Dean G Kilpatrick

Dean G Kilpatrick
Medical University of South Carolina | MUSC · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Ph.D

About

381
Publications
94,580
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32,208
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1970 - present
Medical University of South Carolina
Position
  • Distinguished University Professor of Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (381)
Article
Importance Environmental disasters, such as the Flint, Michigan, water crisis, are potentially traumatic events (PTEs) that may precipitate long-term psychiatric disorders. The water crisis was associated with acute elevations in mental health problems in the Flint community, but long-term psychiatric sequelae have not yet been evaluated using stan...
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Although recent studies have linked discrimination frequency among Black and Latinx individuals to PTSD symptom severity, to our knowledge, these associations have yet to be examined among a diverse sample of recent rape survivors. The current secondary analysis of existing data examined the role of discrimination experiences in post-traumatic stre...
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Although rape has been linked to risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, there are scant data on the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce suicidality among recent rape victims. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigated whether a video intervention delivered in the emergency department (ED), cortisol measured at the...
Article
Violence is a public health concern linked with mental health problems among adolescents, and risk behavior increases the likelihood of violence exposure. Family cohesion may attenuate the negative effects of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine family cohesion as a moderator in the relation between risk behavior (substance use a...
Article
The phenotype for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases (DSM-5) includes 20 symptoms in four clusters. In contrast, the PTSD model in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes six symptoms in three clusters. Whether those six sy...
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The current study assessed the efficacy of a brief video intervention (Prevention of Post-Rape Stress [PPRS]) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims. PPRS was compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Instruction [PIRI]). Primary outcomes were posttraum...
Article
Sexual assault (SA) is associated with elevated risk for cigarette smoking. The current study tested whether a brief video intervention delivered in the emergency department was effective at reducing smoking following SA. Participants were 233 girls and women (age 15+) who received a SA medical forensic examination (SAMFE) and were randomized to on...
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African American and Hispanic adolescent experience more violence exposure relative to White youth. The present study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), delinquency, earlier victimization, and familial and neighborhood factors in disparities in future victimization. The study utilized data from the National Survey...
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Background Hurricanes and other natural disasters produce public health and economic consequences that last well beyond their immediate aftermath. Resource loss is a core driver of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after large-scale traumatic events. We examined the effect of restoration of residential and housing-related financial resources on...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent, debilitating disorder found to develop after exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Individuals with PTSD often report sleep disturbances, specifically nightmares and insomnia, which are listed within the criteria for PTSD. This research examined prevalence of insomnia and nightm...
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Objective: Higher degrees of sensation seeking (SS) are reported in community and clinical samples of individuals with eating disorders with binge-type features (BTEDs), but no reports exist in representative probability samples of adult women. Additionally, SS has been linked to victimization and PTSD, also associated with BTEDs, yet interrelatio...
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Purpose: Few studies have explored relations among sexual assault and prospective development of high-risk behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods: The present study examined longitudinal associations among child sexual assault (CSA) and high-risk behaviors (nonexperimental alcohol and drug use; delinquent behavior) in a nationally representat...
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Objective: The current study examined variables, including prior traumatic events, disaster exposure, and current mental health symptomatology, associated with suicidal ideation following experience of a natural disaster. Method: Utilizing a sample of 2,000 adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornadoes in the areas surrounding Tuscaloosa, Ala...
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Background: This paper is based on a panel discussion at the 32nd annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in Dallas, Texas, in November 2016. Objective: Paula Schnurr convened a panel of experts in the fields of public health and technology to address the topic: ‘What I have changed my mind about and why.’ Method: T...
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Background: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Postrape Stress; PPRS) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at three points over the course of a six-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasan...
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The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed...
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The present study evaluated the impact of relationship violence (RV) victimization on the longitudinal trajectory of binge drinking (BD) among 3614 US adolescents (51.2% male) who participated in an initial telephone interview regarding physical and sexual RV victimization and binge drinking. Two follow-up phone interviews were completed over appro...
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Mental health symptoms differ among women with forcible rape (FR) compared to drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) histories, but differences in suicidal ideation are unknown. The differences in suicidal ideation based on FR and DAFR/IR history were examined in national samples of college (n = 2,000) and household-residing (n =...
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Objective: Research has cited increased prevalence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and exposure to interpersonal violence for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Black adolescents, as well as ethnic differences in externalizing behavior (e.g., substance use, delinquency). The current study combined these areas by examining racial/ethnic differences i...
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In Reply In his letter, Guina acknowledges many positive aspects of the DSM-5, while reiterating concerns about the potential impact of these revisions. We completely agree that functional impairment and dysfunction are critically important, that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is best understood as a dimensional as well as a categorical const...
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This Special Communication argues for changing the definition of posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5.Are changes to the definition of posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5 a step forward?—Yes. We take strong exception to many of the assertions, conclusions, and recommendations in the article by Hoge et al1 in this issue of JAMA Psychiatry. Alth...
Book
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In early 2014, the Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office asked the RAND National Defense Research Institute to conduct an independent assessment of the rates of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military — an assessment last conducted in 2012 by the Department of Defense using the Work...
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Background: Crime victimization experiences, such as rape, molestation, and aggravated assault are significantly associated with bulimia nervosa (BN) and associated psychiatric comorbidity such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance abuse. Obesity also appears to be a major risk factor for the develo...
Article
This study examined the relations between witnessed parental violence (PV) and child physical abuse (CPA) over a 1 year period among a nationally representative sample of 2,514 adolescents, ages 12–18. History of witnessed PV (Wave 1) prospectively predicted new experiences (controlling for abuse history) and first experiences of CPA reported at Wa...
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Objective: To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, Web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method: A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and several areas in Al...
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The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective e...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate ethnic differences in trauma-related mental health symptoms among adolescents, and test the mediating and moderating effects of polyvictimization (i.e., number of types of traumas/victimizations experienced by an individual) and household income, respectively. Data were drawn from the first wave o...
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Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR...
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The number of different types of purging behaviors (NPB) of subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN) has been associated with greater severity of illness and psychiatric comorbidity. No studies have examined the association between the NPB used (vomiting, laxative abuse, diuretic abuse), histories of trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A n...
Article
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally repre...
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This study tests competing models of the relation between depression and polysubstance use over the course of adolescence. Participants included a nationwide sample of adolescents (N = 3,604), ages 12 to 17 at study Wave 1, assessed annually for 3 years. Models were tested using cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling to determine whether de...
Book
In early 2014, the Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office asked the RAND National Defense Research Institute to conduct an independent assessment of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military — an assessment last conducted in 2012 by DoD using the Workplace and Gender Relations Survey o...
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Full-text available
Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need fo...
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Objective: Studies of age of first binge have been conducted in clinical samples of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), but few studies have examined age of first binge using nationally representative samples. Method: We examined age of first binge and its clinical correlates using data generated from the National...
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The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–11) is under development, and current proposals include major changes to trauma-related psychiatric diagnoses, including a heavily restricted definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the addition of complex PTSD (CPTSD). We aimed to test the postulates of CPTSD in s...
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Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There is a growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g., teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility...
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Disclosure of rape to informal support sources is relatively common, but not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of disclosure recipients’ experience by examining associations between their sociodemographic and life experiences with receipt of a rape disclosure and encouragement of the victim to formally report her assault. Ov...
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Although the scientific literature on traumatic stress is large and growing, most psychologists have only a cursory knowledge of this science and have no formal training in, nor apply evidence-based psycho- social treatments for, trauma-related disorders. Thus, there exists a clear need for the development and dissemination of a comprehensive model...
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The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about o...
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Our study explores the role of victims' consultation with others about whether or not to report their rape to police. Three groups were observed within this sample of 435 rape victims from a national telephone household probability sample of women: those who did not consult with anyone about reporting (n = 364), those who consulted with someone and...
Book
In early 2014, the Department of Defense (DoD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) asked the RAND National Defense Research Institute (NDRI) to conduct an independent assessment of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military — an assessment last conducted in 2012 by the department itself with the W...
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Full-text available
At the 13th meeting of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in 2013, a symposium was held that brought together international researchers and clinicians who were involved in psychosocial responses to disaster. A total of six disasters that occurred in five countries were presented and discussed. Lessons learned from these disasters inc...
Article
Sexual revictimization (experiencing 2 or more rapes) is prevalent and associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. However, no national epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence or relative odds of a range of types of substance use as a function of sexual victimization history and PTSD stat...
Article
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) is currently undergoing revisions in advance of the next edition, DSM-5. The DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder workgroup has proposed numerous changes to the PTSD diagnosis. These include the addition of new symptoms, revision of existing ones, and a new four-cluster organization (Fri...
Article
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and f...
Article
Friedman in his article in this issue describes the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) and provides considerable information about the process that resulted in the revisions, as well as how PTSD in the DSM-5 differs from proposals for PTSD in the Int...
Article
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, typically reflected by alterations in cortisol responsivity, has been associated with exposure to traumatic events and the development of stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Serum cortisol was measured at the time of a post sexual assault med...
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Full-text available
Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a...
Article
Background: Predisaster risk factors are related to postdisaster psychopathology even at relatively low levels of disaster exposure. A history of panic attacks (PA) may convey risk for postdisaster psychopathology and has been linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders in Western and non-Western samples. The present study examined the main an...
Article
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is moderately heritable, with estimates ranging from 30 to 70%.¹ However, most of the genetic variation accounting for this heritability has yet to be identified, and the majority of molecular studies to date on PTSD have been candidate gene designs.² Only one genome wide association study of PTSD has been publ...
Article
Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the United States aged 12 to 17 years (Wave 1, n = 3,614; Wave 2, n = 2,511), this study examined (a) demographic and descriptive information about peer violent victimization (PVV); and (b) the longitudinal relation between a history of PVV and delinquency. Results indicated that 12.4% of...
Article
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault...
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This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; M age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non...
Article
Objective: To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method: Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or onl...
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Purpose: There are significant gaps in the literature on the prevalence of mental health problems and associated needs in Vietnam. A thorough understanding of culture-specific expressions of psychiatric distress is vital for the identification of the mental health needs of a community, and more research on the development and evaluation of cultura...
Article
Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample....
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The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD s...