increases as interruption duration increases). The memory-for-goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) suggests th...
Article
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The authors determine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can reduce resumption time when an ongoing task is interrupted. Interruptions are common and disruptive. Working memory capacity has been shown to predict resumption lag (i.e., time to successfully resume a task after interruption). Given that tDCS applied to brain areas a...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have found gender differences in mental rotation ability in young adults when completing mental rotation tests on paper and pencil (e.g., Peters et al., 1995; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). Two previous studies have been unable to replicate these findings when testing mental rotation ability inside of a virtual environment (Parsons et al.,...
Article
Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates the destructive potential of interruptions in safety-critical environments. Interruptions are pervasive in our everyday work environments. The interruptions are considered as a form of multiple task management in the literature, but are considered different than distractions, multitasking, or task-switching. The impact that...
Chapter
Introduction In developing or redesigning displays, there are two critical components that must be considered: what information needs to be displayed and how the information should be displayed. The former is concerned with content while the latter is concerned with the format of the information. Both factors will influence the ways in which decisi...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine if interruptions affect the quality of work. Interruptions are commonplace at home and in the office. Previous research in this area has traditionally involved time and errors as the primary measures of disruption. Little is known about the effect interruptions have on quality of work. Fifty-four students outl...
Article
The present study investigated the effect of interruptions on the ability to detect and report threatening behaviors on 20-second clips of simulated low frame-rate closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage. Participants reviewed clips and were occasionally interrupted approximately halfway through and asked to complete a secondary task for 20 second...
Article
Interruptions have become a persistent annoyance in our lives; they reduce performance in many domains. Traditional interruption research uses time and errors as measures of disruption. However, in creative tasks, time and errors may not be suitable measures of disruption. This study investigates how interruptions affect content production in a cre...
Article
To develop a checklist for use during pediatric trauma resuscitation and test its effectiveness during simulated resuscitations. Checklists have been used to support a wide range of complex medical activities and have effectively reduced errors and improved outcomes in different medical settings. Checklists have not been evaluated in the domain of...
Article
The present study focused on identifying eye-tracking measures that can provide insight into the nature of age-related differences in multitasking abilities. While participating in a multitask paradigm, participants’ eye-movements, performance data, and subjective information were collected. An investigation of the nature of eye movements between y...
Article
Over the next decade, the demand for air transportation and other airspace services is expected to grow significantly. To address this, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is developing the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), which is a series of transformations designed to increase the capacity, safety, and security of air t...
Article
Interruptions are a common cause of errors in the pharmacy, cited as being responsible for as much as 43% of the error that occurs in medication administration. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of interruptions in a hospital pharmacy setting and to determine the extent to which existing theories of interruptions can acco...
Article
Full-text available
Every day, current Human Factors & Ergonomics (HF/E) professionals work to foster the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for their students to be future HF/E professionals. Experienced HF/E educators possess a wealth of knowledge of what works in regards to teaching their particular topics. Unfortunately, this valuable in-domain teaching kn...
Article
Fully up-to-date coverage of human factors engineering-plus online access to interactive demonstrations and exercises. Engineering accomplishments can be as spectacular as a moon landing or as mundane as an uneventful drive to the local grocery store. Their failures can be as devastating as a plane crash or a massive oil spill. Over the past decade...
Chapter
Engineering for Physical Limitations Engineering for Human Cognition The Modern Era A Fractured Field Summary References
Chapter
Modeling Static Environments: Finite State Representations Modeling Dynamic Environments Control Theory Measuring Complexity Using Information Theory Modeling Throughput Using Queuing Theory Summary References
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Using Automated Devices Levels of Automation A Taxonomy of Automation Levels Automation as a Decision Support Aid Automation and System Safety Summary References
Chapter
Anatomy of a Decision Normative Approaches to Decision Making Nonoptimality of Human Decisions Cognitive Approaches to Decision Making Heuristics in Human Decisions Other Influences on Decision Making Process Models of Human Decision Making Naturalistic Decision Making Relationship between Decision-Making Models and Systems Engineering Summary Refe...
Chapter
Static vs. Dynamic Domains Sources of Difficulty in Static Environments Sources of Difficulty in Dynamic Environments Internal vs. External Pacing Error Tolerance Summary References
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Alarms and Alerts Information Displays Create Barriers Summary References
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Human Error and System Error The Nature of Human Error Theories of Human Error Situation Awareness Summary References
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Title Copyright Dedication Contents Preface
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Sensory Processing Attention Summary References
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Purposeful Design User-Centered Design Design Against Failure Summary References
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Processing Stages Cognition and Action Cognition and Goal-Directed Behavior Response Selection The Nature of Capacity Limitations Summary References
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Aerospace Medicine Automotive Industry Computer Industry Summary References
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Types of Memories Retaining and Forgetting Information Retrieving Information Summary References
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Methodological Consequences of Group Size Communication and Coordination Consequences of Group Size Summary References
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The Human Factor Structure and Content Levels of Analysis Summary References
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An Account of the Grounding of the Tankship Exxon Valdez The Nature of the Error Summary References
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Bottleneck Theories Central Bottleneck Theory and Human-Computer Interaction Capacity Theories Multiple Resource Theory Applications of Single-Channel and Multiple Resource Theories Timesharing Timesharing Strategies and the Control of Processing Summary References
Article
Medication error is an issue that no hospital is immune from, leading to 7,000 deaths and 1.3 million patient injuries each year. The purpose of this study was to decrease the risk and occurrence of medication errors by analyzing the hospital pharmacy. Task analyses were performed and it was found that communication, expectation, and procedural iss...
Article
Full-text available
This symposium describes collaborative research on neuroergonomics, technology, and cognition being conducted at George Mason University and the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) as part of the Center of Excellence in Neuroergonomics, Technology, and Cognition (CENTEC). Six presentations describe the latest developments in neuroergonomics res...
Article
Interruptions are an inescapable reality in our lives and they sometimes lead to unfortunate consequences. Most of the interruptions literature focuses on aspects of the interruption task that makes them more or less disruptive to performance. However, it is important to consider what might make a person resilient to the deleterious effects of inte...
Article
The design of optimal training for complex systems can be a difficult problem. Generally, one of three types of training is used to train for a specific task - procedural, conceptual or perceptual training. In aviation, procedural training has been the primary form of training. However, procedural training does not always train all the skills neede...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on ta...
Article
This experiment sought to gain insight into the potential loss of situational awareness that could arise from the switch from radio-based verbal communications between pilots and controllers to the delivery of non-time-critical information through data communications (Data Comm). Specifically, this study examined the effect that loss of the party l...
Article
With the constant barrage of cell phone calls, emails, instant messages, calendar reminders, and more, interruptions have become a common and consistent occurrence in our daily lives. The majority of the literature on interruptions to date has been based on controlled laboratory experiments and it is not yet completely clear how these results will...
Article
Interruptions are a disruptive force in both our professional and personal lives. In order to develop the most comprehensive mitigation strategies, it is essential to gain insight into what factors affect the disruptiveness of interruptions. Although a significant body of research has approached this problem from the systems and tasks sides, the ro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is intended to reflect the thoughts and opinions of panel discussants on the status and future of formal education in human factors and ergonomics. Major themes include the need for students to develop analytic abilities within the context of the scientist-practitioner model and the continued splintering within the field of Human Factors...
Article
Interruptions research has generally focused on the factors that make interruptions more or less disruptive to primary task performance, the ways in which people engage the interruption as they disengage from a primary task, and the role of environmental context/cues in primary task resumption. However, little research has focused on investigating...
Article
Interruptions are ubiquitous, and they can lead to disastrous consequences. The goal of this paper is to describe remedies that have been proposed to reduce the disruption caused by interruptions based on an understanding of how principles of human cognitive processing bear on the sequence of events that take place during an interruption. We show t...
Article
Full-text available
The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multi-tasking is now ubiquitous component of our lives; despite the fact that we all can cite an incident where multi-tasking put us in a difficult situation. The reason'so many of us do multi-task is that most of the time we are capable of effective dual task performance. Hart and Wickens (2008) have defined the point where one traverses safe and...
Article
Full-text available
Past work examining the effects of interruption complexity on primary task performance has yielded quite mixed results. Some research suggests that more complex interruptions lead to greater disruption of the primary task, while other studies have shown that interruption complexity does not directly influence the amount of primary task disruption....
Article
This paper describes contributions made to the science and practice of human-computer interaction (HCI), primarily through Human Factors and the society's annual proceedings. Background: Research in HCI began to appear in publications associated with the Society around 1980 and has continued through the present. A search of the literature appearing...
Article
Full-text available
Task analytic theories of graph comprehension account for the perceptual and conceptual processes required to extract specific information from graphs. Comparatively, the processes underlying information integration have received less attention. We propose a new framework for information integration that highlights visual integration and cognitive...
Article
We examined the willingness and ability of general aviation pilots to execute steep approaches in low-visibility conditions into nontowered airports. Executing steep approaches in poor weather is required for a proposed Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that consists of small aircraft flying direct routes to a network of regional airports...
Article
Full-text available
This project involved two components: (a) data collection to understand the performance outcomes resulting from interruptions and (b) knowledge/skill enhancement for an ONR project officer. The data collection efforts included both naturalistic and laboratory observations of performance as a function of interruptions. The naturalistic study demonst...
Article
Full-text available
Operational issues with the current generation of flight control panels in modern airliners are well documented, and include opaque operating modes, limited feedback when modifying settings, and inconsistent interactions that can result in unexpected aircraft behaviors, leading to costly training programs. Boeing engineers have proposed a redesigne...
Article
DoD Acquisition has recently undergone major changes. In the recently published DoD Instruction 5000.2 (only available on-line at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/50002.htm ), Human Systems Integration (HSI) has become a focus for all new system acquisitions. In the Instruction, HSI is defined to include: Human Factors Engineering, Pe...
Article
Twenty pilots performed flight maneuvers on a flight simulator over three levels of workload with either a conventional or alternative display that incorporates functional information. Pilots' performance with the functional display (OZ) showed greater control of power and position, as well as improved performance on a secondary task. The role of i...
Article
A type of instrumented approach referred to as the pilot-monitored approach may have safety advantages over standard instrumented approaches, but there are insufficient data to determine the extent of its value. Likewise, there are no federal standards or guidelines in regards to its training or procedures, nor is information readily available on i...
Article
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that accidents rated as the fifth leading cause of death in 2002. A large proportion of these accidents occur in and around the home. For 2003, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimated that just under 11 million injuries were caused by children's nursery equipment; toys; sports an...
Article
The goal of this chapter was to provide a framework for developing theories to understand the psychological, organizational, and sociological processes that underlie the behavior of individuals or military units. The framework relies on an understanding of the circumstances under which specific individual performance measures are most appropriate....
Article
We examined how graph readers extracted specific information, integrated information and made inferences from choropleth graphs. We present a hierarchical framework of graph comprehension suggesting how graph readers extract these different types of information. Our framework suggests the cognitive operations required to extract these different typ...
Article
Despite the extensive literature available on GOMS methods for predicting task performance, there are relatively few hands-on examples of GOMS being used in an applied setting. This proof-of-concept paper will describe the use of CPM-GOMS and NGOMSL, in combination with an existing RAFIV, to evaluate the Boeing 777 autoflight system.
Article
Allowing pilots to directly perceive the functional properties of flight may improve piloting performance. This study examines differences in piloting performance between a flight display (OZ) that displays a functional relationship between power and airspeed and a conventional Cessna display. Eight pilots performed flight maneuvers on a fixed base...
Article
RAFIV is a cognitive usability method that is based on the label-following heuristic found in the exploratory learning literature. This paper describes the empirical evidence and theoretical foundation for the RAFIV method, a five-stage model that describes a user's cognitive steps as they perform a task. The contributions of this method to the usa...
Article
The ACT-R cognitive architecture has been used successfully to model aviation crew performance during the descent phase of flight. This study extended that approach by simulating the duties of a pilot flying (PF) and Pilot Not Flying (PNF) in separate ACT-R models which then were run jointly across several executions. For each set of executions, le...
Article
This paper describes several generic models that were used to explore cognitive strategies for handling interruptions. One of these models was then modified to fit the specific real-world task of completing an aircraft checklist. This model produced detailed a priori predictions about where the interrupted checklist will be resumed. The implication...
Article
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pit (Diez et al., 2001) to inform our design decisions about what information pilots are acquiring from the flight deck while working with automated systems. It also formed the basis of a working computational cognitive model, built using the ACT-R cognitive architecture (Anderson & Lebiere, 1998). The computational model was used to fly the same d...
Article
The importance of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as an emerging speciality area within Information Systems was discussed. Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. Methods and techniques...
Article
This research adopted a model of goal activation to study the mechanisms underlying interrupted task performance. The effects of interruption timing, type of interruption, and age on task time and primary task resumption time were explored under conditions in which attention was switched back and forth between two tasks, much as when drivers shift...
Article
Full-text available
Die kognitive Modellierung kann im Anwendungskontext wie in der Grundlagenforschung eine wertvolle Methode sein. Wegen der Komplexität und dem erforderlichen Expertenwissen ist die Modellierung von „Real World“-Aufgaben schwieriger als die von Laboraufgaben. Die Entwicklungszeit muss kurz sein und die Modelle müssen gültige Vorhersagen erbringen, w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers and airlines have identified the Flight Management Computer (FMC) and its Multifunction control and Display Unit (MCDU) as difficult to learn and use. This can affect the amount of functionality that can be trained, the length of the training footprint, and the cost of training. This paper describes an analysis of 102 mission tasks usin...
Article
Full-text available
This research program was designed to develop predictive (based on cognitive modeling) and descriptive (based on physiological data) measures of cognitive workload that are highly correlated. Such measures must be theoretically grounded and empirically verified. Our main engineering goals in this project were to show: (1) how the predictive measure...
Conference Paper
The driver/rider experience is a major development in mobile user-interface (UI) design worldwide, similar in scale to the first introduction of personal computers to the desktop. Most automobile manufacturers seeking to develop smart cars have relatively little experience with advanced software-based UIs and information visualization (IV). This pa...
Article
Full-text available
The visual occlusion technique has received considerable attention in recent years as a method for measuring the interruptible aspects of in-vehicle information system (IVIS) task performance. Because the visual occlusion technique lacks a loading task during “occluded” periods, an alternate method was adopted to provide increased sensitivity to th...
Article
Full-text available
The improper completion of a cockpit checklist has contributed to a number of aviation accidents. In many of these cases, it can be shown that interruptions were a contributing factor in the failure to complete the checklist properly. Unfortunately, most studies of interruptions have provided only post-hoc explanations for these failures. Further,...
Article
Full-text available
f actions. Based on lessons learned from this initial effort, the approach was extended to constructing a crew model with a simulated PF and Pilot Not Flying (PNF). These crew members were simulated by separate ACT-R models based on a cognitive task analysis of the duties for each person. The simulated task scenario was the time period just before...