Dean Sheppard

Dean Sheppard
University of California, San Francisco | UCSF · Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

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297
Publications
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Publications

Publications (297)
Preprint
Inhibition of the TGF-β activating integrin, αvβ8, can dramatically enhance the effectiveness of checkpoint inhibition in multiple checkpoint resistant tumor models, but the mechanisms underlying this dramatic synergy have not been previously explored. In this study, we used single cell RNA sequencing to investigate the mechanisms of synergy betwee...
Article
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Macrophages are paracrine signalers that regulate tissular responses to injury through interactions with parenchymal cells. Connexin hemichannels have recently been shown to mediate efflux of ATP by macrophages, with resulting cytosolic calcium responses in adjacent cells. Here we report that lung macrophages with deletion of connexin 43 (MacΔCx43)...
Article
After lung injury, "damage-associated transient progenitors" (DATPs) emerge, representing a transitional state between injured epithelial cells and newly regenerated alveoli. DATPs express profibrotic genes, suggesting that they might promote idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the molecular pathways that induce and/or maintain DATPs are...
Article
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Fibrotic posterior capsular opacification (PCO), a major complication of cataract surgery, is driven by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Previously, αV integrins were found to be critical for the onset of TGFβ-mediated PCO in vivo, however, the functional heterodimer was unknown. Here, β8 integrin conditional knockout (β8ITGcKO) lens cells (LCs...
Preprint
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of progressive interstitial fibrosis, which leads to severe debilitation, respiratory failure, and death. In IPF, environmental exposures interact with genetic risk factors to engender critical patho-etiological events in lung epithelial cells, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and TGFβ sig...
Article
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αvβ8 integrin, a key activator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), inhibits anti-tumor immunity. We show that a potent blocking monoclonal antibody against αvβ8 (ADWA-11) causes growth suppression or complete regression in syngeneic models of squamous cell carcinoma, mammary cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, especially when combined w...
Article
Severe asthma remains challenging to manage with limited treatment options. We have previously shown that targeting smooth muscle integrin α5β1 interaction with fibronectin can mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness by impairing force transmission. In this paper we show that another member of the integrin superfamily, integrin α2β1, is...
Article
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No effective therapy exists for fatal fibrosis. New therapeutic targets are needed for hepatic fibrosis because the incidence keeps increasing. Activation and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts that causes excessive matrix deposition is central to fibrosis. Here, we investigated whether (and which) integrin receptors for matrix prot...
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Aberrant epithelial reprogramming can induce metaplastic differentiation at sites of tissue injury that culminates in transformed barriers composed of scar and metaplastic epithelium. While the plasticity of epithelial stem cells is well characterized, the identity and role of the niche has not been delineated in metaplasia. Here, we show that Gli1...
Preprint
Full-text available
The avb8 integrin is a key activator of transforming growth factor b (TGFb), which has been shown to inhibit anti-tumor immunity. Previous work has suggested that avb8 on tumor cells could modulate tumor growth and responses to immune checkpoint blockade. We now show that a potent blocking monoclonal antibody against avb8 (ADWA-11) causes growth su...
Article
Fowler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive brain vascular disorder caused by mutation in FLVCR2 in humans. The disease occurs during a critical period of brain vascular development, is characterized by glomeruloid vasculopathy and hydrocephalus, and is almost invariably prenatally fatal. Here, we sought to gain insights into the process of brain...
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Collagen-producing cells maintain the complex architecture of the lung and drive pathologic scarring in pulmonary fibrosis. Here we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing to identify all collagen-producing cells in normal and fibrotic lungs. We characterize multiple collagen-producing subpopulations with distinct anatomical localizations in different c...
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Fibrillins serve as scaffolds for the assembly of elastic fibers that contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and regulate growth factor signaling in the extracellular space. Fibrillin-1 is a modular glycoprotein that includes 7 latent transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) binding protein-like (TB) domains and mediates cell adhesion th...
Article
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Microglia play a pivotal role in the coordination of brain development and have emerged as a critical determinant in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases; however, the role of microglia in the onset and progression of neurodevelopmental disorders is less clear. Here we show that conditional deletion of αVβ8 from the central nervous system...
Article
Full-text available
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease of progressive fibrosis and respiratory failure. ER stress activates a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) that either restores homeostasis or promotes apoptosis. The bifunctional kinase/RNase I...
Data
Multiple cell types express XBP1 after bleomycin exposure. Immunohistochemical staining in saline- and bleomycin-exposed mouse lungs, using rabbit IgG control and anti-XBP1. (TIF)
Data
Failure of the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 to mitigate bleomycin-induced fibrosis. (A) Schematic of the GSK2606414 prevention regimen. Mice were exposed to saline or bleomycin once, then treated with GSK2606414 or vehicle beginning from the time of bleomycin exposure and daily for two weeks after exposure. (B) Western blot for phospho-eIF2α and total...
Article
Patients with severe, treatment-refractory asthma are at risk for death from acute exacerbations. The cytokine IL17A has been associated with airway inflammation in severe asthma, and novel therapeutic targets within this pathway are urgently needed. We recently showed that IL17A increases airway contractility by activating the procontractile GTPas...
Article
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Recent fate-mapping studies in mice have provided substantial evidence that mature adult hepatocytes are a major source of new hepatocytes after liver injury. In other systems, integrin αvβ8 has a major role in activating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that depletion of hepatocyte...
Preprint
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease of progressive fibrosis and respiratory failure. ER stress activates a signaling pathway called the unfolded proteins response (UPR) that either restores homeostasis or promotes apoptosis. The bifunctional kinase/RNase...
Article
Although extensive work has delineated many of the mechanisms of extracellular matrix (ECM) production, far less is known about pathways that regulate ECM degradation. This is particularly true of cellular internalization and degradation of matrix, which play an underappreciated role in ECM metabolism and lung fibrosis. For example, genetic perturb...
Article
Mice that globally over-express the transcription factor, Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), develop extensive pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling. To determine if these phenotypes are a consequence of ectopic Fra-2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, we generated mice that over-express Fra-2 specifically in...
Article
Activation of TGF-β1 initiates a program of temporary collagen accumulation important to wound repair in many organs. However, the outcome of temporary extracellular matrix strengthening all too frequently morphs into progressive fibrosis, contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. To avoid this maladaptive outcome, TGF-β1 signaling is regu...
Article
Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells in vivo is poorly understood. PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFRβ promoter-driven Cre system to delete αv integrins in activated f...
Article
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enh...
Article
Unlabelled: Integrin αvβ6 is rapidly up-regulated on cells of epithelial lineage during tissue injury, where one of its primary functions is activation of latent transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). In human liver cirrhosis, αvβ6 is overexpressed by cells comprising the ductular reaction, and its inhibition suppresses experimental biliary fi...
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating disorder characterized by increased alveolar permeability with no effective treatment beyond supportive care. Current mechanisms underlying ARDS focus on alveolar endothelial and epithelial injury caused by products of innate immune cells and platelets. However, the role of adaptive immune...
Article
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TGF-β signaling is essential in many processes, including immune surveillance, and its dysregulation controls various diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammation. Studying the innate host defense, which functions in most cell types, we found that RLR signaling represses TGF-β responses. This regulation is mediated by activated IRF3, usin...
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Vascular development of the central nervous system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) induction are closely linked processes. The role of factors that promote endothelial sprouting and vascular leak, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, are well described, but the factors that suppress angiogenic sprouting and their impact on the BBB are poorly...
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The intracellular scaffold protein IQGAP1 supports protein complexes in conjunction with numerous binding partners involved in multiple cellular processes. Here, we determined that IQGAP1 modulates airway smooth muscle contractility. Compared with WT controls, at baseline as well as after immune sensitization and challenge, Iqgap1-/- mice had highe...
Article
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The clinical manifestations of asthma are caused by obstruction of the conducting airways of the lung. Two airway cell types are critical for asthma pathogenesis: epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Airway epithelial cells, which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens and particles, initiate airway inflammation and produce mu...
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays a role in lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. However, it remains unclear how S1P production and secretion are regulated. We show that under inflammatory conditions, α9 integrin, which is closely associated with activated β1 integrin, and its ligand, tenascin-C, colocalize on medullary and cortical sinuses of...
Article
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are active in diverse biological processes and are central mediators in the initiation and maintenance of fibrosis in many diseases. Transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) is a ligand for the EGFR, and doxycycline (Dox)-inducible transge...
Article
The cytokine TGF-β plays an integral role in regulating immune responses. TGF-β has pleiotropic effects on adaptive immunity, especially in the regulation of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses. Many immune and nonimmune cells can produce TGF-β, but it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to exert functional ef...
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Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular matrix components that accumulate during tissue fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are believed to be the major source of myofibroblasts in the liver. To date, robust systems to genetically manipulate these cells have not been developed. We report that Cre under control of the promoter o...
Conference Paper
Autoimmunity is a direct consequence of a lack of immune homeostasis and unregulated destruction of self-tissues. The lack of regulation has been attributed to the reduced efficacy of a highly specialized regulatory T cell (Treg). Accumulating evidence suggests that defective regulation is due, at least in part, to the instability and loss of Tregs...
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Introduction Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular matrix components that accumulate during tissue fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of myofibroblasts in the liver. To date, robust systems to genetically manipulate these cells have not existed. The paucity of tools that allow reliable, specific inactiva...
Article
The liver is a central organ for the synthesis and storage of nutrients, production of serum proteins and hormones, and breakdown of toxins and metabolites. Because the liver is susceptible to toxin- or pathogen-mediated injury, it maintains a remarkable capacity to regenerate by compensatory growth. Specifically, in response to injury, quiescent h...
Article
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Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are cardinal features of asthma, but the signaling pathways that promote these changes are poorly understood. Tyrosine phosphorylation is tightly regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, but little is kno...
Article
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Fibrosis, or the accumulation of extracellular matrix molecules that make up scar tissue, is a common feature of chronic tissue injury. Pulmonary fibrosis, renal fibrosis, and hepatic cirrhosis are among the more common fibrotic diseases, which in aggregate represent a huge unmet clinical need. New appreciation of the common features of fibrosis th...
Article
Objective: Integrin αvβ5 has been identified as a regulator of vascular leak and endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that targeting αvβ5 could represent a viable treatment strategy for sepsis. Design: Integrin β5 subunit knockout and wild-type 129/svJae mice and wild-type mice treated with αvβ5 blocking or control antibodies were tested in...
Article
Full-text available
TGFβ activation and signaling have been extensively studied in experimental models of allergen-induced asthma as potential therapeutic targets during chronic or acute phases of the disease. Outcomes of experimental manipulation of TGFβ activity have been variable, in part due to use of different model systems. Using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse...
Article
Fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, therapeutic options for tissue fibrosis are severely limited, and organ transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage fibrotic disease. However, demand for donor organs greatly outstrips supply, and so effective anti-fibrotic treatments are urgently required....
Article
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Mucous cell hyperplasia and airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness are hallmark features of inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma. Here, we show that the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) TMEM16A is expressed in the adult airway surface epithelium and ASM. The epithelial expression is increased in asthma...
Article
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Exaggerated contraction of airway smooth muscle is the major cause of symptoms in asthma, but the mechanisms that prevent exaggerated contraction are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that integrin α9β1 on airway smooth muscle localizes the polyamine catabolizing enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in close proximity to th...
Article
Acute lung injury is a common disorder with a high mortality rate, but previous efforts to develop drugs to treat this disorder have been unsuccessful. In an effort to develop more effective treatments, we have been studying the molecular pathways that regulate the dysfunction of alveolar epithelial cells and endothelial cells that serve as a final...
Article
Full-text available
Asthma pathogenesis is focused around conducting airways. The reasons for this focus have been unclear because it has not been possible to track the sites and timing of antigen uptake or subsequent antigen presentation to effector T cells. In this study, we use two-photon microscopy of the lung parenchyma and note accumulation of CD11b(+) dendritic...
Article
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We recently reported that integrin α(v)β(3) is necessary for vascular barrier protection in mouse models of acute lung injury and peritonitis. Here, we used mass spectrometric sequencing of integrin complexes to isolate the novel β(3)-integrin binding partner IQGAP1. Like integrin β(3), IQGAP1 localized to the endothelial cell-cell junction after s...
Article
Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) is involved in regulating many biological processes and disease states. Cells secrete cytokine as a latent complex that must be activated for it to exert its biological functions. We previously discovered that the epithelial-restricted integrin α(v)β(6) activates TGF-β and that this process is important in a...
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Emerging evidence suggests that the T helper 17 (T(H)17) subset of αβ T cells contributes to the development of allergic asthma. In this study, we found that mice lacking the αvβ8 integrin on dendritic cells did not generate T(H)17 cells in the lung and were protected from airway hyper-responsiveness in response to house dust mite and ovalbumin sen...